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BABBITT'S PRINCIPLES OF LIGHT AND COLOR.— Plate I. 




VARIOUS SHADES OF GRAY ARRANGED IN ANALOGICAL HARMONY. 




SPECTRA OF THE SUN, SIRIUS, AND SEVERAL ELEMENTS. 



BABBITT'S PRINCIPLES OF LIGHT AND COLOR.— Plate II. 


















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CHROMATIC HARMONY OF GRADATION AND CONTRAST. 




CONTRASTING 
HARMONY 



Chromatic Colors placed opposite those which 
form a Chemical Affinity with them 



ANALOGICAL 
HARMONY 



In the above elaborate combination of colors the artist has found it impossible to get every feature accurate 
although he has many beautiful and pure tints. The grays on both plates I. and II. are not sufficiently 
dued, the chromatic colors standing out too brilliantly, the red, for instance, in the house, fig. 6, being 
strong, etc. For description of plates sec pp. 63, 65, 66, 69, 71, etc. The spectra arc described on p. 217. 



THE 

PRINCIPLES 

OF 

LIGHT AND COLOR: 

INCLUDING AMONG OTHER THINGS 

THE HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE, THE 
ETHERIO- ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE, 
CHROMO CHEMISTRY, CHROMO THERA- 
PEUTICS, AND THE GENERAL PHIL- 
SOPHY OF THE FINE FORCES, 
TOGETHER WITH NUMER- 
OUS DISCOVERIES AND 
PRACTICAL APPLI- 
CATIONS. 




ILLUSTRATED BY 204 EXQUISITE PHOTO-ENGRAVINGS, BESIDES FOUR 
SUPERB COLORED PLATES PRINTED ON SEVEN PLATES EACH. 

By EDWIN D. BABBITT. 



"Study the Light; attempt the high; seek out 
The Soul's bright path." — Bailey. 



NEW YORK: 
BABBITT & CO., 

Science Hall, 141 Eighth Street. 
1878. 



PREFACE. 



The preface of my work is like a Hebrew book; it begins at its 
very end. Having spent several years in developing this large vol- 
ume, what is my excuse for thrusting it out upon mankind? None at 
all unless human knowledge and upbuilding can be enhanced thereby. 

Am I laboring under a vain delusion when I assert that no science 
whatever, excepting pure mathematics, has thus far reached down to 
basic principles — that in spite of the wonderful achievements of exper- 
imental scientists, no definite conceptions of atomic machinery, or the 
fundamental processes of thermal, electric, chemical, physiological or 
psychological action have been attained, and that because the correla- 
tions of matter and force have been misapprehended? If I am de- 
luded and cannot depend upon the thousand facts that seem to sus- 
tain me and clear up so many mysteries, it is certainly a sad matter, 
for then no one will be made the wiser for my labors; if I am right, 
and so many scientists are wrong in their conceptions of force, then 
too there is a melancholy side to the question, for great will be the 
trouble of having to pull up old stakes and put down new ones, and 
some opinionated persons will be so indignant at having dear old be- 
liefs attacked, that if unable to demolish my facts in fair discussion 
will present one-sided views of them, or attack the author himself. I 
hope and pray that I may be duly abused, however, by all such crys- 
tallized conservatives, otherwise it will show that my efforts to advance 
this great cause of truth have been but feeble. After all, if this work 
shall develop some new and better foundations of scientific truth, sci- 
entific men themselves should rejoice at it even if it does cause a little 
trouble to adjust themselves to new conditions, for the more truth they 
get, the more luminous and triumphant will their pathway of progress 
become, and they will be able to build a superstructure upon these 
new foundations that is far more magnificent than any which my own 
limited efforts could achieve. 

My discovery of the form and constitution of atoms, and their 
working in connection with etherial forces to produce the effects of 
heat, cold, electricity, magnetism, chemical action, light, color, and 
many other effects, was announced during our centennial year, 1876, 
in some New York and Chicago papers, and my ideas have been 
brought to still further maturity since. Having acquired this knowl- 
edge, it seemed quite possible at last to crystallize the subjects of 



Vlll 



PREFACE. 



Light, Color, and other Fine Forces into a science, and learn their 
chemical and therapeutical potencies as well as many of their mystic 
relations to physical and psychological action. 

Before reaching out into the unknown and invisible it was import- 
ant to establish briefly the laws of the known and visible, the misap- 
prehension of which has led scientists into various errors, as it seemed 
to me, hence my first chapters. Before being able to understand 
Light and Color, with any exactness, it was absolutely necessary to in- 
vestigate the working of atoms, and the general laws of the fine forces, 
so that we may not always have to move in the dark when considering 
them. Hence my chapter on the Etherio-atomic Philosophy of Force. 
Whatever may be thought of my details of atoms, it seems quite im- 
possible that a thoughtful mind should dispute the correctness of their 
general features, so absolutely capable are they of being demonstrated 
by facts. 

It is quite time that the wonderful world of light and color which 
is invisible to the ordinary eye, and which is capable of being dem- 
onstrated by spectrum analysis and otherwise, should be made known, 
especially as so many mysteries of nature and human life are cleared 
up thereby, and such marvelous powers of vital and mental control are 
revealed. 

I would especially ask one favor of all critics, which is, that they 
will examine and weigh well all departments of the work before they 
condemn, for it has cost too much thought and careful investigation 
to have it rudely and hastily passed upon. Comprising, as it does, so 
large a field of heretofore untrodden ground, there certainly must be 
some errors in spite of all my great care and desire for exact truth. 

I have chosen a diluted sky-blue tint for my paper, not only 
because it is soothing to the nerves of the eye, but as I deem it, 
handsome. Calendered white, or yellowish paper is known to be irri- 
tating to the retina. 

The beautiful engravings of this work, many of which have the steel 
plate finish, have been executed by the sun under the control of the 
Photo-Engraving Co., 67 Park Place, N. Y. For the very careful and 
conscientious labors of this company I am greatly indebted. The 
Superintendent, Mr. J. C. Moss, Vas the first, I believe, to bring these 
finest solar relief plates into practical use. 

I owe a word of acknowledgment also to Mr. John Fahnestock, of 
25 Rose St., N. Y., for the colored plates, which for beauty I have not 
seen surpassed on either side of the ocean. 

EDWIN D. BABBITT. 

Science Hall, N. Y. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER FIRST.— HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 

I. Light, I. — II. Nature our Guide, I. — III. Unity, 3. — IV. Diversity, II. 
— V. Harmony, 12. — VI. Gradation or Progression, 16 — VII. Contrast, 
23. — VIII. Harmony of Analogy, 31. — IX. Violent Contrasts contrary to 
Nature's General Laws, 35. — X. Nature's unrestricted Growth never dis- 
cordant, 36. — XI. All unrestricted Growth exemplifies Moral Perfection, 38. 
— XII. The Law of Perfection, 40. — XIII. Adaptation or Fitness, 49. — 
XIV. Truth, 53.— XV. Refinement of Material, 54.— XVI. Gradation of 
Instrumentalities, 56. — XVII. Division of Colors, 58. — XVIII. Triad of 
Primary Colors, 61. — XIX. Triad of Secondary Colors, 61. — XX. Triad 
of Achromatic Colors, 61. — XXI. Triad of Primary Grays, 62. — XXII. 
Triad of Secondary Grays, 62. — XXIII. Trinal Division of Tints and Shades. 
62. — XXIV. Trinal Division of Hues, 62. — XXV. Nomenclature of Colors, 
63. — XXVI. Triad of Colors, Tones and Forms, 64. — XXVII. Harmony of 
Gradation in Colors, 65. — XXVIII. Gradation of Color in the Spectrum, 66. 
— XXIX. Harmony of Contrast in Colors, 69. — XXX. Harmonic Colors in 
Architecture, 71.— XXXI. Colors in Dress, 73.— XXXII. Colors in Flori- 
culture, 74. — XXXIII. Synopsis of Harmonic Laws, 76. 

CHAPTER SECOND.— INSUFFICIENCY OF THE PRESENT 
THEORIES OF LIGHT AND FORCE. 

I. Science and Philosophy should be combined, 80. — II. Basic Principles 
not yet reached. Cohesion, 81. — III. Chemical Affinity, 81.— IV. Electricity, 82. 
— V. Gravitation, 82. — VI. Physiology and Psychology, 83. — VII. Light and 
Color, 83. — VIII. Colors must be Formulated by Law, 84. — IX. How isLight 
projected so far? 85. — X. How explain Chromatic Phenomena? 85. — 
XI. Chemical and Therapeutical Properties of Color, 86. — XII. Shadow is 
an Entity, 87. — XIII. Correct Science requires a Knowledge of Atoms, 87. 
—XIV. The Dynamic and Material Theory, 87.— XV. Faraday, 88.— XVI. 
Lord Bacon, 90.— XVII. Locke and Tyndall, 90.— XVIII. Kant, Fichte, 
Schelling, etc., 90.— XIX. The Laws of Optics, 91.— XX. New Worlds of 
Light and Color, 92. — XXI. Summation of Points, 92. 

CHAPTER THIRD.— THE ETHERIO-ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY 
OF FORCE. 

I. Atoms, 94.— II. Force, 94.— III. The Size of Atoms, 94.— IV. The 
Form of Atoms, 95. — V. The Heat end of Atoms, 99. — VI. Nature of 
Atomic Spinals, 100.— VII. General Features of Atoms, 101.— VIII. Ther- 
mo Spirals, 105. — IX. Ethereal Forces, 106. — X. The Primate of Force, 
107.— XI. Different Grades of Ether, 107.— XII. Ethers have Weight, 114, 
—XIII. Polar Cohesion of Atoms, 114.— XIV. Lateral Cohesion, 115.— XV. 
The Unity of Atoms, 116. — XVI. Converse Layers of Atoms, 117. — XVII. 
Transverse Layers of Atoms, 117. — XVIII. Laws of Atomic Combination; 
117. — XIX. Paraverse Layers of Atoms, 119. — XX. Crystalloid and Amor- 
phous Bodies, 120.— XXI. Heat and Cold, 120.— XXII. Atomic Divisions, 
121.— XXIII. Cohesion, 123.— XXIV. Different kinds of Electricity, 124. 
—XXV. Frictional Electricity, 124. —XXVI. Chemico Electricity, 125. 
—XXVII. Galvano Electricity, 126.— XXVIII. Magneto Electricity, 126. — 
XXIX. Chromo Electricity, 127.— XXX. Magnetism, 129.— XXXI. Dia- 
magnetism, 132. — XXXII. Phosphorescence, 135. — XXXIII. Fluorescence, 
Calorescence, etc., 136.— XXXIV. Galvanism, 139.— XXXV. Direction of 
Frictional Electricity, 142. — XXXVI. Positive and Negative Electricities, 
142.— XXXVII. Chemical Affinity, 145.— XXXVIII. Are Atoms Animals? 
151.— XXXIX. Count Rumford and the Dynamic Theory, 152.— XL. Weight 
and Specific Heat of Atoms, 155. — XLI. Latent and Sensible Heat, 157. 
— XLII. Theories of Atoms, 158. — XLIII. Summation of Points, 161. 



X 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER FOURTH.— THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 

I. Introductory Point, 166. — II. World Formations, 166. — III. Nebu- 
lous Matter, 167. — IV. The Sun Forming Process, 168. — V. The Planet 
Forming Process, 169 — VI. Comets, 170. — VII. Refinement of Matter, 172. — 
VIII. The Atmosphere of Space, 175.— IX. Aurora Borealis, 180.— X. Ter- 
restrial Forces, 181. — XI. The Solar Atmosphere, 185. — XII. Faculae and 
Spots on the Sun, 188.— XIII. Solar Statistics, 190.— XIV. Sun Power, 
190.— XV. The Production of Light, 193.— XVI. Constitution of the Atmos- 
phere, 194.— XVII. How Color Effects are Produced, 196.— XVIII. Shad- 
ow as an Entity. 198.— XIX. The Moon, 109.— XX. Planets and Fixed 
Stars, 202.— XXI. Combustion, 203.— XXII. Flame, 204.— XXIII. Smoke, 
206.— XXIV. Non-luminous Flames, 206.— XXV. Coal Gas, 207.— XXVI. 
Kerosene and Coal Oil, 207.— XXVII. The Oxyhydrogen Blow-Pipe, 208. 
XXVIII. Calcium Light, 208.— XXIX. Electric Light, 209.— XXX. Elec- 
tric Candle, 212.— XXXI. Heat of Various Combustibles, 214.— XXXII. 
Spontaneous Combustion, 215. 

CHAPTER FIFTH.— CHROMO CHEMISTRY. 

I. Character of Spectrum Analysis, 216. — II. The Spectroscope, 218. 
III. Metals discovered by the Spectroscope, 219. — IV. The Spectrum, 220. — 
V. Laws of Color and Phenomena of Spectrum Analysis, 222. — VI. The 
Spectrum of an Element, 224. — VII. Chemical Repulsions and Affinities, 225. 
—VIII. White or Light Gray Elements, 226.— IX. Spectra of White 
Colors, 227. — X. Spectra of the Alkaline Metals, 228. — XI. Spectra of 
other White Metals, 229. — XII. Spectra of Black or Dark Elements, 230. — 
XIII. Spectra of Elements with Gray or neutral Colors, 231. — XIV. Spec- 
tra of Elements with Positive Colors, 232. — XV. Spectra of Transparent 
Substances, 234.— XVI. The most Powerful Substances, 235.— XVII. 
Transparent Fluids, 235. — XVIII. Transparent Solids, 238. — XIX. Chro- 
matic Repulsion, 239. — XX. Chromatic Attraction, 243. — XXI. The Mate- 
rial of Sunlight, 259. — XXII. Metachromism, or Color Change, 264. — 
XXIII. Proofs of other Octaves of Color, 270.— XXIV. Color as related to 
Taste, 274.— XXV. Complexion as related to Sunlight, 275.— XXVI. Sum- 
mation of Points in Chromo Chemistry, 276. 

CHAPTER SIXTH.— CHROMO-THERAPEUTICS, OR 
CHROMOPATHY. 

I. The Healing Power of Color, 279. — II. Comparative Fineness of 
Healing Elements, 279. — III. Healing Power of Red, 280. — IV. Healing 
Power of Red Light, 282.— V. When the Red is injurious, 284.— VI. The 
Healing Power of Yellow and Orange, 286. — VII. Emetics — Yellow with 
some Red and Orange, 286. — VIII. Laxatives and Purgatives — Yellow the 
Principal Color, or Red in Drastic Purgatives, 287. — IX. Healing Power of 
Yellow Light, aided by some Red and Orange — Laxative, Animating. &c, 
290. — X. Diuretics, Diaphoretics, Emmenagogues, etc. — Yellow aided by 
a considerable Red. 293. — XI. Cerebral Stimulants — Yellow with some Red 
and Orange, 294. — XII. Tonics — Yellow and Red Predominant, 295. — 
XIII. When Yellow is injurious, 295. — XIV. Healing Power of Blue and 
Violet — Nervine, Astringent, Refrigerant, etc., 298. — XV. Healing Power 
of Blue and Violet Light — Nervine, Anti-inflammatory, etc. ,302. — XVI. Heal- 
ing Power of Blue and White Sunlight, 308. — XVII. When Blue and Violet 
are injurious, 321. — XVIII. Healing by means of substances charged with 
Blue Light, 322.— XIX. Healing powers of Pure Sunlight, 326.— XX. Dis- 
astrous Effects of a Lack of Sunlight, 329. — XXI. When Sunlight is in- 
jurious, 333.— XXII. Sleep Producing Elements, 334.— XXIII. Practical 
Instruments for Color Healing, 343. — XXIV. Heat Transmitted by Colored 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



Substances, 340. —XXV. The Chromolume, 341.— XXVI. Use of the Chro- 
molume in Healing, 343.— XXVII. Chromo Disc, 347.— XXVIII. General 
Healing with the Chromo Disc, 348. — XXIX. Hints for Treating Special 
Diseases with Chromo Disc, 349.— XXX. The Chromo Lens, 356.— XXXI. 
The Solarium, 364.— XXXII. The Hygiene of Color in Dress, 365. 
— XXXIII. The General Vagueness of Idea concerning Colors, 367. — 
XXXIV. A Word to Physicians, 373.— XXXV. Summation of Points in 
Chromo Therapeutics, 374. 

CHAPTER SEVENTH.— CHROMO CULTURE OF 
VEGETABLE LIFE. 

I. Review of Ground already Covered, 378. — II. Germination, 378. — III. 
Healthy Growth above Ground. 380. — IV. Florescence and the Reproduc- 
tive Function of Plants, 381. — V. Blue and Transparent Glass for Hot 
Houses, 382 — VI. Marvelous Vegetable Growth, 384. — VII. Plants which be- 
come withered and parched, 386. — VIII. Insect Life as influenced by Colors, 
387.— IX. Effects of Light and Shadow on Plants, 388.— X. Light of Plants, 
389. — XI. Affinities and Repulsions of Plants, 389. — XII. Color as related 
to Fragrance, 389. — XIII. Adaptation of the Seasons to Vegetable Growth, 
390.— XIV. Summation of Points, 391. 

CHAPTER EIGHTH.— CHROMO PHILOSOPHY. 

I. Plan of this Chapter, 393.— II. Refraction, 394.— III. Reflection of 
Light, 397.— IV. Absorption, 400.— V. Transparency, 402.— VI. Polarized 
Light, 404.— VII. The Undulatory Theory, 410.— VIII. Summation of Points 
in Chromo Philosophy, 414. 

CHAPTER NINTH.— CHROMO DYNAMICS, OR HIGHER 
GRADE LIGHTS AND FORCES. 

I. Introductory Points, 415. — II. Odic Light, 416. — III. Nature of 
Odic Light and Color, 418. —IV. Warm and Cold Substances, 423.— V. In- 
fluence of Solar and Lunar Rays, 424. — VI. Magnetism and Odic Force, 
426. — VII. Opaque Bodies become Transparent, 427. — VIII. Is Odyl an 
Imaginary Power? 427. — IX. Proof that Odic Light comprises Fluidic 
Forces, 431. — X. Does Odic Light produce the Aurora Borealis? 431. — 
XI. Terrestrial Dynamics. 432. — XII. Terrestrial Dynamics in Human 
Life, 436. — XIII. Miscellaneous Points, 443. — XIV. Summation of Points 
in Chromo Dynamics, 444. 

CHAPTER TENTH.— CHROMO MENTALISM. 

I. Mentality, 446. — II. Beauty of the Fine Forces, 446. — III. This 
Finer Vision exalts one's Conceptions, 448. — IV. Many Persons can see 
these Higher Colors, 449. — They reveal the Primary Laws of Force, 450. — 
VI. This Light renders Opaque Substances Transparent, 452. — VII. Ex- 
planation of this Higher Vision, 459. — VIII. How to Develop this Finer 
Vision, 463. — IX. The Psychic Force a great Power to Bless Mankind, 464. 
— X. Statuvolence, or Self-Psychology, 465. — XI. The Colors and Forces 
of the Brain, 471.— XII. The Right and Left Brain, 483.— XIII. Radiations 
and Laws of Power, 485. — XIV. Intuition and the Relation of the Sexes, 
489. — XV. Positive and Negative Poles, 403. — XVI. Interior Machinery of 
Life, 494.— XVII. Processes of Mental Action, 502.— XVIII. The Organ of 
this Higher Vision, 509.— XIX. The Medical World, 519.— XX. Miscel- 
laneous Points, 523. — XXI. Summation of Points, 527. 

CHAPTER ELEVENTH.— VISION. 

I. General Machinery of the Eye, 534. — II. The Retina considered in 
Detail, 538.— III. The Sensation of Light, 542.— IV. The Perception of 
Colors, 543. — V. Diseases of the Eye, 549. — VI. Conclusion, 552. 



LIST OF PLATES AND ENGRAVINGS. 



COLORED PLATES. 

I. Various Shades and Hues of Gray, and 

Spectra of the Sun, Sirius, Sodium, Oxy- 
gen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen etc. 

II. 1 , Chromattc Harmony of Gradation and 

Contrast; 2, Analogical Harmony; 3, 

Chromatic Colors placed opposite those 

which form a Chemical Affinity with them; 

4, Achromatic Colors; 5, Contrasting Har- 
mony in houses; 6 Analogical Harmony 
in do. 

III. Odic Colors illustrating horizontal Terres- 
trial Forces, and Odic Flames from a 
Magnet. 

IV. Psychic Color-Radiations. 

PHOTO-ENGRAVINGS. 

Fig. Page. 

1-5. Triangle, Snow-Crystals, etc 3 

6-14. Leaves, Shells, Flowers 4 

15-20. Tree Forms and Grasses 5 

21. The Nervous System 6 

22. Crystalline, forms in block of ice 6 

23. Magnetic Centers of Unity 7 

24-18. Vibrating Plates of Sand 7 

29. The Solar Family 8 

30-33. Star Clusters 9 

34-36, Diversity and Unity shown 12 

37. An Etching from Rubens 13 

38,39. The Astronomer, (Galileo), etc 14 

40. Sketch from Gustave Dore 14 

4 1 ,42. Tomb of Plautus Lucanus, etc 15 

43-45. Gradation of size in trees 17 

46,47. Spire of the N. Y. Cathedral, etc 17 

48. Curves of the Parabola 18 

49. 50. Lines of Beauty and Grace 18 

51. Undulations; 52. A Fern 18 

53, 54. Vibrations of Compound Sounds... 19 

55. Rings of Colored Light; 56. Ovoid 19 

57. Emma; 58 Katie 20 

59. Infant; 60 French Market Girl 20 

61. Childhood and Youth; 62. Maturity 21 

63. Lightning — the sublime in Clouds 23 

64. The Sublime in Landscape 23 

65. The Beautiful in Landscape 24 

66. Niagara — the Sublime in Water 24 

67. Gradation in Sky Scenery 25 

68. Contrast in Sky Scenery 25 

69. A Night Scene.; 70. Stony Point 25 

7 1 . Queen of Delhi. Gradation 27 

72. Emperor of Germany. Contrast 27 

73. Audubon. Contrast Deficient 28 

74. Contrasts caused by Reflection 28 

75. Contrast in Typography 29 

76. Shadow. Analogical Harmony 31 

77. Moonlight on the Hudson 31 

78. Part of Au Sable Chasm 31 

79. Portion of Yale College Library 31 

80. Mont St. Michael 32 

81. Cattskill Mountain House 32 

82. 83. Grecian and Roman Windows 32 

84. Romanesque Arches at Lucca 33 

85, 86. Gothic forms — Holyrood Abbey.. 33 

87. Elizabethan Architecture 34 

88. Lavinia, Daughter of Titian 37 

89. Happy Childhood 37 

90-93. Discordant Human Faces 37 

94. Harmonious and Concordant Leaves. 39 

95. Leaf— Moral Perfection 39 

96. Aurora Borealis 43 

97-101. Formsof Roofs and Cottage 44 

102. A Greek Portico 45 

103. Eton Hall, England. (Gothic) 43 



Fig. Page. 

104, 105. Oriental Architecture 46 

106-110. Celebrated Domes and Towers.... 47 

1 22. Towers, Monuments, Sic 48 

123-126. Different Styles of Windows 49 

127. A Newport Cottage 50 

128. Gradation of Elements and Forces 57 

129. Decomposition of Light 59 

1 30. Gradation of Normal Gray 65 

131. Spectrum Analyzed 67 

132. Outline of an Atom 97 

133. Piece of Atomic Spiral 99 

1 34. Extra Spirals and Intra Spirals 100 

135. Form of an Atom with details 102 

136. Atoms joined 103 

137. Polarized Atoms 115 

138. Atoms arranged Conversely 115 

139. Transverse lines of Atoms 117 

140. Transverse Diagonals 117 

141. Paraverse Layers of Atoms 119 

1 42. Horse Shoe Magnet 133 

243. Magnetic lines of force 133 

1 44. Diamagnetic Lines 133 

145. A Galvanic Battery 140 

146. Atomic Forces 142 

147. A Chemical Molecule 146 

148. 149. Thermal and Electrical Atoms 147 

150.Comet of 1680 171 

151. Halley's Comet 171 

152. Ethereal Atmosphere of Space 176 

153. Sun, Earth and Atomic Lines 179 

154. 155. Solar Eclipses 185 

156. Sun's Corona; in Eclipse of 1868 186 

157. Comparative sizes of Sun and Planets.... 189 

158. The Full Moon; 159. The Crescent 201 

1 60. Eclipses and Phases of the Moon 202 

161. The Milky Way 202 

162. Flame of Candle analyzed 205 

163. 164. Voltaic Arcs 209 

165. Spectrum and Prism 216 

166. The Spectroscope 218 

167. Spectrum with Scale 220 

168. Chemically Combined Atoms 266 

169. The Chromolume 344 

170. The Chromo Disc 348 

171. The Chromo Lens 356 

172. Refraction and Reflection 395 

173. The Spectrum, etc 395 

174. A Convex Lens, etc 397 

175. 176. Crystals of Tourmaline 405 

177. Crystal of Iceland Spar 406 

178. Polarization illustrated 406 

179. The Polarizer and Analyzer 407 

180. Imaginary Structure of Selemte 408 

181. Propagation of Liquid Waves 410 

182. Billows, illustrating undulations 411 

183. Solar Cyclone, 1857, (Secchi) 412 

1 84. Undulations (Guillemin) 412 

1 85. Odic Colors from revolving Magnet. . . . 479 

1 86. Radiations — Angel of Innocence 480 

1 87. The Psycho Magnetic Curves 48 1 

1 88. Diagram of a Ganglion 488 

1 89-19 1 . Electrical Tension shown 488 

192. Interior Radiations of the Brain 495 

193. Iron Filings on Magnetized Disc 496 

194. Geo. Combe 496 

195. The Brain laid open 497 

196. Vertical Section of the Brain 504 

197. The Eye 534 

198. 199. Iris, Ciliary Processes, etc 536 

200. The Optic Nerves 537 

201. Pit of Retina (Fovea Centralis) 540 

202. Objects inverted on Retina 543 

203. The Crystal Light 551 



CHAPTER FIRST. 
HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 

1 . Light. 

Light reveals the glories of the external world and yet is the 
most glorious of them all. It gives beauty, reveals beauty and 
is itself most beautiful. It is the analyzer, the truth-teller and 
the exposer of shams, for it shows things as they are. Its 
infinite streams measure off the universe and flow into our tele- 
scopes from stars which are quintillions of miles distant. On 
the other hand, it descends to objects inconceivably small, and 
reveals through the microscope objects fifty millions of times 
less than can be seen by the naked eye.* Like all other fine 
forces, its movement is wonderfully soft, and yet penetrating and 
powerful. Without its vivifying influence vegetable, animal and 
human life must immediately perish from the earth, and general 
ruin take place. We shall do well, then, to consider this poten- 
tial and beautiful principle of light and its component colors, for 
the more deeply we penetrate into its inner laws, the more will 
it present itself as a marvelous store-house of power to vitalize, 
heal, refine and delight mankind. 

II. Nature our Guide. 

1. But light is one of the fine forces of nature, and we cannot 
understand it until we learn the laws of the fine forces generally. 
Nor can we understand the fine forces themselves, until we be- 
come acquainted with the coarser elements upon which, or in 
connection with which, they act. And we cannot apprehend this 
interrelation of the finer with the coarser, without a knowledge 
of the fundamental principles of force, and the great central 
harmonic laws of nature and mind in unison with which all things 



*A London Optician has constructed a lens which will magnify fifty million 
times. 



2 HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 

must work. There has been too much mere superficial presen- 
tation of these matters. Unless we can go beyond mere exter- 
nal phenomena to basic principles, we must still build upon con- 
jecture and work more or less in the dark. It is proper, then, 
that we should inquire into the general constitution of the 
universe, and get a clear conception of universal law before we 
can go with entire correctness into the details of any subject 
whatever, just as it is important to consider details, more or less, 
before we can comprehend the whole. 

2. Why should we thus go to nature as the standard of ulti- 
mate appeal? First, because we are a part of nature and amen- 
able to its laws; 2dly, because nature bears the stamp of divinity 
upon it, and therefore its laws are perfect. Is it consistent for 
the theologian to disparage nature so long as he admits that its 
source is that of absolute perfection.* Can imperfection ever 
come from perfection? Do not effects ever resemble their 
cause? To gain a knowledge, then, of nature's laws is to acquire 
the perception of divine harmony, by the aid of which all science, 
art, social life, government and religion may be measured. 
Without this knowledge we may use many brilliant words, and 
indulge in the most plausible speculations, but this is merely to 
build upon the clouds instead of the eternal rock-work of truth. 

3. Many writers of the present day are presenting noble 
glimpses of the real teachings of nature, among whom is Ruskin, 
who has opened many blind eyes. Chevreul, of France, dis- 
covered to the world the laws of contrast in colors, and many 
artists and scientific writers have been revealing rich lessons 
from the infinite treasure-house. It has occurred to me, how- 



*The late Prof. Taylor Lewis, one of the prominent theological writers of the 
day, speaking of nature in the N. Y. Independent of Dec. 30, 1874, says: — "Our 
oracle may but mock us as Crcesus was mocked by the ambiguous answer of Apollo. 
Our deepest understanding of nature may bring us a new peril, requiring a new 
study. * * * It would almost seem as though there were some truth in the old 
legend that nature had been cursed for man's sake." Thus illogically talks this 
scholarly gentleman about the peril of studying the workmanship of him who, as he 
admits, is the Divine Perfection. The only danger lies in ignorance of these laws, 
and to see danger in them is to look superficially at the matter. Throughout all 
nature is such amazing system, such law, such unity in the infinite diversity, such 
simplicity in the midst of complexity, that it is not difficult to understand its funda- 
mental principles, if we can only bring to the task minds which are not preoccu- 
pied with old theories. 



UNITY. 3 

ever, that some more definite crystallization of principles may 
be arrived at, and with the reader's permission I shall now pause 
for a little time in making the attempt to arrive at these funda- 
mental harmonies of things, so that we may go with open eyes 
into these marvelous fields of the fine forces, and also be the 
better able to regulate our art as well as our science. 

III. Unity. 

The Law of Unity is universal through all matter and mind, and is 
the expression of wholeness, oneness, centralization 
and organization. 

1. Unity exists in absolutely all unimpeded natural growth, 
and as we have seen that nature's development is on the law of 
perfection, we may be sure that unity is a universal harmonic 
law. The different methods by which nature expresses unity 
are almost infinite in number. Being a law of vast importance, 
a few examples will be given. 




Fig. I. 
Triangle. 



Fig. 2. Fig, 3. 

Snow Cryst 



Fig. 4. Tig. 5. 

Microzoa. 



Fig. 1 is a triangle, a form common in many crystals, and 
when equilateral, has three points at the angles and three at the 
sides, which have a common center of unity. Fig. 2, the hexa- 
gon, so common in crystallization, has twice as many points of 
unity; fig. 3 has many more points than fig. 2, each projecting 
line being a point of unity for other lines, while the figures of 
the animalcules, 4 and 5, which are but examples of countless 
millions of amazingly minute skeletons of animals out of which 
whole mountains are sometimes built, have an unlimited num- 
ber of points of unity, the circle itself being a figure which is 
defined as being composed of an infinite number of straight 
lines, which are equidistant from the same center. Fig. 6 
has a general center of unity for a variety of fibres which 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 




Fig. 6. Fig. y, 
Leaves, 



Fig. 8. 
Echinus Shell. 



Fig. a. 
Star Fish, 



branch out from each side. Fig. 7 has several centers of unity 
which meet at a general center. Fig. 8, a shell of Echinus, 
forms a little dome-shaped animal with a great variety of lines 
of forms which have their center of unity at the apex. Fig. 9 
presents a few of the radiating lines of the asterias, which has a 
flower-like center. Fig. 10 shows how the leaves and other 
parts of flowers affectionately meet at a center of unity. When 
the cactus blossoms it is said to have an array of five hundred 
stamens which encircle the pistil as its center of unity. 

2. Leaves and other natural forms not only have centers of 
unity in themselves, but their very contour is apt to give a por- 
tion of some other beautiful outline with centers outside of 
themselves, as seen in fig. 11. While the fibre 1, 3, forms the 
general center for the other parts of the 
leaf, its graceful outline 1, 2, 3, or 1, 10, 3, 
describes the line of beauty which consists 
of a part of two ellipses, or rather of two 
ovals, which latter have two unequal centers 
of unity instead of two equal centers like 
the ellipse. I have dotted out the ovals, 
arcs of which are included in a single side 
of the leaf. Fig. 12, consisting of leaves of the castor-oil plant, 
presents one general center, seven sub-centers, and a large num- 




iST:-, 





Fig. 12. Kicinus Communis. Fig. ij. Scollop Shell. Fig. 14. Spirit Sea-Shell. 

ber of still smaller centers of unity and many outlines. Fig. 13 



UNITY. 



has a general point for a system of both radiating and concen- 
tric lines. Fig. 14 has the line of grace which winds around a 
general center of unity, and has also the unity of parallel lines, 
etc. Figures 15, 16, 17 and 18, 
illustrate various styles of unity 
in foliage and tree growth, and 
are taken from Ruskin's "Ele- 
ments of Drawing." The meth- 
ods of unity in the combina- 
tions of leaves, branches and trees are beyond all computation, 
and I simply give a few examples to get the reader to notice a 
great truth which all nature proclaims. "The number of sys- 
tems," says Ruskin, "is incalculable, and even to represent any- 
thing like a representative number of types, I should have to 
give several hundreds of figures." 





Fig. 19. Daisies, Grasses, etc. 




Trees at Mount Vemon. 



3. Notice how many varieties of unity are presented in a 
simple cluster of leaves, grasses and flowers, as in fig. 19. Not 
only have these objects many styles of unity when taken singly, 
but in spite of all their seeming lawlessness they have a general 
harmonic unity of direction, growing, like trees as a general law, 



6 HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 

in a vertical direction, and hence more or less parallel to each 

other. 

4. I will now present a whole world of unities within unities 

in a beautiful tree cluster which grows by the tomb of Washing- 
ton at Mount Vernon. (Fig. 
20.) Here the trunks of the 
trees may be seen as the centers 
of unity for the branches, the 
branches as centers for still 
smaller branches, and these for 
kingdoms of foliage growing 
less and less in size until we 
reach a single leaf, which after 
all is a miniature realm of it- 
self, having organizations with- 
in organizations. 

5. The human system con- 
tains thousands of centers of 
unity, among the most impor- 
tant of which are the brain and 
spinal column as the general 
center of the nervous system 
(fig. 21), and the heart as the 
general center of the vascular 
system. 

6. Crystallizations have their innumerable centers of unity. 





Fie. 22. Dissection by sunlight of a block of ice and its crystalline structure shown. 



Fig. 22 shows some of the elegant crystalline forms of a block 
of ice as dissected by the solar rays in an experiment made by 



UNITY. 



Mr. Tyndall. Snow abounds in the most elegant crystals, gen- 
erally hexagonal, or at least arranged in six projections, which 
are just 60 degrees apart, as is the case with ice. But crystal- 
line forms are too numerous to even hint at. 

7. Forces of all kinds in nature, when unrestricted, move 
according to absolute laws of unity. Gravitation makes it im- 
possible for any object to exist without a tendency toward some 
more powerful object, all objects on a planet, for instance, tend- 
ing toward its center, and all planets tending toward their 
parent suns, their tendency, however, being balanced by their 
centrifugal or projectile motion. In fact the unities of form al- 
ready given result from some principle of unity in force, as will 
be seen hereafter. Fig. 23 shows some of the billions of lines 
of force which encircle a magnet as 
their center, shown by iron filings on 
card-board above a magnet, as well as 
some of the straight lines which pass 
through the bar itself as a polarizing 
center. Figs. 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, show 
nodal lines of vibrating circular or 

. Fig. aj. Magnetic Centers of Unity. 

polygonal plates according to Chladni 

and Savart. These plates are sprinkled with dry sand, and may 





Pfe, 25. 

Circle. 



~\ 



Fig. 26. 
Octagon. 



Fig. 27. 
Circle. 




Fiji. 28. 
Hexagon. 



be vibrated by a violin bow under different circumstances, 
under all of which they develop some principle of unity as sig- 
nified by the forms of the sand, and show how wonderfully na- 
ture's freest operations are developed according to law. 

8 All vibrations, all undulations, all motions of falling or 
projected bodies, move according to some mathematical law of 
unity, such as the curve of the parabola, the circle, the oval, or 
generally some other section of a cone. 

9. Verse and musical composition have a unity in the length 
of steps, called rhythm; melody demands, some ruling tone, 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE 



called the key note, around which the other notes cluster as 
their element of unity; logic lays down its central idea or prop- 
osition, and either reasons from external points toward this 
center (a posteriori), or from this center toward external points 
(a priori), and all true art must crystallize its esthetic jewels 
upon some thread of unity. 

10. All light emanates in untold millions of rays from some 
center of unity, such as the sun, a gas burner, etc. 

11. All colors combine in a wonderful unity to form white 
light, and even when separated by a prism or by a rainbow, they 
blend so perfectly as seemingly to constitute a single band of 
hues. 

12. Gravitation binds the whole physical universe into one- 
ness of law and oneness of existence, and is everlastingly bring- 
ing all objects toward some central point by its infinite chains 
of power. Cohesion, dealing with atoms, binds solids into a 
firm unity of mass, and rolls up fluids into little spheres, each of 
which has its center of infinite points. Gravitation, however, 
binds all atoms and all masses of atoms into one family, first 
chiseling out all worlds into beautiful globular shapes and then 
tying them together. By its means the sun becomes a center of 

unity for 137 planets, moons 
and asteroids,* as well as for 
comets, which are so numer- 
ous as to be estimated by 
millions. The following re- 
mark by Guillemin will show 
that the sun, mere point as 
it is compared with the uni- 
verse, has after all a vast 
reach into space: "Whereas 
the radius of Neptune's or- 
bit is equal to 30 times the 
mean distance from the sun 
to the earth, the aphelion of 

the comet of 1844, whose period is 100,000 years, is lost in extra 

planetary space at a distance 4000 times as great." 




*This includes the two moons of Mars lately discovered; but new asteroids are 
being looked up yearly, and the above estimate will prove too small. 



UNITY. 9 

13. The star Alcyone, in the Pleiades, is supposed by many 
astronomers to be the mightier sun which forms the center of 
unity for our own sun and a great number of other solar systems. 

14. To show that the universe follows this law of unity in 
the large as well as small, I will give a few star clusters, some- 
times called nebulas, as seen by Sir John Herschel. I would 
first remark that our own solar system is situated in the vast 
cluster called the Milky Way, which William Herschel, aided by 
his telescope, estimates as composed of 18,000,000 stars. If 
Alcyone is the center around which move our own and many 
other solar systems, it is reasonable to suppose that the Milky 



Fig. 31. 




Fig. 30. 



Fig- 33- 



Fig. 32. 



Way itself has some vast center around which Alcyone and all 
the other stars of this immense cluster make their almost infi- 
nite circuit. Otherwise how could they be held in a mass sepa- 
ate from the rest of the universe? But all stars seem to be 
situated in some cluster, and held there by a law of unity with 
the other stars. These clusters are counted by thousands. In 
the Constellation Virgo is what seems to the naked eye to be a 
small star called co (omega) Centauri, but when viewed through 
a large telescope proves to be a magnificent globular cluster of 
thousands of stars, represented by fig. 30. These globular clus- 
ters are very common. Fig. 31 simply gives the central portion 
of a spiral nebula in the lower jaw of Leo, the whole of which 
is supposed to contain millions of stars. There must have been 



10 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



a center of amazing power around which inconceivably vast 
whirlwinds of force swept this array of stellar systems. Fig. 32 
is an oval nebula in the constellation Vulpecula, the brightest 
part of which resembles a dumb-bell. Fig. 33 is a nebula in 
Gemini near the bright star Castor, with rings and a star in the 
center. 

15. But have we reached the ultimate of the law of unity in 
these thousands of star clusters, each of which is almost a uni- 
verse in itself in its immensity? Is there no omnipotent, 
ubiquitous bond of unity which binds even these clusters of 
solar systems into one almighty center which "we call God and 
know no more? (Derzhavin.) If not, then all analogies fail 
and all attempt to arrive at universal law is a mockery, for we 
see that the principle of unity is absolutely universal, whether 
we progress toward telescopic or microscopic infinities. 

16. But the unity of the material universe is not all. The 
common supposition that spirit is wholly unlike matter, in other 
words is immaterial, is quite superficial; for if there were no 
bonds of unity between the two, spirit could never act upon 
matter nor matter upon spirit. The teaching of such absurdi- 
ties drives logical minds to the denial of all spirit, and the advo- 
cacy of materialism and atheism. It should be understood that 
the very same laws rule in the spiritual and intellectual phases 
of being as in the material; in other words, unity of principle 
rules in every department of the universe and binds the whole in 
one. Mankind intuitively understand this, and constantly ex- 
press it in their language, using such expressions as "heat of 
passion" and "heat of fire;" "the light of knowledge" as well 
as the light of the sun; "harmony of colors and sounds," as well 
as harmony of feeling. A person is spoken of as having a 
"cool, reasoning style" of mind, while another is said to have a 
"warm and loving heart." The eyes are talked of as "flashing 
fire" as, for instance, a New York paper speaks of Verdi, the 
composer of Trovatore, as having "fiery, flashing eyes." Words 
are said to burn, the heart to "boil with indignation" and so 
on. In the chapter on Chromo-Mentalism, it will be shown that 
mind and body work after precisely the same laws; that the eye 
can flash real fire, only it is of a higher grade than ordinary fire; 
that the process of reasoning is attended with blue emanations 



DIVERSITY. 



li 



from the front brain, which may be seen by certain persons, and 
as the blue is the cold principle in colors, we see that it is liter- 
ally exact to speak of a "cool, reasoning mind;" that the im- 
pulsive and loving processes are attended with red emanations, 
and as red is the principle of heat among colors, we are abso- 
lutely correct when we speak of the "warmth of love" or the 
"heat of passion," and are not using figurative words; that when 
we say the "heart boils with indignation," we are literally cor- 
rect, as heat of the spiritual forces causes a hot condition of the 
heart which sends the blood into a boiling motion, and that there 
is a chemical affinity ruling in the psychological and ethereal 
forces just as absolute as that which works in physiological and 
ordinary material conditions, will be abundantly shown here- 
after. Unity, then, being thus ubiquitous in all realms of mat- 
ter and force, we may be guided by the following rule: — 

All things in their basic principles resemble all other things, 
and we are safe in judging of the unknown by the known, of 
the invisible by the visible, and of the whole by apart. 

Great and important as is this law, and giving us as it does 
a key to the mysteries of things, we come now to another law 
which is equally important and without which all harmonious 
unity itself is impossible. 

IV. Diversity. 

Diversity is a universal law of nature, and exemplifies freedom, 
life, individuality, infinity, etc. 



In other words, nature consists of infinite unity differentiated 
into infinite diversity. The reader will now please review all 
the engravings which illustrate unity, and see how absolutely 
they also illustrate diversity, otherwise they would have been a 
perverted style of unity quite contrary to all free natural devel- 
opment. In the triangle, fig. I, we see lines moving in three 
directions; in fig. 2, lines moving in six directions; in fig. 3, the 
diversity is far greater; in fig. 4, we have the circle which, 
geometrically speaking, consists of an infinite number of straight 
lines, and we have also diversity in the size of the dots; in fig. 
5, we have a variety of circles and arcs of circles; in figs. 2 and 
5, we have also a diversity caused by light and shade; in the 



12 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



illustrations following, diversities of form, of size, of direction, 
and of color. In all foliage the outline and color of the leaf and 
the size and direction of the fibres and texture are a constant 
source of diversity. Trees afford a remarkable diversity of di- 
rection size and color of their branches and sub-branches, and 
leaves, bark, flowers, fruit, etc., as well as in the light and shade 
of their different parts. In short, the earth and man — the land, 
and sea, and sky — are rich and delightful in their infinitude of 
forms, and sounds, and colors, and motions, while the world of 
literature and spiritual power is richer than even the outward 
world. 

V. Harmony. 

Harmony consists in the equal balance of Unity and Diversity, 
and this harmony is increased in exquisiteness in proportion 
to the number of these parts of Unity and Diversity 

1. In other words, organization and individual freedom must 
be combined. In fig. 1, we have three points of general unity, 
and three lines moving in diverse directions, to constitute the tri- 
angle. In fig. 2, we have twice as many points of unity balanced 
by twice as many points of diversity, consequently the hexagon 
is more beautiful than the triangle. On the same principle fig. 
3 is more beautiful than fig. 2, and figures 4 and 5 than fig. 3, 
although fig. 3 is more spirited than these last mentioned. 

2. Colors must combine this variety of tints, hues and shades 
an the law of unity to please. If we should see a daub of vari- 
ous colors on an object without any unity of law in their ar- 
rangement, taste would be offended, for it would be diversity 




Fig. 34. Diversity without 
Unity, 



Fi S- 35- Unity without 
Di< 



diversity. 



Fig. 36. Unity and Diver- 
sity combined. 



HARMONY. 



13 



run wild. If we should see only one color everywhere and al- 
ways, it would be insupportable from its unvaried unity (see fig. 
35); or if we should see light and shade mingled in a lawless 
manner on the plan of mere diversity, as in fig. 34, it would be 
equally distressing. The one would be well represented in a 
treeless, barren desert, or by a condition of absolute darkness, 
the other by a mass of ruins, or debris, while both would be a 
violation of the regular development of nature. It is a relief to 
turn from these to fig. 36, where freedom and law combined de- 
light every eye. 

3. Chiaroscuro, or the fine balance of light and shade, consti- 
tutes a most effective feature in art. Joshua Reynolds made a 
rule that one-third of a picture should be in shadow and two- 
thirds in light, but this would interfere with our rule, which re- 
quires, on the average, an equal distribution of opposite prince- 
pies, such as light and shade. If light or shade predominates 
too much, the diversity is not sufficient to balance the unity, and 
the objects portrayed are less distinct and spirited than they 
should be. Take, for instance, 
fig. 37, in which an etching 
from Rubens is given, and al- 
though the features and ex- 
pression are brought out by a 
master hand, yet the effect as 
a who'e is much less brilliant 
than the head of the "Astron- 
omer," fig. 38, presumably 
Galileo, which I copy from the 
London Art Journal, or rather 
which the potent beams of the 
sun have copied for me as 
they have also engraved the 
Rubens. In this way I get a 

t ■ -r t u a, Tt •111. Fi S- 37. An Etching of Rutens, 

fac-simile of both. It will be 

seen that the light and shadow are very finely distributed in the 
"Astronomer," the greatest light being on the face where nature 
has placed it: and the shadow being on the hair and beard 
where nature has also placed it, while the dark back ground 
brings out the light of the whole head by contrast. Diversity 




11 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



thus developed; but what is the principle of unity? The 
sameness of general tone throughout the picture, or so far 
as there is diversity of light and shade, such a gradation 
from one to the other as not to interfere with the oneness 

of effect. Swinging to the 
other extreme of too little 
shadow, as in fig. 39, we find 
the law of diversity lacking 
equally with the Rubens, fig. 
37, and the same indistinct- 
ness of detail as in that picture. 
Both utility and beauty then 
require a balance of light and 
shade. Fig. 40 is a fac-simile 
of one of the ruder sketches 
of the brilliant artist Gustave 
Dore, showing the frightened 
Sane ho Panza lying on the 
ground. The blackest shadow 
is made to fade suddenly into 
absolute light without the gra- 
dations which nature adopts, 
and the little patches of 
ground at the lower part of the 
engraving seem to stand out like islands by themselves, without 
any relationship to the ground on which he lies. Compare this 




Fig. 38. The Astronomer. (Galileo.) 





Fig. 39 Deficiency of Shade. 



Fig. 40, Unity lacking. 



to the engraving of the tomb of Plautus Lucanus, fig. 41, which 
has an effective display of light and shade. Every stone and 
piece of soil or other object stands out distinctly, and while 



HARMONY. 



15 



there is a fine diversity and gradation, there is also a general 
unity of spirit and tone throughout. In this picture it will be 
seen that the sun, though slightly in front of the bridge, must 
be nearly perpendicular, as the light does not pass under the 

arches. In fig. 42, however, the 
sun must be behind the bridge and 
near the horizon, judging by the 
distance that its rays are able to 





penetrate beneath it over the wa- 
ter, and by the dark shadows which 
it casts. 

4. But we shall hereafter see 
some great and distinctive methods 
by which light and shade and other 
principles are combined to consti- 
mu. tute real harmony, which is the 
golden mean made up of the two extremes, rather than the gold- 
en mean between extremes. In all things that harmony which 
is the foundation of beauty, life, health, happiness and power, 
comes from the union of the two extremes of power, and these 
extremes generally find their type, if not their exact character, 
in unity and diversity. Some of these combinations are as fol- 
lows: — 

Light and shade, which are exactly balanced in nature, the 
nights and days having the same average length the world over. 

Positive and negative forces, which must ever be combined 
equally to make smooth and perfect action. 

Heat and cold, which are balanced in the temperate zones 
and over the world taken as a whole, but being blended one- 
sidedly in the torrid and frigid zones they cause more or less 
distress and interference with nature's harmonious processes. 



16 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



Life and physical harmony are impossible without a balance of 
these two principles of heat and cold, heat being the principle of 
diversity and outward expansion, and cold the principle of unity, 
organization and crystallization, but either one being destructive 
if alone. 

Sweetness and acidity, as combined in strawberries, peaches, 
apples, lemonade, etc., or sweetness and bitterness, as combined 
in coffee, tea and many other substances, set into motion that 
harmonious flow of forces through the organs of taste which 
lead us to call them luscious or delicious. They delight the 
physical taste. Unity and diversity, as combined equally, espe- 
cially on the law of Gradation or Contrast, which I shall now 
proceed to explain, reach a more spiritual part of our nature and 
delight the esthetic taste, as in the beautiful or sublime. It is 
plain, then, that when we reach basic principles they apply to 
every department of the universe, including both matter and mind. 

VI. Gradation or Progression. 



1. There are two great leading and distinctive methods of 
combining unity and diversity for the production of harmony, 
common through universal nature and of course through all cor- 
rect human art, which should be a mirror of nature, namely, 
Gradation, whose characteristics are exquisiteness, progression, 
beauty, femininity, typical of the love principle, and Contrast, 
whose characteristics are spiritedness, decision, power, pictur- 
esqueness, sublimity and masculinity, typical of justice. 

2. Gradation consists in delicate degrees of progression from 
one quality or condition to another, and nature's progressions, 
when unrestricted, are ever toward superiority of some kind. 
Thus in iEolian tones there are crescendos progressing toward 
superior power, and diminuendos progressing toward superior 
sweetness; in all leaves, fibres, branches, trees, flowers, etc., 
there are endless progressions toward superior size and power 
in one direction, and superior fineness and delicacy in the other, 
see figs. 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 19, 20, 21, etc. In a sun- 
set sky, the gradation is toward superior brilliancy as we move 
from east to west, and toward superior softness of color as we 
move from west to east; in the rainbow or solar spectrum, we 



GRADATION OR PROGRESSION. 



17 



have another beautiful example of gradation or blending of col- 
ors, the progression being toward superior fineness, coolness 
and penetrating power, as we move from the red through orange, 
yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet, and toward superior 
warmth and animation as we move in the opposite direction. 
Examples of this gradation of colors may be seen in all of the 
colored plates of this work. I will give a few divisions of na- 
ture's infinity of gradations. 

3. Gradation of Size. I have just mentioned a number of 
gradations of size as in the fibres, branches and leaves of plants, 
etc. The gradation of human limbs and features 
is especially beautiful. Trees abound in many 
styles of gradation. Fig. 43 shows the ordinary 
round-topped tree, such as the beech, the maple, 
etc., in which there is a progression in direction of 




Fig. 4.1 
Round 

topped- 
tree. 



Fig- 45- 

Spiry- 

topped 

tree. 



the outline and progression in size. Fig. 44 is an 
oblong-headed tree, like the poplar, which has too 
little diversity in its progression toward a point at 
the top, and consequently its appearance is rather 
stiff. Fig. 45 is a spiry-topped tree, and includes 
in its class, cedars, firs, larches, etc. It is more at- 
ractive than the poplar, from its greater diversity of angles and 
forms, both angular and curved, and presents sharp contrasts of 
direction as well as its gradations. Fig. 46 
is the spire in decorated Gothic of the Ca- 
thedral, corner of Fifty-first Street and 
Fifth Avenue, New York. It has a beauti- 
ful and gradual progression from top to bot- 
tom, that makes it far more graceful than 
the spire in fig. 47, which at a point a little 
above the roof widens so abruptly as to 




Fig- 47. 



18 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



f/s 

y 

Fig. $$. Fig. 49. 
Curves nf the The Line 
Parabola. 



Fig. 50. 

The line 

of Beauty, of Grace. 



■L"Ji:':':; ": J >--'^"'v.<v-"'---\"^T\ 






make a contrast rather than a gradation. Such a spire may be 
called picturesque, but it is not graceful. 

4. Gradation of Direction, is simply curvature, and curves are 
among the leading features of beauty in forms. I have given in 
figures 48, 49 and 50 three leading curves in natural forms and 

motions. Fig. 48 shows the beautiful 
curves of the parabola, such as are 
described by fountains, cataracts and 
all missiles thrown upward outside of a 
perpendicular line. Fig. 49 gives what 
the famous old English artist Hogarth 
called the line of beauty, and moves in 
two directions like the meandering of 
a stream or the form of undulations (see fig. 51). It may be seen 
in the forms of many grasses, leaves, flowers, shells, streams, etc., 

and is given in figures 6, 7, 
11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 19,20,21, 
37, 38, 39, 51, etc. Fig. 50 
is called the line of grace, 
named also by Hogarth, and 
is a spiral. It is seen in the 
climbing of vines as they 
encircle a tree, in many sea- 
shells (see fig. 14), in curls 
of hair, etc. It is perhaps 
the most beautiful of all 
simple continuous lines, and, as will be seen hereafter (chapter 
III.), is the most common form in the universe. It not only has 
a leading center for the whole form, but is composed, geometri- 
cally speaking, of an infinite number of circles as points of both 
unity and diversity. Undulations not only progress in size but 
in delicacy of form as they advance. The fern 
branch, fig. 52, has not only gradation of size as a 
whole, but of each branch and part of a branch, 
and has also many gradations of direction. Fig. 
53 consists of gradations of gradations, which are 
formed by superposing compound sounds on sim- 
ple sounds and causing their vibrations to be re- 
corded in lamp-black by a graphic instrument 

Fig. 52. A Fern, 



Fig. 51. Undulations. 




GRADATION OR PROGRESSION. 



19 



F'g. 53. Vibrations of compound 
Sounds. 



Fig, 54. Combination of two 
parallel vibratory movements. 




devised by Savart. Fig. 54 has gradations of size and direction, 
and was written in lamp-black by a combination of tuning forks. 
Fig. 55 is an example of progressive rings of colored light, 
which were produced by electricity, as seen 
and drawn by an artist and quoted by Dr. 
Jerome Kidder of New York, in his pamph- 
let on Electro- Allotropo-Physiology: — "Placing 
the sponge of an electrical machine to my 
left eye, and making the current strong, I saw 
stars in about four seconds. Rings vibrating 
came from the ends, growing weaker as they approached the 
center, where they died out entirely. This was very beauti- 
ful. It commenced with yellow at the first ring, at about the 
fourth or fifth ring they became red, and disappeared in a faint 
blue." It will be noticed that these waves of light progress in 
size, in thickness, in color, and in direction of outline according 
to the line of beauty, and have a general unity as a whole, as 
well as a special unity of breadth, of parallelism and of a com- 
mon center, while the features of diversity are equally marked. 

5. Gradations in the Human Form. The human form being 
the highest development of the external universe should have 
the highest manifestations of harmonic features. It may be re- 
marked, first, that the contour of a mature and graceful counte- 
nance, as well as of the top head, is on the plan of the oval, while 
the unripe period of infancy and early childhood approaches the 
circle. The Romans advocated the circle 
as the highest form of beauty, while the 
more cultured taste of the Greeks preferred 
the ellipse, the oval and other sections of 
a cone. The circle is the stiffest of curves, 
in fact is a curve of limitation, while the 
oval may have a great variety of curved 
forms all of which have their centers of 
unity. Fig. 56 is an ovoid, or egg-shaped 
form, which has its center of gravity at G, 




Fig. 56. An Ovoid. 



20 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



within, but its general center of form around a line which should 
extend through the center of the whole ovoid longitudinally. 
I will now present some faces as illustrations of the principle. 




Fig. 57. Emma. 



Fig. 58. Katie. 



Figs. 57 and 58 are a copy from life of two sisters, who at the 
same age had a good deal of resemblance to each other. Emma 
is 18 months old and has fine round features. Katie is 6 years 
old and her features have become much more oval, the curve 
of the chin being more delicate and yet more marked as 




Fig. 5Q. 



The Infant. 



Viz. 6°. T he Fr ™ c h Market Cir!. 



GRADATION OR PROGRESSION. 



21 




Fis;. 61. Childhood and Youth. 



Maturity : Genevieve. 



compared with that of the cheek, while the hair contrasts 
more distinctly in color and prominence with the face. Fig- 
ures 59 and 60 present subjects still younger and still older 
than those of Emma and Katie, the infant which I have copied 
from the London Art Journal having a face so nearly circular 
that its chin almost disappears; while the French market 
girl, having reached early womanhood, has a fine oval face 
and more distinct features of every kind. In fig. 61, the same 
principle is well illustrated in the three faces presented, which 
lengthen out as their age progresses, while womanhood, as 
represented by Genevieve in fig. 62, presents a still greater 
variety of gradations as seen in the curves of her form as well 
as greater contrasts. The line of beauty will be seen on her 
cheeks, top hair, shoulders and bust, and the lines of grace 
in her lower hair, although the artist has not given her a very 
superior expression of countenance. 

6. Gradations of Light and Shade so beautifully exemplified in 
sky and hill and valley and lake, and in most of the manifestations 
of nature, must be imitated as far as possible in art. In most of 
the foregoing pictures these gradations are easily seen, especially 
in that of the Astronomer, fig. 38, in which the light fades into 
shadow as we pass from the forehead to the temples, or into 
still deeper shadow on passing to the eyes, which are overhung 
by his prominent and intellectual brow. This latter, in fact, 
may be called a contrast of light and shade, although it is graded 



22 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



off so as to be quite refined in comparison with the rude masses 
of light and shadow in fig. 40, which are almost lacking in grada- 
tion. 

7. We have already seen that Gradation of Colors appears in 
those that blend as in the rainbow, and that this gradation, al- 
though so diversified in its hues, has the property of binding a 
mass of colors into oneness or unity of effect, hence its beauty. 

8. In the Motions and Forces of Nature, gradation seems to 
be a universal law, extending to gravitation, chemical affinity, 
etc. All projected or falling bodies, all movements of suns, 
planets, moons and comets forever progress either with increase- 
ing or retarded velocities and momentum. 

9. Rhetorical and Musical Gradations consist of those cli- 
maxes or passages of increasing power or sweetness which move 
on step by step until they culminate. In music, there are various 
dynamical, melodic and climacteric gradations such as crescendos, 
diminuendos, curves of the voice, upward or downward move- 
ments of the voice, etc., all of which, when on the law of grada- 
tion, are beautiful. In rhetoric it is often said that climaxes are 
beautiful, but that it is impossible to tell the reason. It is very 
easy to see the reason when we remember that a climax is 
simply a progression or gradation of ideas in harmony with 
nature's universal law of beauty. Fine rhetoricians are ever 
apt to arrange the clauses of their sentences in an increasing 
gradation, and when this is attended with increasing importance 
of ideas, it becomes doubly effective. I will give only a single 
passage from Burke: 

There is one thing 

and one thing only, 

which defies all mutation: 

that which existed before the world, 

and will survive the fabric of the world itself, 

I mean justice, etc. 

10. Miscellaneous Gradations. I have given my last para- 
graphs partly to show that a unity of law exists in the world of 
intellect and language as well as in external nature itself. The 
same law of gradation could be traced all through refined social 
life, through government, through religion and through every 
department of nature, mind, and art. 



CONTRAST. 23 

VII. Contrast. 

Harmonic Contrast combines Unity and Diversity in bold degrees or 
in distinct masses. 




Fig. 63. 

64 the bold anj 



1. Contrast of Direction consists of 
straight lines and acute angles, just as 
gradation of direction consists of curva- 
ture. These right lines and bold angles 
are generally attended with power, sub- 
limity, spiritedness, or picturesqueness, 
as is the case with flashes of lightning 
(see fig. 63), or great cliffs, or storm- 
tossed billows, or lofty cataracts. In fig 
of the cliffs, the dash of billows, the lowering clouds and 
lightning's track all betoken 
great power, are especially 
sublime, and are manifestations 
of contrast. The contrast of 
light and shade which the artist 
has represented adds to the 
spiritedness of the scene. 

2. We shall see the distinc- 
tion between gradation and 
contrast all the better by means 
of fig. 65, in which the graceful 
predominates everywhere from 
the curvature and other grada- 
tions that rule, including the 
bridge with its vases, the wind- 
ing drive and walk, the arched 
pavilion, the flowing foliage, 
and flowers, the placid water 
picturing surrounding objects 
on its bosom, the easy slope of the land, the swan and 
spirit of the scene generally which soothes and delights 
mind. 



des 
the 




A4. lieadiy Head. 



the 
the 



l'\ 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 




Fig. 65. Gradation, or the beautiful in Land 



Figure 66 presents 
some elements of the 
beautiful in the curved 
form and sparkling ef- 
fect of the waters of 
Niagara Falls, a part of 
which appear, but the 
loftiness, vastness, pow- 
er, and the terrific con- 
trasts and whirling mo- 
tions of such mighty 
currents are especially 
sublime. 

3. Light and Shadow 
appear in countless 
beautiful and startling manifestations, in the sky especially, 
as well as on water, and over the mountains and valleys. Grada- 
tion of light and color in the sky, represented in fig. 67, is apt to 
be the most delicate where no clouds are, the light of course be- 
ing most brilliant where the sun is, and having a progression 




Fig. 66. The sublime in Water. 



*This pretty piece of landscape was drawn for me by a young artist, Miss 
May Kidder, daughter of Mrs. M. A. Kidder, the well known poetess. 



CONTRAST 



25 




Fig. 67. Gradation in Sky Scenery. 



Fig. 68. Contrast in Sky Scenery. 



toward shadow as we recede from the sun. In a sunset sky, or 
a sunrise scene, there are often millions of degrees of tint from 
the point where the sun is all the way over to the opposite side 
of the sky, when it is not cloudy; but in case of clouds, magnificent 
contrasts of light, shade and color are apt to appear with their 
more exciting effects. The clouds and light of a tempest often 
manifest brilliant contrasts, something as in fig. 68. Fig. 69 
shows a scene in which contrast and diversity are almost entirely 
lacking, so that the land can scarcely be distinguished from the 
water, and the whole effect is feeble. In fig. 70 contrasts of 
various kinds appear and give a brilliant effect. There is a con- 




Fig. 69. A Night Scene. 



Fig. 70. Stony Point on the Hudson. 



trast of size and direction in the rocks and bold scenery as placed 
side by side with the placid sheet of water; and there is the con- 
trast of the deep shadow in which these rocks are placed with the 
brilliant light that flashes over the water, and this light is toned 



26 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



down by a gradation of shading which gives refinement. The 
contrast of luminous branches on the shadowy rocks should also 
be noticed. 

4. The contrast of Masculinity with Femininity is one of na- 
ture's great strokes of harmony, being an admirable method of 
employing diversity in the sexes to bind them together in unity 
of spirit. It is really a contrast of gradation of style as predomina- 
ting in woman with contrast of style as ruling in man. In fig. 71, 
I have presented the beautiful queen of Delhi, in contrast with 
the manly head of the Emperor of Germany in fig. 72. The 
queen's forehead, eyebrows, cheeks, chin, mouth, neck and shoul- 
ders are all graceful with gradation; her hair progresses from 
lines of beauty above to lines of grace below; her drapery and 
jewelry are arranged on the flowing and curved style of grada- 
tion, while all very strong contrasts both of color or form are 
avoided. The Emperor with his firm shoulders and neck, his 
massive forehead and eyebrows, his bold features approaching 
angularity, his beard and mustache contrasting in form and color 
with his face, his angular ornaments with their bright colors 
placed in contrast with the dark color of his coat, give him an 
appearance of dignity and power. Nothing is more effective in 
a social circle than a manly man by the side of a womanly woman, 
the man setting off by his size and ruder power the delicacy and 
grace of the woman, while the woman enhances the majesty of the 
man by her more petite and yielding form. The true woman 
naturally desires in man masculine force of character, and the 
true man naturally loves in woman feminine refinement and 
gentleness. By feminine I do not mean effeminate, and by gen- 
tleness I do not mean lacking in firmness of principle. When 
such natures form a matrimonial union their harmony, both 
physical and spiritual, will be far greater than two natures which 
are too much alike, or rather which do not contrast properly. By 
contrast I do not mean contrariness, or opposition, but distinctly 
marked diversity in unity; for natures that are almost totally 
opposite cannot harmonize any better than those which are 
almost wholly alike. 

Fig. 73 presents the face of our eminent ornithologist Au- 
dubon, certainly one of the most feminine of masculine faces, 
from the delicacy of his chin and mouth and the fine curves of 



CONTRAST. 



27 




Zenat Mahal-Begum, Ouecn of Delhi, drawn by a native artist, on ivory. 
Illustrating Gradation. 




Fig. 72. The Emperor William of Germany. Illustrating Contrast. 



2-A 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 




Fig. 73. Audubon. 



his cheeks and eyebrows. His forehead alone seems to have 
masculine prominence of outline. To make this femininity 

the more extreme in style he wears 
his hair long and laid carefully in 
curls over his forehead, his collar 
and drapery flowing and his face 
wholly without beard, which is cer- 
tainly a mistaken conception of what 
is appropriate in manhood. This 
same mistake is made by many 
priests, who shave their faces closely 
and wear those flowing gowns which 
simply make them resemble women of a large and coarse type. 
The uncomfortable and heat-producing wigs with long and curled 
hair which are still worn by barristers in England, are a very 
unmasculine and very absurd ornament. But the subject of 
dress will be considered hereafter. The contrasts of the mascu- 
line and feminine form are shown in fig. 39. 

5. Contrasts caused by Reflection. Nature is not satisfied 
with filling all things with her fine effects and harmonies which 
inhere in the objects themselves, but has turned every lake and 
river and sea into a burnished surface of quicksilver to mirror 
forth in softer light her real objects, thus making shadows con- 
trast with their substances, as seen in fig. 74, also in fig. 65. 

6. Contrasts in Typogra- 
phy. I will throw out just 
a hint as to how different 
styles of lettering and pen- 
manship may be combined 
to produce an effective con- 
trast, and also gradation. 
In fig. 70, the upper and 
lower words have gradation 
as their ruling feature, while 
the middle word has those 
firm straight lines and sharp 
angles which make contrast, 
Fig. 74. contrasts ca sed by Reflection. and so taking them all to- 

gether is a pretty contrast of gradation and contrast. The grad- 




CONTRAST. 



29 




ual swelling and diminishing of the shaded line in the capitals 

is a gradation of size, while the light and 

shaded strokes which come near each 

other form a contrast of size. The word 

eminent has different contrasts, both 

horizontal and perpendicular, but the 

shaded ground work of the word should ~ , 

be extended to the other two words or i^^^llH-io, 

omitted altogether to have perfect unity Fig. 7; 

of effect; but I have chosen them from 

their applicability in other respects. 

11. Contrast in Music. Rhythmical contrast consists of sud- 
den changes from short to long or long to short tones; dynami- 
cal, in sudden bursts of tone after soft and gentle movements, 
the use of rests, etc.; melodic, in sudden transitions from high 
to low or low to high notes, and in straightforward and angular 
movements of the voice rather than in fanciful curvatures and 
warblings. 

12. Contrast of Ideas and length of clauses may be seen in 
the following antitheses of Mirabeau: 

"Be firm not obstinate; 

Courageous not turbulent; 

Free not undisciplined; 

Prompt not precipitate." 

13. A Gradation of Contrasts in Language may be seen in 
the following extract from Chateaubriand, in which each of the 
three leading steps of gradation from less to more important 
ideas has a contrast of a smaller with a larger object, as "in- 
sect" with "elephant," etc: — 

" There is a Gun ! 
\ The herbs of the valley, ) 

( the cedars of the mountain, J C;>S " m 
( The insect sports in his beams, 

"iThe elephant salutes him with the rising orb of day— 
( The bird sings him in the foliage, 
I the thunder proclaims him in the heavens:— 
Man aim* has said — There is no Cod!'" 

The unity of idea in the above finds its central point in 
"There is a God," while the diversity consists of the seven 
clauses which cluster around it, as leaves cluster around a 
branch. 



30 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



14. Crystallized or other hard forms usually have that pre- 
dominance of straight lines and angles which constitutes con- 
trast, and their effect is generally spirited, or if large, sublime, 
while the more soft or yielding forms of natural growth have 
usually a predominance of curvature on the graceful law of gra- 
dation. For examples of the first see figures 2, 3, 64, etc.; for 
examples of the second, see vines, leaves, human forms, etc., as 
in figuresll, 12, 19, 20, 60, etc. 

15. What is the principle of unity in contrasting objects? my 
reader may ask. The principle of diversity is evident enough. 
Take the picture of Stony Point, fig. 70, which presents marked 
contrasts. Are the rocks so black as to be entirely separated in 
effect from the white appearing water near it? No, for the 
water is graded down with shadow so as not to be entirely white, 
while the rocks are softened down with light to prevent black- 
ness. So far, then, there is unity of effect. But there is also 
another kind of unity, for the darkness of the rocks works in 
harmony with the water to develop its brilliancy, while the bril- 
liancy of the water, on the other hand, works harmoniously with 
the rocks to bring out their bold and massive power the more 
distinctly. But these contrasts by means of which one object 
works to glorify its neighbor, are seen all through nature. The 
red of the flower makes the green of the surrounding foliage 
seem the more pure by comparison, while the green on the other 
hand sets off the red and gives it a deeper hue. The foliage 
harmonizes with the reddish brown of the soil; a violet flower is 
very apt to be associated with yellow lines or a yellow center, 
and various other harmonic contrasts exist in different depart- 
ments of nature, developed on the principle of chemical affinity 
which deals in contrasts as will be shown in chapter V. 

16. How is Contrast the type of justice? A true philosopher 
will always see an interior spiritual meaning in every manifesta- 
tion of nature. The earthquake, the tempest and the lightning, 
which so abound in sublime contrasts, are great purifying and 
corrective agencies of the physical world. Is not Justice the 
great purifier of the moral world? But as in nature the moun- 
tains and cliffs which have been developed by the earthquake 
are softened down by many yielding and beautiful gradations 
typical of love, so should human justice be tempered by the 
gentle hand of mercy. 



HARMONY OF ANALOGY. 

VIII. Harmony of Analogy. 



31 



Analogical harmony requires that there shall be some distinctive 
expression or special character throughout any work of art or 
nature in order to the highest perfection. 

I. This is really a broad application of the principle of unity, 
and yet this very law will impart such an individuality to an ob- 
ject, or series of objects, as to enhance the diversity of things as 
a whole. Nature carries it out 
in a wonderful way. Thus the sky 
may be greatly varied with clouds 
and sunlight, but its analogical 
principle is the blue color. Dur- 
ing a sunset, not only does a 
golden tint rule near the sun, but 
it touches the whole sky and land- 
scape into analogical harmony. 
When the sky becomes overcast 
with dark clouds, the forest, the 
water, and the whole landscape 
partakes of the somberness, as in 
fig. 76. The artist has given a 
little piece of the Hudson at West 
Point by moonlight (fig. 77), and the dimness of 
the water, of the distant highlands and of the sky itself, shows 

the analogical principle which is so common 

in nature. In a romantic 

or picturesque region, con- 
trast is the presiding genius, 

and we are apt to find 

bluffs, cliffs, torrents, and 

jagged or spiry -topped trees 

all combined. Fig. 78 shows 

a small portion of the Au 

Sable Chasm, in which the 

spire-like trees surmount 

the cliffs somewhat as pinnacles surmount a 

Gothic edifice, and greatly add to the spiritedness 





Fig. 77, Moonlight. 



Fig. 76. Shadow. 





Fig . ?q. Portion uf Vale 
College Library, 



32 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



of the scene. Fig. 79 shows a portion of the Library building 
of Yale College, which, throwing upward its turrets and pin- 
nacles, as well as its pointed windows and roof, shows how 
well adapted the Gothic style is to hillsides or other romantic 
situations, as it would be in harmony with surrounding features. 
Many architects, recognizing this fact, have placed Gothic 
churches or other buildings in the same spirited style, on the 
top of some peak or hillside, and enhanced the effect which 
nature itself produces. Such an effect is 
seen on Mont St. Michael, fig. 80. The 
well known Catskill Mountain House, fig. 
81, with its tame horizontal lines, violates 
in this respect the spirit of the wild gran- 
deur around it, where the very trees and 
cliffs themselves proclaim a different 
style. 

2. Analogical Harmony does not ne- 
cessarily interfere with diversity as might 
be supposed at first thought. Figs. 
82 and 83 are portions of New York 
business buildings. Although the square 
topped Grecian windows are the sim- 
plest of all styles, the architect has found 
a way (fig. 82) to vary them with their 
surroundings on different floors without 
injuring the unity of effect. The same 
is the case with the Romanesque win- 
dows of fig. 83. Fig. 84, which I have 




Fig. So. Munt St. Michael 





ilil|j|jj|f 


llN 



g. Sr. Catskill Mountain 
House. 



Fig. S2. Grecian 
Windows, 



Fig. Sj. Reman Windows. 



HARMONY OF ANALOGY. 



33 



taken from Ruskin's "Stones of Venice," has an analogical har- 
mony in the great general outline of its beautiful Roman arches, 
although every arch, as will be seen, has an entirely different 
style of ornamentation from every other arch, and each pillar 
differently sculptured capitals, while the space above is filled 
with constantly diversified figures. Mediocrity clamors for a 
dead sameness of all windows of a building, or of all ornamental 
features, or of all pillars, and would balance one tower on one 
side of a building with another absolutely similar to it on the 
other side, just as mediocrity in the world of fashion aims at a 
slavish imitation of some style which is supposed to be a la 
mode, however foolish, unbeautiful, destructive of health, or lack- 
ing in adaptation it may be. Genius, however, while carrying 
out a general analogical spirit, is so rich in resources of creation 




Fig. 84. Romanesque Arches from St, Micheleof Lucca. 



or invention as to develop endless diversity in the midst of his 
unity, in imitation of nature itself. In fig. 85, we have a speci- 
men of Gothic architecture with 
its pointed arches, being the 
doorway of Holyrood Abbey, 
England, while fig. 86 shows 
some of the windows in the same 
structure. It will be seen that 
the windows in each story are 
highly different in plan and yet 
entirely harmonious in effect, 
not only with themselves but 
with the doorway, and even the 




Fig. 85. A Gothic 
Doorway. 



Fig. SG. Gothic 
Windows. 



34 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 




Fig. 87, Elizabe 
than architecture 



doorway itself has various analogical principles in the series of 
arches and parallel lines with which it is formed, while these 
very arches have a diversity of ornamentation. Fig. 87 gives a 
fair specimen of the Elizabethan architecture, 
which is a mongrel of styles, quite in violation of 
the analogical harmonies, having no general effect 
of contrast or gradation; of straight lines or curves, 
although it has some picturesqueness of effect. 
There is the arched doorway and rectangular win- 
dow, and roof-piece, with no special style at all, 
projecting quite above the rest of the house, and 
pretending to be a part of the house, just as the 
pompous Elizabethan style of dress was full of in- 
flation and vanity, pretending to be more than it was. 

3. In landscape, a picturesque or romantic location needs 
more or less of spirited angles in the buildings which may be 
placed there, as we have just seen, as well as deep contrasts of 
light and shade in the form of lawns and thick tufts of foliage, 
decided angles in some of the trees as well as in the walks, and 
not too much of the polishing effects of art, while in landscapes 
where the beautiful predominates, winding paths, lawns finished 
off with smooth surfaces and curved forms, and architecture in 
which gradation and gentle angles are prevalent, such as Gre- 
cian, Italian, the curved Mansard roof or ornamented Gothic, are 
in place. (See fig. 65.) 

4. In Society, while both sexes must abound more or less 
with both gradation and contrast of style in their features, con- 
versation and general character, yet in the true man we expect 
power as the leading trait, however much it may be modified by 
goodness and refinement, while in the true woman we expect 
the gentle and graceful style, and ability to hold in repose when 
necessary, any depth of feeling. 

5. In Music, analogical harmony demands some general key- 
note or style throughout a part or the whole of a composition. 

6. In Painting, it demands some general tone of color and 
leading design throughout the whole piece. 

7. In Logic, it requires a constant adherence to the point to 
be proved. 

8. In Versification, it causes some general style of rhythm 



VIOLENT CONTRASTS. 



35 



and metre to be adopted throughout a poem, excepting where 
the principle of adaptation may require a change. 

9. In Colors, any hue harmonizes analogically with a different 
shade of the same color, as Chevreul has observed; for instance, 
blue will harmonize with light blue, light blue-gray with a darker 
blue-gray, red with light red, etc. (See Plate II., fig. 2.) This 
is analogical contrast. In the case of ordinary contrast, however, 
light red does not harmonize well with dark green, nor a deep 
orange with a pale blue, nor light red-gray with dark green-gray, 
but the depth of tone in each must be equal to have the best ef- 
fect of analogical harmony. But chromatic harmony will be 
explained under its proper head. 

10. Thus in all nature and art and society, whatever diver- 
sity in the form of contrast or of gradation there may be, the 
principles of analogical harmony demand that some leading sym- 
pathetic thread of unity must bind the whole into one. Liberty 
and law must be combined. This prepares the way for my next 
paragraph. 

IX. Violent Contrasts are Contrary to the General 
Laws of Nature. 



I. Harmonic contrast is not antagonism or absolute oppose- 
tion, it should be remembered. The contrasts and hues of na- 
ture are not violent or pretentious in their general manifesta- 
tions. The blue of the sky is diluted by the light in the day- 
time or by shadow at night. The green of the foliage is far 
better than a luminous color, as it does not dazzle the vision. 
The sunrise and sunset and the rainbow are all the more beauty- 
ful by being temporary, and the awful contrasts of vast over- 
hanging cliffs, great cataracts, tempests and earthquakes, would 
be unendurable if prevailing everywhere and always. The 
rocks, the earth, the clouds, the body of plants and trees are 
generally composed of delicate rich grays or browns which have 
a modest grace that gives enduring pleasure. Nature has for 
thousands of years made building materials, such as stones and 
woods, of these grays and browns; but man, too slow to take 
the hint, insists too often in painting his houses in such glaring, 
positive colors, as white, red, etc. 



36 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



2. Exquisite taste of course avoids what are called loud col- 
ors, and barbarians have taken charge of most of the flaming red 
and purple hues for dress, excepting in the case of children, 
whose sunny nature renders gay colors apropos. 

3. In society such rude contrasts as harsh words, violent 
gestures and screeching tones of passion are relegated to the 
low and vulgar, although at times great truths and great reforms 
may be projected upon a careless and ignorant community with 
a fiery earnestness that may displease for the time being as they 
tear up old errors, just as the lightning and the earthquake may 
bring occasional alarm in doing a much needed work of punfica- 
tion. 

4. The great leading plan of nature is to combine gentleness 
and power, or in other words, Gradation and Contrast, sunshine 
being more potent than the storm, while violence occurs only at 
rare intervals and even then in order that peace and harmony 
may the better be brought about. 

X. Nature's Unrestricted Growth never Results in 
Discord or Ugliness. 



1. We have seen that nature's progressions when unimpeded 
are ever toward beauty and perfection of some kind, and yet 
there are objects of deformity to be seen in the world around 
us. How is this? These objects do not result from nature's 
growth but from the cessation of this growth, as in decay, in- 
terference, sickness and death. Plants and animals naturally 
grow into beauty when unimpeded, but become repulsive in de- 
cay or in disease or imperfect conditions. Figures 88 and 89 
are specimens of faces formed by harmonious natural conditions, 
either pre-natal or post-natal, or both; fig. 90 has had the har- 
monious growth of nature interfered with by means of the poi- 
sonous element of alcohol; fig. 91, by sickness ; fig. 92, by a 
one-sided development of her beastly nature to the neglect of 
her higher powers; fig. 93, by such a diseased condition of his 
liver, spleen, stomach, and perhaps kidneys and nervous system, 
such a pressure and inflowing of forces upon the heart, that he 
almost dies of hypochondria, or perhaps declares at times that 
he is actually dead. 



NATURE'S UNRESTRICTED GROWTH NEVER DISCORDANT. 



37 





Fig. SS. Lavinia, Daughter of Titian. 



Fig. So. Happy Childhood. 



2. All Crystallizations when formed by natural and slow pro- 
cesses are beautiful; but the violence of volcanoes and earthquakes 
throws up lava and jagged ore in which unity is quite deficient, 
and consequently deformity reigns, just as lines of ugliness are 
painted on the human countenance by the continuous indulgence 
of violent passions. The barren waste of deserts is also unbeau- 
tiful from lack of diversity; but this too comes from impeding 
nature's processes, as the vapors of the atmosphere which give 
the rain are obstructed by some intervening mountain ranges. 




I r iS- 9°. 
The Rum Bloat. 



Fig. 93. 
The Hypuchondriac. 



3. The Human Form when developed naturally, without com- 
pressions of tight garments, without paints and cosmetics or 
stimuli, with abundance of pure air, sunlight, natural, simple food, 
exercise, and a genial noble soul within to illuminate the whole, 
grows naturally into every style of beautiful outline, color, motion 
and expression. Pale hollow cheeks with spiritless expression 
and walk, and fitful nervous action, result from a wrong life in 



38 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



one's self, or in one's ancestors, or in some adverse conditions of 
life, all of which are at war with nature's harmonious unfolding. 

4. But decay itself is only a process of a higher development, a 
decomposing and recomposing into superior conditions. By 
means of change and death the earth has progressed up through 
the geological epochs to the present refinement of things, develop- 
ing first mollusks, then fishes, then birds and reptiles, then mam- 
malia, and last and highest, man. Judging then by all analogies, 
even death must be but transition to superior life, and man him- 
self a link in this wonderful chain of upward progression. Is it 
not an inspiriting thought then that all gradations of color, form, 
sound and motion, all harmonies of the outward universe, forever 
exemplify and teach this great principle of progression? 

XL All Unrestricted Growth of Nature Exemplifies 
Spiritual and Moral Perfection. 



1. In other words, beautiful growths exemplify beautiful 
ideas, and all objects are positively deformed which do not do so. 
Take the sun for example. The orb itself typifies the parent 
principle. Its infinitude of rays work harmoniously side by side 
and typify fraternal harmony. They combine together to glorify 
the parent orb itself and thus exemplify filial love. This parent 
sphere gives them life and power and thus exemplifies the love of 
both the divine and human parent for the children. The light 
expands toward all the rest of the universe, and thus preaches 
progression and a sympathy for all. This immense progression 
at the rate of 186,000 miles a second enhances its luminosity and 
beauty through attrition on our atmosphere and earth, and thereby 
shows the glory of action. Thus the sun and stars are ever 
flashing out upon us their wonderful lessons of individual pro- 
gression and freedom, and yet fraternal harmony and organiza- 
tion, writing the thoughts of the Infinite over the whole heavens. 
Suppose that anarchy should reign among the sunbeams and 
they should war upon each other as do the lines in fig. 34, or 
sink into the stupid blank of death and inactivity as in fig. 35, 
the whole matter becomes at once disgusting. Thus we see that 
while moral perfection is expressed we have beauty, but so soon as 
immorality of idea prevails we have deformity. 



natural growth exemplifies moral perfection. 



39 




Fig. 94. Fig. 95. 




2. But again, suppose the leaves of the Gum Arabic Twig 
(Acacia Arabica) should rebel against the fraternal harmony 
with which nature has endowed them, as seen in fig. 94, and 
regardless of their neighbors arrange themselves 
into all conflicting attitudes or sometimes turn 
themselves into triangles, squares, etc., as in fig. 
95, and suppose that the parent stem itself, regard- 
less of its foliage and ignoring all graceful progress- 
sion of outline should stand forth in a rigid straight 
line equal in size throughout, would it not be a dis- 
tressing object to look upon? Truly "righteous- 
ness exalteth" a twig as well as a nation. Let us 
take a leaf, fig. 96, and see what a little bible of 
divine instruction is written thereon. 

Its fibres working harmoniously side by 
side for the beauty of the whole and never 
violating their neighbor's rights, teach fra- 
ternal love and justice, both in the family and 
in society. 

Working in individual freedom, they teach self-reliance and 
manhood. 

Working in orderly arrangement they advocate law and 
organization. 

Increasing in size and power as they move toward the cen- 
tral fibre, they preach progression. 

Spreading out gracefully on both sides, one side a little bolder 
than the other, they advocate conjugal love. 

Uniting their life and harmony with the parent stem, they 
teach us to turn affectionately to our parentage both earthly and 
heavenly, thus proclaiming filial love. 

The parent stem sending its life forces to the dependent 
fibres symbolizes parental love, both human and divine. 

While it draws its life from the earth, it also opens its tissues 
and drinks in the sunlight from above, thus teaching us to draw 
wisdom and power from both the earthly and the heavenly. 

Developing in all directions in symmetrical harmony, they 
teach us to grow broad in our culture and avoid one-sidedness of 
development. 

These are some of the leading instructions and moral bear- 



40 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



ings of the leaf, including the four great departments of love, 
which if carried out would convert the terrestrial into the celes- 
tial harmony. 

3. Again we may take the Sun as the parental center of the 
solar system, around which all its planets, moons, and comets re- 
volve with ceaseless harmony, ever receiving from and giving to 
each other, and we find the same divine lessons taught. 

4. Thus does every sun, and planet, and star, and leaf, and 
flower, and tree, and rainbow, and crystal, and all other unim- 
peded formations and growths of the whole universe, everlast- 
ingly proclaim these divine harmonies. Shall man ever remain 
blind and deaf and dumb with reference to them? 

5. The same beautiful harmonic relations should be exempli- 
fied in every family, every society, every community and every 
nation, with a balance of organization and individuality, and with 
every part working lovingly with every other part and yet main- 
taining individual freedom. 

6. The foregoing principle constitutes another proof of the 
absolute unity of all things, the spiritual and the material being 
irrevocably blended. 

XII. The Law of Perfection. 

Those objects present the highest perfection, other things being 
equal, which embody the greatest number of Harmonic Prin- 
ciples. 



1. Niagara Falls. This cataract is the admiration of the 
world. Why? It presents beautiful gradations of direction in 
the parabolic curves of water as it sweeps over the rocks; gra- 
dation of velocity from top to bottom, and gradation in the 
curves and hues of the rainbow which gilds the clouds of spray. 
It presents Contrasts of direction in the mad dash and whirl of 
waters, contrasts of rocks and water, contrasts of water in the 
sunlight and water in shadow, contrasts of white foam with the 
dark blue sheet before it becomes foam, contrasts of size in the 
great cliffs and water above with the depths below. The whole 
presents the analogical principle of continuous sublimity — sub- 
limity in the great rocks, the mighty currents, and a power 



THE LAW OF PERFECTION 



41 



which utters itself in thunder and shakes the earth. We see, 
then, every style of external harmony combined. 

2. The Human Head, being the culmination of the highest 
features of man, who is himself the culmination of nature, pre- 
sents the most wonderful combination of harmonic features. It 
has contrasts of size and direction in the upper and lower head, 
in the front and back head, in the hair and face, in the nose and 
cheeks, or forehead and cheeks, or chin and checks: it presents 
contrasts of color in the hair and face, or beard and face, in the 
pupil and white of the eye, etc.: it presents gradations of direc- 
tion in the exquisite curves everywhere present, as in the chin, 
lips, cheeks, eyes, eyebrows, nose, forehead, hair and whole 
head; and gradations of color in the cheeks progressing from 
the lily of the side cheeks to the rose in the center; and more 
or less of the same in the lips, eyes and hair: it presents ana- 
logical harmony of color in the face, eyes and hair, as when the 
hair is dark, the eyes and skin are apt to be dark also; and ana- 
logical harmony of form, as when one feature is bold and con- 
trasting, others are apt to be the same. More than this, the 
head is the center of the most marvelous possibilities of thought 
and deed, the brain being the head-quarters of those mental, 
passional and intuitional energies which change the face of the 
world and develop all harmonies; the vision being the mirror on 
which all harmonies of the outward world are painted, the vocal 
apparatus being the instrument for producing all harmonies of 
tone and sound, and the ear the instrument for taking cogni- 
zance of these harmonies. More than all this, there is a fine 
spiritual something that emanates from a peculiarly fine and ani- 
mated face which causes us to speak of it almost unconsciously 
as sparkling or radiant. The human head is the greatest center 
of perfections, then, because it embraces the greatest variety of 
harmonies. 

3. A Beautiful Human Form starts with the smallest num- 
ber of harmonies in infancy, and increases in its variety of per- 
fections until fully matured. The young babe (fig. 59) presents 
but little excepting gradation, and this in the form of rather stiff 
curves. Emma (fig. 57), who is a little older, shows a greater 
distinctness of chin and diversity of curves, Katie (fig. 58) 
shows still greater diversity of curves, and shows not only 



42 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



freer gradations than the others, but a fair amount of contrast, 
as the hair contrasts in form and color with the face, and the 
features are more prominent. In figures 60, 62, and 71, we have 
the mature form, and find not only more distinct contrasts, but 
more exquisite gradations of both form and color, and these har- 
monies extend to the bust and other parts of the system as well 
as to the head. Let the reader notice that there is a great con- 
trast in the size of the gradations in mature forms, but very lit- 
tle in quite young children, especially the curve of the cheek as 
compared with that of the chin, or the convex curve of the cheek 
as compared with the concave curve uniting the cheek and chin. 
In figures 57, 59, 89, and the small forms on the outer portions 
of fig. 61, this concave curve will be seen to be nearly as large 
as the convex curve forming the cheek itself, but notice the 
great change as the forms become more mature. 

4. Forms, Motions, etc. We see, then, that however beauty- 
ful or effective an object may become through gradation or con- 
trast alone, it attains to a still higher perfection when it com- 
bines both without violating analogical harmony, and a still 
higher perfection when it combines the harmonies of form, color, 
motion, etc., than when it combines only one department of har- 
mony. A rocket shot upward in the daytime is an uninterest- 
ing object compared with what it is at night, for in the daytime 
it makes a feeble gradation of form, of velocity, and of sound, 
while in a silent dark night these gradations are far more dis- 
tinct, and the contrast of brilliant lights and colors with the 
surrounding shadows, as well as of motions and sounds when 
the explosion takes place, gives it a tenfold charm. 

5. Landscape. The finest contrasts and gradations can be 
included in a single landscape, but analogical harmony requires 
that the two styles be not too much combined in the same place, 
as the graceful style in which curved walks and sweep of surface 
and round-topped trees abound, should not pass too abruptly 
into the picturesque style, in which cliffs, cascades, spiry-topped 
and jagged trees and similar contrasting features abound. A 
view, however, combining both styles of landscape is peculiarly 
charming. This may be illustrated by a sail down the Hudson, 
on the right side of which are mountains and Palisades, illustra- 
ting the picturesque and sublime, while on the left side are more 



THE LAW OF PERFECTION. 



43 



sloping banks, with mansions, lawns and parks, in harmony with 
the beautiful. 

6. Light, Shade, and Color. We have already seen how 
poor the effect in a cut like fig. 40, where contrast exists with- 
out gradation as compared with figures 38, 41, 70, etc., in which 
contrast and gradation are both combined. In a sunset sky we 
may see gorgeous contrasts of light and shade and color on the 
clouds, also exquisite gradations of the same progressing toward 
shadow from west to east, and analogical harmony ruling 
throughout. Is it not far superior to the shadowy sky of a 
thunder-storm, in which contrast alone rules? 

7. The Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, combine a great 







Fig. 96. The Aurora liurealis. 



variety of harmonic principles (fig. 96), such as a general arch- 
way, or gradation of direction, gradation of light and shade, gra- 
dation of velocities in the shooting lights, contrasts of light and 
shade, contrasts of direction, of color and of size, while a gen- 
eral law of analogy blends the whole in one. We may see just 
the reasons, then, for its being considered one of the most beau- 
tiful sights in nature. 

8. Architecture. It may rivet these great principles upon the 
reader's mind by showing how they may be applied to regulate 
architecture, an art of which even architects too often fail to un- 
derstand the spirit. Figures 97, 98, 99, 100, present the leading 



44 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



roofs of the world. The Oriental is the simplest and will an- 
swer for rainless climates; the Grecian, being an obtuse angle, 
has a little more decision and strength, and will shed rain, but 
is not so adapted to snow; the Gothic, being an acute angle, is 
the strongest and most spirited of all, and is adapted to snowy 




Fig. 97- 


Fig, 98. 


Fig. 99. 


Fig. 100. 


Grecian Roof. 


Gothic Roof. 


Chinese Roof. 


Oriental Roof 



regions, while the Chinese is the most graceful, but is weak. 
The dotted lines on the outside of fig. 98 show the modification 
of the Gothic, called the French or Mansard roof, and is espe- 
cially well adapted to residences. The dotted lines in fig. 99 
show a more graceful modification of the same, having both gra- 
dation and contrast, while the other has contrast mainly. Fig. 

101, shows a cottage in this style, 
which I have copied from Godey's 
Lady's Book. It is graceful and 
spirited. The dotted lines in the 
center of fig. 98 show how a spire 
is only a steeper Gothic roof. In 
the mere outlines of roofs, the 
Grecian has but a feeble contrast 
of direction and no gradation, the 
Gothic a spirited contrast, the 
Chinese both contrast and grada- 
tion, while the Oriental has a death-like unity, wholly lacking in 
diversity. The simplest form of a Greek building with its low 
roof and rectangular windows (fig. 82), has contrasts but no gra- 
dation. This, of course, was too unbeautiful for the finer build- 
ings, and so pillars, with their flutings and volutes and leaf-work 
added gradation, as did also the statuary and other sculptured 
forms which were placed under the roof. In the common Greek 
edifice contrast rules, and that of rather feeble character, al- 
though when modified, as in fig. 102, gradation and contrast are 
combined, with gradation and grace as the analogical feature. 




Fig. ioj. Cottage with Mansard Roof. 



THE LAW OF PERFECTION. 



45 




F15. 102. A Greek Portico. 



But the Greek style, although capable of much elegance in its 
simplicity by means of pillars and sculpture, is on the whole a 
feeble style, with its main lines horizontal and earthly, and 

poorly suited for religious or state 

edifices where majesty of spirit is 
required. The Gothic, on the con- 
trary, with its magnificent con- 
trasts of spires, turrets, pinnacles, 
buttresses, pointed arches and mas- 
sive towers, all heaven-pointing, 
softened down and refined by the 
most exquisite gradations of every 
kind, is the sublimest, strongest, 
most spirited and most expressive 
style of architecture that has thus 
far been devised by man. Its pin- 
nacles, with their bud-like finials, 
denote upward growth; its windows 
have leaf -like arches, unequaled for strength; its vaulted ceilings, 
sustained by pillars which branch off like trees, are built seem- 
ingly for eternity, while in every di- 
rection the curved flower and leaf- 
work proclaim nature as the divine 
model which it aims to copy. Fig. 
103 gives a portion of a fine Gothic 
edifice which is a celebrated seat of 
learning. It shows a variety of con- 
trasts of height, of direction, of size, 
of light and shadow, as well as various 
gradations of size and direction, and 
an admirable analogical harmony in 
the midst of its great diversity. The 
spirit of the Gothic style is to "beau- 
tify utility," as Pugin expresses it; for 
when it ornaments such features as 
pointed arches, buttresses, and even 
towers and pinnacles, it deals with 
that which is eminently strength-giv- 
ing, whereas when the Grecian style Fi s 




46 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



rears its immense columns and lofty porticos, it works for mere 
display, for these columns are useless in protecting either from 
the storm or from too great heat of the sun. The Gothic Archi- 
tecture is sometimes called Christian, from its heaven-pointing 
style, but as other religions also aspire after divinity and heaven, 
they have an equal right to it, especially as the Mohammedans 
are known to have used the pointed arch and upward aspiring 
minarets in A.D. 780, or something like four centuries before 
the Gothic was adopted by Christians. Figures 104 and 105 




Fi'4. 104. FJg. 10;. 

Kuins near the Taj Mahal, Agra. 



represent old Mohammedan ruins in Asia, in which the pointed 
and upright features appear in many of the windows as well as 
minarets, domes, etc. This style is sometimes called Arabic, 
Moorish, or Oriental, and finds its analogical feature in curva- 
ure and grace rather than in the contrasts and power character- 
stic of the Gothic. The most gorgeous specimen of architec- 
ture in the world is to be seen in the wonderful palace of the old 
Moorish Monarchs in Spain, called the Alhambra. Although 
both the Moorish and Gothic architecture combine all principles 
of harmony, yet the greater strength and spiritedness of the 
Gothic must give it the verdict of superiority. 

In figures 106-110, I have given a glimpse of some notable 
domes and towers. Domes, towers, spires, turrets, pinnacles, 
and minarets are among the leading methods of producing the 
effect of loftiness, grandeur and spiritedness in a building, and 
sometimes, as when there are Gothic or Roman arches with 
keystones, their weight gives stability to the walls and firmness 
to the arches. The United States Capitol, at Washington, has 



THE LAW OF PERFECTION. 



47 



a dome which ranks among the great ones of the world, but de- 
pends upon gradation almost wholly for its effect. The Hotel 
des Invalides, Paris (fig. 107), adds to its gradations those angu- 
lar and projecting forms which give contrast, while the new Con- 
necticut State House dome, at Hartford (Fig. 108), becomes 
still more spirited in its fine contrasts and still more elegant in 
in its gradations of size and direction than either of the others. 
It has a form which is a transition from the dome to the tower. 
Fig. 109, is the central tower of the magnificent New York State 
capitol at Albany, and although an elaborate piece of architect- 
ture, it is built in the renaissance style and hardly knows whether 
to assume the spirited combinations of the Gothic or the tamer 
grace of the Roman arch system, or the pediments and horizon- 




Fi;4. 106. Fitj. 107. Dome Fig, 10S. Fie;. io 9- Centra! Fig. no. Tower 

Dome of Capitol of Hotel des Inva- Conn. State Tower of the N. of Memorial Hall, 
at Washington. lides, Paris. House. Y. State House. Harvard University. 



tal lines of the Greek architecture, and thus must be pronounced 
deficient in individuality and analogical harmony. Not so with 
the Gothic tower of the Memorial Hall of Harvard University 
(Fig. 110), which is one of the finest styles of architecture in the 
country, spirited in its angles, colors and forms and yet refined 
in its gradations. It borrows some of its refinement from the 
Mansard Gothic. Fig. Ill, from the same building, has much of 
the effectiveness of a spire and yet simplicity of style and a cer- 
tain analogical harmony with the roof, of which it seems to be an 
outgrowth. Fig. 112 is one of the spirited and elegant side 
towers of the Connecticut State House. Figures 113, 114, are 
graceful and effective portions of the gateway of Greenwood 
Cemetery, Brooklyn, the latter of which shows how a gable can 
grow into a spire-like form and how the rudeness of a sharp 



18 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



angle can be softened by curvature. Fig. 115 is a ventilator, 
and gives more variety of effect to the top of a building. Fig. 
116 is the top of Bunker Hill Monument, a great rude, meaning- 
less heap of stones, devoid of beauty, or soul, or harmonic prin- 
ciples — simply one of the "bignesses," as Isaac Newton would 
say, quite unworthy of the cultured taste of Boston. "But this 
elaborate work, this beauty, costs money which should be taken 
to feed and clothe the poor," is the common remark. To these 
superficial utilitarians to whom the bread-and-butter side of life 
is the chief object of existence, I would like to make a remark as 
we pass. Suppose that in the place of this rude mass, an object 
of beauty and inspiration had been reared, that scenes expres- 
sing high aspiration and self-sacrifice and grand achievement had 
been sculptured on its sides in a way to last a thousand years, 
so that millions of people should cast their admiring gaze upon it 




Fig. 


Fig, Fig. 


Fig. 


Fig. 


St 


Fig. 


Fig. 


Fig. 


Fig. 


Fig. 


Fig 


in. 


ii2. 113. 


114. 


"5- 


ii 7. 


118. 


119. " 


120. 


i2i. 


1 22. 



and drink in its lessons, would it not tend to lift multitudes above 
the gross appetites and sensualities of life to such an extent that 
it would save them from a large amount of poverty and degrada- 
tion? Fig. 117, the Washington Monument, is better, but is far 
from what it should be. Fig. 1 18 is the tower of the University of 
Toronto, and although the body of the tower is not very spirited, 
the round pointed turret at the corner adds greatly to its effect and 
forms a contrast with it. Fig. 119 is the picturesque tower of 
the Masonic Temple in Philadelphia, which, though possessing 
some very pretty lines of gradation, has contrast and power as its 
leading spirit. Fig. 120 is a castellated tower, and stands rather 
low on the harmonic scale, as it is totally lacking in gradation 
and is consequently rude. Fig. 121 is a portion of the cottage 
residence of Thomas W. Ludlow, Esq., near Yonkers, and will 
show how chimneys and bay-windows, and roofs and verge-boards, 
and wings may serve to destroy the box-like character of a 



ADAPTATION OR FITNESS. 



49 



house and give pleasing contrasts of light, shade, size and direc- 
tion. Fig. 122 shows the form of buttresses which give so 
much strength and picturesqueness to the walls of a Gothic 
building. Fig. 123 is the Oriental or Moorish horse-shoe arch, 
which although having a variety of contrasts in the way of straight 
lines and angles, has gradation as its leading spirit. Fig. 124 
has also gradation as its predominating influence, although the 
acute angle at the top gives a spirited contrast. These ogee 
curves are simply lines of beauty, and although they form a most 
elegant arch, still they are less strong than that of the ordin- 
ary Gothic window. It is much used also in Oriental architec- 
ture. Figures 125 and 126 have both styles of harmony, but 
contrast and power seem to be their leading analogical spirit 
instead of gradation, as in the other two. Fig. 127, which I have 




Fig. 123. 
Moorish Arch. 



Fig. 124. 
Ogee Gothic Arch. 



Fig. 125. Fig. 126. 

Perpendicular Gothic. Gothic Gable. 



taken from Harper's Monthly, is entitled a "Newport Cottage." 
It is full of the spirited lines of contrast and yet has some very 
graceful gradations, especially in the little spire at the left, and 
the curved line under the roof. The little spires give a brisk 
and aspiring effect to the building without resembling a church 
spire, and the many angles cause a diversity of light and shade 
which form a general unity of spirit in contrast. 

XIII. Adaptation or Fitness. 



I. Adaptation of means to ends is a law of universal nature. 
We have seen that the unimpeded growth of nature is always 
according to harmonic principles, but there are times when great 
utilities demand the temporary suspension of these and the use 
for the time being of seeming or even real discords. The earth- 
quake is very terrific and temporarily disastrous, but it brings 



50 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



about the equilibrium of the earth's internal forces, brings the 
interior riches of the mineral kingdom to the surface, and gives 
to man the charms of mountain and valley where otherwise would 
be a dead level. 

2. In the process of Human Development also nature has 
rendered labor, effort and conflict an absolute necessity by leaving 
more or less of swamps and forests to be reclaimed, homes to be 
built, fields to be tilled and boundless realms of knowledge to be 
sought out, without which man would become utterly weak and 
worthless from inaction, and really be far more miserable. 

3. Suffering has also its divine mission, 1st, as a result of vio- 
lated law and a warning against such violation; 2dly, it gives dis- 

""" -- i 




Fig. 127. A Newport Cottage. 



cipline, heroism and self-command when rightly improved; 3dly, 
it is nature's process of purification as in the case of disease; 
4thly, it calls out human love for the unfortunate, the divinest of 
qualities, and 5thly, it answers as a shadow to reveal by con- 
trast the real sunshine of life; in other words, when perchance- 
through severe experiences, blunders and struggles we have at- 
tained to the knowledge and wisdom which will do away with the 
necessity of so much suffering, our real joy and power will be 
greater than it otherwise would have been. It is the duty of the 
community, however, to elevate society by correct knowledge 



ADAPTATION OR FITNESS. 



51 



and equitable laws into so true and wise a life that they shall not 
need so much severe suffering to make them live rightly, while 
they will find their happiness in performing voluntary labor, 
instead of their misery in doing that which is forced upon them. 

4. Thus we see that Absolute Evil does not exist, the universe 
being under the reign of divine law, while all seeming evils are 
but adaptations to some high end. Are fire and water innately 
bad because they sometimes destroy life? Is society fundament- 
ally bad because much selfishness and crime occur in its midst? 
Is man necessarily evil because like an unripe apple he may as 
yet be in his crude, sour state? Have we not seen that all na- 
tural growth is on the law of perfection, all things bearing the 
stamp of divinity? Let us not indulge in the superficiality of pes- 
simism then, but remember that harmony itself sometimes be- 
comes more effective by the temporary suspension of harmony, 
especially when some good end is sought. The great masters in 
music sometimes introduce discord to heighten some after effect, 
and at times discordant or rude combination of colors are allowed 
by the greatest artists for the purpose of expression. "Great 
art," says Ruskin, "dwells on all that is beautiful; but false art 
omits or changes all that is ugly. Great art accepts nature as 
she is; but directs the eyes and thoughts to what is most perfect 
in her; false art saves itself the trouble of direction by removing 
or altering whatever it thinks objectionable. Beauty deprived of 
its proper foils and adjuncts, ceases to be enjoyed as beauty, just 
as light deprived of all shadow ceases to be enjoyed as light. A 
white canvass cannot produce an effect of sunshine; the painter 
must darken it in some places before he can make it look lu- 
minous in others; nor can an uninterrupted succession of beauty 
produce the true effect of beauty; it must be foiled by inferiority 
before its own power can be developed. Nature has for the most 
part mingled her inferior and nobler elements as she mingles 
sunshine with shade, giving due use and influence to both, and 
the painter who chooses to remove the shadow, perishes in the 
burning desert he has created."*. 

5. Nature does not employ beauty so incessantly as to destroy 
adaptation and utility. A clear sun is beautiful, and yet if we had 
not the soft shadows of night and occasional clouds and storms, 



*Modern Painters, by John Ruskin, M.A., Vol. III. p. 34. 



52 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



the earth would soon become parched and destroyed. But even 
in the storm, spirited elements of harmony and sublimity are 
brought into action. 

6. In the Human Form, curvature is especially harmonious 
and consistent with its yielding nature. A circular building, 
however, is not pleasing for a residence, first, because it lacks in 
fitness for the utilites of home life; and secondly, straight lines 
and angles, softened down perhaps with ornamental lines of cur- 
vature, harmonize well with the natural decision of the building 
materials themselves. Some have been so foolish as to suggest 
that buildings should resemble the human form. 

7. The ouside of a building should be more sober in its tints 
than the inside; first, because a white or nearly white building 
dazzles and burns the person approaching; 2dly, the subdued 
light of the interior can better tolerate light-colored walls; and 
3dly, artificial light becomes more brilliant when the walls are 
not sombre. 

8. Brilliant Colors are more admissible in theatres than in 
churches, and yet the cultivated human mind requires that gau- 
diness shall not rule in the former nor gloom in the latter. To 
those who look upon the severe side of God's character and con- 
sider that a majority of the human race are in danger of ever- 
lasting destruction, life and death become awfully solemn, and 
only dimly lighted cathedrals, with silent tread of worshipers 
and the predominance of dark grays and browns would be con- 
sidered in correct taste. 

9. In Dress, health requires that one's clothing should not be 
uniformly black, and analogical harmony requires that an elderly 
lady should dress in more subdued colors than a young girl. As 
to the sexes, woman, belonging to the graceful side of nature, in 
which gradation rules, sees intuitively that delicately tinted and 
yielding skirts, hanging in curves around her, are far more appro- 
priate than the stiff bifurcated garments of men; while men, de- 
cided and strong in their style, dress more on the plan of con- 
trast, parting their hair on one side, training their beards, which 
contrast with the color of the face, and having mainly the simple 
contrast of black and white around the neck and bosom. Woman 
loves to wear and man loves to see her wear, more ringlets, curls 
or flowing forms of the hair, and more ornamental forms and 



TRUTH. 



53 



colors than is generally, becoming to the other sex. But taste 
and utility demand that her skirts shall be long enough to be 
flowing and protective to her limbs, and yet not long enough to 
become darkened with dust or interfere with a graceful gait, 
while health imperatively demands that all compression of the 
waist or feet, all large foreign masses of hair to heat the brain, 
and all abdominal pressure of skirts should be forever banished. 
Does not beauty of form and grace of motion demand the same 
things? 

XIV. Truth. 

Truth and conformity to law are universal in nature. 



1. Nature is ever true to herself and all her great principles 
of harmony and adaptation. Were her laws of repulsion and 
attraction to be changed for one moment, the whole universe 
would become a mass of ruins. Nature does not pretend to be 
what she is not, and holds up her swamps and deserts as freely 
to the sunlight as she does her sublimest landscapes. The light- 
ning does not pretend to have the gracefulness of the rainbow, 
nor the rainbow the power of the lightning, nor the little stream 
the majesty of the great river, and yet all perform their especial 
work with unchanging faithfulness. 

2. Light is the greatest truth-teller in the outward universe, 
flashing forth by means of its reflections the forms and colors 
of all nature, and by aid of the spectroscope giving a minute 
analysis of all elements. "God is truth and light is his shadow," 
was the well-known expression of Plato. Even in the case of a 
mirage, where distant objects are seen double, there is nothing 
but the strictest truth to nature's forces, the wonderful diversity 
of which simply causes a reflection in unexpected places. 

3. "There is never vulgarity in a whole truth," says Ruskin. 
The whole atmosphere and sky and ocean are transparent media 
for conveying truth. Human eyes are mirrors to receive all 
truths of form and color, human ears sounding-boards for re- 
ceiving the truths of tone, and the organs of smell, taste and 
sensation are constituted to perceive other styles of truth. It is 
of supreme importance that we should perceive and proclaim 



51 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



exact truth. "One of the sublimest things in the whole world," 
says Bulwer, "is plain truth." Every author's pen, every artist's 
pencil, every orator's tongue, every power of genius and states- 
manship should work in harmony with all truth, which is the only 
pathway of safety, while error is not only the pathway of danger 
but of deformity. 

4. Human Nature naturally scorns falsehood in principle, and 
yet prejudice, early training, psychological bias received from sur- 
rounding influences, theological ruts, medical ruts, political ruts, 
social ruts, all worn so deep by long use that small men getting into 
them cannot see out, or get out, have tended to lead into dark- 
ness and mar the heavenly image of truth. Why is man thus 
behind external nature in his development? Because he is the 
last and highest phase of nature and has not yet reached his true 
moral and spiritual era of unfoldment. It may require a century 
to build a great cathedral, while a cottage could be finished in a 
month; in the same way it may require a thousand centuries to 
perfect the mental and moral structure of man, which is so vast 
in its possibilities as to take hold almost upon infinity, while the 
processes of evolution could develop the simpler external phases 
of nature in a vastly shorter time, just as it took millions of years 
to develop a mammal after a mollusk had been perfected. 

XV. Refinement of Material. 

Other things being equal, substances are exquisite, penetrating, 
powerful, and enduring in their effect in proportion as they are 
refined and subtile. 



I. Nature is full of proofs of this law; but I must treat it only 
briefly here. The grossest form of water is Ice. A more re- 
fined form is ordinary Water, and this, when put in motion, can 
sweep away houses, forests and rocks. A still more refined form 
is steam, which is about 1700 times as light as water, and its tre- 
mendous power in driving the most ponderous machinery is well 
known. A grade of power vastly finer than steam is Electricity, 
and this, uniting with steam far down in the bowels of the earth, 
will at times blow the mountains asunder and cause half a con- 
tinent to tremble. Having reached electricity, we have found a 



refinement of material. 



55 



principle so fine that it can penetrate more or less well all tan- 
gible substances. 

2. Of the exquisiteness and amazing power of Light, dem- 
onstrations will be given hereafter. 

3. Finer than any of these is the Attraction of Gravitation, 
which, according to the demonstration of La Place, moves mil- 
lions of times as swiftly as light, and yet is so mighty as to float 
all worlds on its breath and so exquisitely gentle as to yield to a 
mote in the sunbeam. 

4. The explanation of those wonderful Soul- emanations which 
are the quickening power of mentality and by means of which 
man is enabled to move outward and measure and weigh suns 
and systems and to look inward upon a still mightier psychic 
world, I must reserve for the tenth chapter of this work and for 
a future work. A single example may be given here to illustrate 
this law. 

5. The coarsest grade of heat is the form of Ordinary Fire, 
or heated metals. A person may warm himself by this, and he 
will often feel weak and tender afterward by the means. If 
he warm himself by heat from the sun, which is a grade finer, he 
finds it less weakening and more enduring. If he warm himself 
by exercise or by manipulation from some warm magnetic hand, 
not only are the lower animal but the higher psychic forces put 
more or less into action, and he may become permanently warmer 
and stronger. Thus are the fine forces more safe, powerful, ex- 
quisite and enduring than the coarser forces of the outward 
world, such as ordinary heat, mineral drugs, etc. Their effect on 
mental action is also much more direct and potent. The great 
healing power of colors will be treated of in the chapter on 
Chromo-Therapeutics. This principle is modified somewhat by 
the next. 



56 HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 

XVI. Gradation of Instrumentalities. 

Force is exerted through a gradation of instrumentalities, the gen- 
eral law of positive power being that a coarse element is acted 
on or quickened by one which is finer, this again by one which 
is still finer, and so on. 

1. Thus in the human system the bones are wielded by the 
muscles, which are a grade more subtile; the muscles by the 
nerves and blood, which are still finer; the nerves and blood are 
vitalized and controlled by still finer animal and psychic forces, 
and these again by spirit, which is inconceivably fine. 

2. The fine forces constitute positive principles of power, 
while the coarser forces are the negative and reactive principles. 
It is impossible for one grade of force to control directly another 
which is too much below it in fineness or in turn be controlled 
by it, any more than meal could be retained by a coal-sieve. 
Grosser elements may have a reflex influence upon the finer, 
somewhat as the body may re-act upon the mind by having its 
cruder elements influence those less crude, and these again, those 
which are still less crude until the mind itself is affected. This 
is a great negative law of power, and we must not fall into a very 
common error that all power lies with spirit, regardless of coarser 
re-active elements. 

3. Some of the Leading Gradations in Nature are given in 
Fig. 128, commencing at the outside and progressing in fineness 
inward until we reach Spirit, which is the positive principle of 
all power. The finer forces radiate their power through the 
whole circle of elements and forces, each force passing more or 
less through those which are coarser than itself, but more imme- 
diately as a general thing, through the next grade of coarseness, 
while this again permeates that which is still coarser and so on. 
Thus Spirit gives life to the very finest ethers or Spiritual Forces; 
these vitalize still coarser ethers, such perhaps as Electricity, 
Light, etc.; these latter kindle up the gases and the liquids, 
while they again permeate and perhaps dissolve the Solids. 
Thus nature ever works on the law of Gradation, even sometimes 
when it does not seem to do so. I 

4. The Foregoing Principles include the outlines of the science 



GRADATION OF INSTRUMENTALITIES. 



57 



of harmony and power in nature; also the central law, which 
shows that unity and diversity must be combined, and that on 
the law of progression, or contrast, or both. I have given them 
so that if possible we may at last get down to the basic prin- 
ciples of things in connection with light and color. Nature is a 
divine guide if we apprehend its teachings rightly, but it is sad to 
see how it is misunderstood. Prof. Taylor Lewis* says that 




Fi". 128. Gradation of Elements and Forces. 

"if we obey nature it follows that an act of self-sacrifice would 
be as foolish as it is sinful and unnatural. It would be a viola- 
tion of nature's grand law." Is not this a slander upon nature? 
My readers have seen how all natural growth over the whole 
world exemplifies paternal love, filial love and fraternal love. 
More than that, the course of nature is an endless series of sacrifices 
of lower conditions for the sake of introducing higher ones, of lower 
animal and vegetable life that a higher grade of existence might 



*Since writing the above, this able writer has deceased. 



58 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



take place, and sometimes of cities, islands and seas by an earth- 
quake in order that terrestial harmony may be established. The 
greatest universal sacrifice is that of human life for the higher 
life to come. 

Having established the general principles of harmony, I will 
now notice their more direct application to colors. 

XVII. Division of Colors. 

1. Historical Note. In 1672, Isaac Newton published his 
theory that the ordinary white light of the sun consists of differ- 
ent colors possessing different degrees of refrangibility. Still 
earlier, however, in 1611, Antonio De Dominis had used the fol- 
lowing words: — "Colors arise out of light: of this I have no 
doubt; nay, they are only light itself."* Isaac Newton adopted 
the seven-fold division of colors as seen in the rainbow and still 
more distinctly in the solar spectrum, namely the red, orange, 
yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Sir David Brewster con- 
sidered the red, yellow and blue as the three fundamental colors 
out of which all other colors are made; but Helmholz has shown 
that each color of the spectrum is formed by its own independent 
law of vibrations, which is incapable of subdivision, and that there 
is no overlapping of certain colors to make an intermediate color, 
as red and yellow to produce orange, yellow and blue to produce 
green, etc. 

2. When the reader comes to see how colors are produced, 
he will understand that there are not only seven colors in the 
sunlight which are uncombined with others, but many times 
seven. Fig. 129 will show how light is brought into a dark room 
by a very narrow opening and by means of a prism scattered into 
its separate parts, or colors which fall upon a screen in an oblong 
rainbow-colored form called the solar spectrum, the red being 
refracted least and the violet most from a straight line. Suppose 
we make an opening in the screen at the point where the orange 
strikes it and then pass this orange ray through another prism 
behind the screen, will it be decomposed into the two colors yel- 
low and red? No; it will remain exactly as it was before, thus 
showing that it is a primitive and indivisible ray. This is not 



*De Radiis Visus et Lucis, 1611. 



DIVISION OF COLORS. 



59 



saying that orange cannot be made by means of red and yellow 
pigments, but that it is not so constituted in the sunlight. 

3. Sound and Color compared: There is no harm in dividing 
the colors into seven divisions on the Newtonian plan. In fact 
it is rather a good division and harmonizes with the seven notes of 
the musical scale, C, D, E, F, G, A, B; C answering to red, D to 
orange, etc. As C is at the bottom of the musical scale and made 
with the coarsest waves of air, so is red at the bottom of the Chro- 
matic scale and made with the coarsest waves of luminous ether. 
As the musical note B requires 45 vibrations of air every time 
the note C at the lower end of the scale requires 24, or but little 




Fig. 129. Decomposition of Light by the Prism. 

over half as many, so does extreme violet require about 800 tril- 
lions * of vibrations of ether in a second, while extreme red re- 
quires only about 450 trillions, which also are but little more 
than half as many. When one musical octave is finished an- 



*In speaking of numbers I adopt the French method of enumeration of three 
figures to a period, usually adopted in America, instead of the more cumbrous 
English method of six figures to a period, so that when I say 800 trillions I mean 
800,000,000,000,000. What we would call one billion the English would designate 
by the more complicated expression one thousand millions, etc. 



60 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



other one commences and progresses with just twice as many 
vibrations as were used in the first octave, and so the same notes 
are repeated on a finer scale. In the same way when the scale 
of colors visible to the ordinary eye is completed in the violet, an- 
other octave of finer invisible colors, with just twice as many vi- 
brations, will commence and progress on precisely the same law, 
as will be demonstrated in the chapter on Chromo-Chemistry. 
The shortest atmospheric waves that ordinary ears can take cog- 
nizance of before the tones become too shrill to be perceived, are 
about three and a third inches in length, while the shortest violet 
waves, the effect of which can be perceived by ordinary external 
vision, are 100,000 times as short, as it requires 60,000 vibra- 
tions, or in other words, 30,000 complete waves of such color 
to make one inch in length. The longest waves of air which 
can be perceived as sound by human ears are about 70 feet in 
length, which constitues the lowest bass notes, while the longest 
complete waves of ether which can be received into human eyes 
as color, would require some 17,000 to 18,000 to an inch, or not 
far from fifteen million times as many as the largest waves of 
sound require. Does this prove that the eye is capable of re- 
ceiving impulses of force millions of times as exquisite as those 
received by the ear? By no means, as a far more refined force 
than mere waves of air must necessarily work in connection with 
them. (See Chap. Eighth, VII., 4). Will it be answered that light 
moves 186,000 miles a second while sound moves through the air 
at the rate of only 1,100 feet a second? But the fine principle of 
sound can be made to move as swiftly as light by aid of a proper 
conductor, as shown by the telephone, which has lately been made 
to carry the human voice on wings of electricity entirely un- 
aided by any magnet or electrical machine. A seeming advan- 
tage in favor of sound is that ordinary human ears can distin- 
guish from nine to eleven octaves of musical tones while ordin- 
ary vision cannot perceive quite one octave of colors, in fact can 
take in only the seven Newtonian notes, or a septave. This 
would seem to show that human evolution has not yet reached 
so far into the refined elements of vision as it has into the coarser 
ones of sound, all development reaching coarser elements before 
they attain to the finer. While the seven color arrangement is 
convenient for some purposes, we may also have a still more funda- 



A TRIAD OF SECONDARY COLORS. 



61 



mental classification of only three colors to match the three 
fundamental notes in the musical scale, the first, third and fifth. 
Some trinal divisions of colors will simplify matters to the 
reader's mind and will now be given, although as will be seen 
hereafter a division of fourteen primary color rays would seem to 
conform to the law of chemical and molecular forces. 

XVIII. — Triad of Primary Colors. 

A few words may be appropriate as to the threefold division 
of representative Colors. We have. 

Red, an exciting color at nearly the centre of heat. 

Yellow, the medium color and centre of luminosity. 

Blue, a fine color which is cold, soothing, electrical. 

Practically all colors can be made out of these or could be if 
we could get a supply of the invisible red to assist in forming 
violet and indigo and could find pigments of absolutely pure red, 
yellow and blue. We have also 

XIX. — A Triad of Secondary Colors. 

Orange composed of equal parts of red and yellow. 
Green " " blue and yellow. 

Purple " " blue and red. 

XX. — A Triad of Achromatic or Neutral Colors. Pl. II, 4. 



Black composed of equal parts of red, yellow and blue. 

White composed of five parts of red, three parts of yellow, 
and eight parts of blue. 

Gray {normal gray), composed of black and white 

This is given from the formula of eminent artists and would 
seem to prove that after all "black is white, and white is black," 
but not quite. It cannot be verified entirely in practice from 
the impurity of pigments. When we call them neutral we mean 
neutral, chromatically speaking, as they have no especial hues, 
but white is the most positive of all colors as to luminosity. 
The folly of calling black the absence of colors is now done away 
with among the intelligent, although it is really caused by the 
absorption of all colors. Normal gray is the most neutral of all 
colors and does not make discord with any. 



62 HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 

XXI. — A Triad of Primary Grays. 

Red Gray, or Russet, composed of normal gray and red. 
Yellow Gray, or Citrine, of normal gray and yellow. 
Blue Gray, or Olive, of normal gray and blue. 

XXII. — A Triad of Secondary Grays. 

Orange Gray, composed of normal gray and orange. 
Green Gray, " " " green. 

Purple Gray, " " " purple. 

Orange Gray and Red Gray are sometimes called brown. 

XXIII. — Trinal Division of Tints and Shades. 

1st. Light tints of a color in which some white is introduced, 
as light yellow, light, blue, light green, light gray, light green- 
gray, light blue-gray, etc. 

2d. Medium grades of color; such as ordinary yellow, pur- 
ple, red-gray, green-gray, etc. 

3d. Dark Shades of Color, in which some black is intro- 
duced, as dark yellow, dark blue, dark green, dark red, dark gray, 
dark red-gray, etc. These are said to have a lower tone. 

XXIV. — Trinal Division of Hues. 

The three basic colors, red, yellow and blue, should have a 
definite meaning and for this reason it is not so correct to say 
green-blue, orange-red or green-yellow, as it is to say blue-green, 
red-orange, yellow-green, for the great central colors are not to 
bend to the secondaries but the secondaries to them. From 
the imperfection of language, however, we sometimes are forced 
to say reddish-blue, yellowish-blue, bluish-red, etc., and by these 
terms we mean blue with a very slight tint of red, blue with a 
slight tint of yellow, red with a slight tint of blue, etc. A 
general threefold division of the secondaries may be made as 
follows: 

Orange, combination of red and yellow. 

Red-Orange, red and yellow combined, with red in excess. 

Yellow-Orange, red and yellow combined, with yellow in 
excess. 



NOMENCLATURE of colors. 



63 



Green, combination of yellow and blue. 

Yellow-Green, yellow and blue, with yellow in excess. 

Blue-Green, yellow and blue, with blue in excess. 

Purple, combination of red and blue. 

Blue-Purple, red and blue, with blue in excess. 

Red-Purple, red and blue, with red in excess. 
For further study of the colors see plate II., i, in which the 
part of purple nearest the blue is blue-purple, that nearest the 
red is red-purple, that between these points near the periphery is 
deep medium purple, that near the centre, light purple, and so 
with the other hues, which may also be represented in fig. 3 
of same plate. As I have said violet cannot be exactly repre- 
sented by any two pigments combined, but I have had a blue- 
purple placed on the plate as the nearest representation of the 
violet. 

XXV. — Nomenclature of Colors. 



1 . We have thus a very simple and yet comprehensive nomen- 
clature of colors by means of which we may use precision of 
expression on this subject, a thing in which scientists them- 
selves are somewhat deficient. For instance if we take dif- 
ferent color combinations in which red is used, we have such 
terms as reddish black, dark red-gray, red-gray (russet), light 
red-gray, red, light red, very light red or pink, reddish white, 
red-orange, red-purple, reddish-blue, reddish-yellow, red with a 
very slight tint of blue, as in carmine or crimson, light red-orange, 
dark red orange, orange, yellow-orange, light orange, dark 
orange, orange gray, light orange-gray, dark orange-gray, pur- 
ple, light purple, dark purple, purple-gray, light purple-gray, 
dark purple-gray, etc. These are some of the terms which in- 
clude more or less of red, and the other colors can be varied on 
the same principle. 

2. The chromatic hues consist of the primary and secondary 
colors, and also appear more dimly in the primary and second- 
dary grays, etc. The achromatic or neutral colors include the 
black, gray and white. Some choose to give the combination of 
two secondaries the name of tertiaries; thus, for instance, green 
and purple are said to form the tertiary olive or blue gray. But 



64 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



other method which I have adopted is much simpler, and 
amounts to the same thing, thus: — 



Blue, 

Red, 

, Ycllov, , 
Green = >, I 

Blue. ) 



Purple- j Red> , (= Blue-Gray. 

\ Yellow, V = Gray. ' 



v_ 



In other words, purple and green include the three primaries 
and blue besides, and as the three primaries when combined in 
a certain way make gray, it would have been much simpler to 
have said in the first place that blue-gray is formed by combin- 
ing blue and gray, as signified by the name itself. In the same 
way green and orange form yellow-gray; orange and purple, 
red-gray. 

XXVI. — Triad of Colors, Tones and Forms. 

Before proceeding to illustrate harmony of colors, let us 
pause a moment to notice a threefold arrangement also in sounds 
and forms. The delightful tri-chord in music, called the triad, 
consists really of the leading fundamental sounds, by modifying 
which all music is formed. This, however, is well understood 
and I will dwell briefly on the triad of leading forms, the train- 
gle, the hexagon, and the circle. The triangle, like the red color 
to which it answers, is bold and stimulating and the coarsest of 
forms, as that is the coarsest of colors. The circle, answering 
to the blue color, and the type of all curvature, is soothing and 
fine in its degrees, while the hexagon, like the yellow color, is the 
medium between extremes. The triangle abounds in spirited, 
hard, crystallic substance, such as the diamond, zinc -blende, mag- 
netic iron ore, fluor-spar, topaz, arragonite, and various octahe- 
drons and rhomboidal forms. The hexagon is doubtless the 
most admirable of all angular forms, combining spiritedness of 
angles with regularity of contour, a character which is lacking in 
triangles and octagons. Hence it is a favorite form in nature, 
being found in honeycombs, crystal of quartz, ice, calcareous 
spar, beryl, apatite, snow-crystals, which are either hexagonal or 
at least arranged in six divisions, cellular tissues in many vege- 
table and some animal growths, etc. The circle and the blue 
color, which it matches, are found beautifully combined in the sky 



HARMONY OF GRADATION IN COLORS. 



65 



which is nature's representative dome, and the infinitude of 
starry worlds, including our sun, which beautify its expanse, are 
also mainly on the plan of the sphere which includes an infinity 
of circles. As the triangles and other angular forms of which 
it is the type belong more to hardness, spiritedness and power, 
so does the circle and other curved forms of which it is the type 
deal with softness, gentleness and grace, as with the sky, the hu- 
man form and all worlds, which last were soft when they as- 
sumed their spherical shape. In this it is matched by the blue 
color again, which stands at the refined end of the scale, and 
prevails in the soft depths of the sky, the ocean and the whole 
world of foliage, although the foliage combines yellow with the 
blue, and presents an infinitude of curvature. The violet would 
naturally be represented by the oval, which is more exquisite than 
the circle, and this oval must approach more and more nearly to 
points, one at the small end and two at the large end, in pro- 
portion, as it becomes extreme and draws near to the red of a 
higher scale of colors. 

XXVII. — Harmony of Gradation in Colors. 

1. Having now seen the parallelism and the unity which 
exist through the great departments of nature, and some of the 
beautiful progressions and contrasts by means of which this unity 
is enriched by diversity, let us now apply these principles more 
directly to light and color. First, then, we will look at gradation, 
or the law of gentle progression. 

2. The achromatic gradation between black and white con- 
stitutes different degrees of normal gray as in fig. 130. 



Very Dark Cray. Dark Gray. 



(il i; 



Light Gray , Very Light Cray. 




Fig. ij°- Gradation of Normal Gray. 



3. A Gradation of Chromatic Grays may be seen beautifully 
developed in plate I. Fig. I in the centre is white; 2 is a light 
normal gray; 3 is the circle of light chromatic grays, such as 



66 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



light yellow-gray, light yellow-green-gray, light green-gray, light 
blue-green gray, light blue-gray, light blue-purple or violet-gray, 
light purple-gray, light red-purple gray, light red-gray, light red, 
orange gray, light orange-gray, and light yellow-orange gray, 
which completes the circle; 4 is the circle of medium grays, as 
yellow-gray, yellow-green gray, green gray, etc., around the circle 
as before; 5 is the circle of dark grays, such as dark yellow-gray, 
dark yellow green gray, dark green gray, etc. The dark orange 
and red gray are often called browns. These grays form ex- 
quisite colors for buildings, for ladies dresses, etc. 

4. By looking at the inner circular portion of Plate II., grada- 
tion of form in the shape of the circle will be seen, within which 
gradation of hues extending around the circle is given, as also 
gradation of tints in which the colors fade away into the light as 
they move inward towards the star. Let us notice these grada- 
tions more minutely. 

1st, we have Gradation o/direction in the circle. 

2d, Gradation of Hues in the following order: red, red- 
orange, orange, yellow-orange, yellow, yellow-green, green, blue- 
green, blue, blue-purple, purple, red-purple. 

3d, Gradation of Tints and Shades as deep red, medium 
red, light red or pink, deep orange, orange, light orange, deep 
yellow, yellow, light yellow, etc. 

XXVIII. — Gradation of Color in the Spectrum. 



1. When the sunlight passes through a slit leading into a 
darkened room, and then through a triangular piece of glass 
called a prism, as in fig. 129, the rays of light are separated by 
refraction into their constituent colors on the same plan as in 
the rainbow, and fall in an oblong figure upon the opposite wall. 
This oblong combination of colors is called the Solar Spectrum 
(see Plate I.), and being nature's direct arrangement should be 
well studied in this and suceeding chapters, as laws of vast im- 
portance will be found in connection therewith. Both the red 
end and the violet end of the spectrum fade off into black, at 
which point the chromatic hues cease, although the real sun 
power extends far beyond the visible portion at each end, as will 
be seen hereafter. The following diagram will give a rude idea 



gradation of colors in the spectrum. 



67 



of the colors of the spectrum, the classification to the left of 
which will be thoroughly demonstrated in the chapter on Chromo 
Chemistry, and that at the right, in the chapter on Chromo 
Therapeutics. 



Black — Refined 

Grade. 
Violet Black. 




Culmination of Light 



Culrai nation of Heat. 



Thermei, (Invisible 
Heat Ray and 
Cuhtsc Grade of 
Black. 



' V" 

131. The.Solar Spectrum Analyzed and Systematized. 



Cooling 

and 
Sooth- 
ing to 
the 

Nerves 

Blood. 

Anima- 
ting to 

the 
Nerves- 
Excit- 
ing to 

the 
Blood. 



2. Where I have it Culmination of Electricity , the old method 
was to denominate it Actinism or chemical force, but Prof. Draper 
and other scientists have shown that this is a misnomer, as 
chemical power, only of another kind, dwells as much at the red 
end of the spectrum as at the violet end. In the chapter on 
Chromo Chemistry this matter will become doubly clear. An 
array of facts in chapter third will be adduced to show that the 
colors of the finer end of the spectrum are electrical and mag- 
netic in their nature, while those of the coarser end, reaching to 



68 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



yellow-green inclusive, arc thermal, or heating in their nature. 
The rays just below the red in the invisible portion, which are 
the hottest of all, I have termed thermel from the Greek (Osp/un) 
therme, heat. For full descriptions of it, see Chapter Fifth, 
XXIII., 5, 6, 9. etc. 

3. From the lower to the upper black the progression is 
toward superior coolness and fineness of vibratory action, and 
power to soothe the nerves. 

4. From the upper to the lower black, the progression is 
towards superior warmth, coarseness and animation. 

5. From both ends to the yellow, the progression is towards 
luminosity; from the yellow downward it is toward the coarse 
grade of shadow; from the yellow upward, toward the fine grade 
of shadow. 

6. There is a trinal series of gradations in the peculiar poten- 
cies of colors, the centre and climax of electrical action which 
cools and soothes the nerves being in the violet, the climax of 
electrical action which is soothing to the vascular system being in 
the blue, the climax of luminosity being in the yellow, and the 
climax of thermism or heat in the red, and especially in the 
thermel just below the red. This is not an imaginary division 
of qualities, but a real one, the flame-like red color having a prin- 
ciple of warmth in itself, the blue and violet, a principle of cold 
and electricity. Thus we have many styles of chromatic grada- 
tion including progression of hues, of lights and shades, of fine- 
ness and coarseness, of electrical power, luminous power, thermal 
power, etc. In Plate II., 3, the colors are ranged in a circle 
opposite those with which they form a chemical affinity, as the 
blue opposite the red, etc. 

7. The following gives some leading Gradations of two colors 
from light to shadow. 



Bluish White, (as in zinc). 
Very light blue. 

Very light blue-gray. 
Light blue. 

Light blue-gray. 
Blue. 

Dark blue. 

Dark blue-gray. 



Yellowish White (magnesia). 
Very light yellow. 

Very light yellow-gray. 
Light yellow. 

Light yellow-gray. 
Yellow. 
Dark yellow. 

Dark yellow-gray. 



Bluish-black, or blue-black. 



Yellowish black. 



HARMONY OF CONTRAST IN COLORS. 



69 



8. These, of course, may be varied in different ways. The 
other colors may be carried through the same gradations. In 
fact, nature's gradations are infinitely diversified. There are 
gradations of contrasts, and contrasts of gradations, and grada- 
tions of gradations without end in colors, forms, motions and 
sounds. The gradation of colors in the solar spectrum and the 
foregoing names are a somewhat more direct following out of 
nature than those of the colored circular plate. 

XXIX. Harmony of Contrast in Colors. 

See Plate II., Fig I. 



1. Chevreul of France first discovered and developed as a 
science the harmony of contrast in colors, and his theory so im- 
proved the effectiveness of the fabrics of France as to make 
their superiority over those of other nations quite apparent, 
especially at the World's Fair held in London in 1851, and set 
the people to studying his works which simply exhibited what 
nature had been exemplifying and trying to teach through all 
the ages. In fact it will be shown in another part of this work, 
just how, by means of chemical affinity, all contrasting sub- 
stances and forces naturally tend toward each other and develop 
each other. 

2. But how shall we ascertain the real harmonic contrasts of 
any color? By simply getting its complement. Thus if we take 
the triad of colors as our scale, we have red, for instance, forming 
a contrast with the combined result of the other two colors, 
yellow and blue, which is green, yellow forming a contrast with 
red + blue = purple, and blue with yellow + red = orange. We 
may on this principle then construct 

3. A Table of Harmonic Contrasts. 

Red and Green contrast harmoniously. 

Yellow and Purple 
Blue and Orange 
Red-gray and Green-gray 
Yellow-gray and Purple-gray 
Blue-gray and Orange-gray 
Red-purple and Yellow-green 
Red-orange and Blue-green 
Yellow-orange and Blue-purple 



70 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



Light red-gray and Light green-gray contrast harmoni- 
ously. 

Dark red-gray and Dark green-gray 
Deep-blue and Deep-orange 

4. The leading contrasts of color are presented on the title 
page in connection with the contrast of form in the hexagon. 
The tendency of a color to intensify its contrasting hue near it, 
may be seen by looking at the six small circles within the hexa- 
gon. The gray on the inside of all of these is precisely the same, 
and yet the red ring gives its interior a greenish cast, the green 
ring brings out the red slightly, the purple a yellowish tint, the 
yellow a purple tint, etc. 

5. A little more exact arrangement of contrasting hues is 
arrived at in connection with the seven colors of the spectrum, 
which is nearly as follows: 

Red contrasts with green with a slight violet cast. 
Orange contrasts with indigo or indigo-blue. 
Yellow contrasts with violet or bluish purple. 
Green contrasts with red with slight violet. 
Blue contrasts with red-orange. 
Indigo contrasts with orange. 
Violet contrasts with yellow. 

6. It is not to be considered that the colors will be absolutely 
discordant if many variations from the above plan are adopted, 
as blue contrasts very well with light red or yellow, etc. Any 
two contiguous colors of the chromatic scale are always discord- 
ant, just as are any two consecutive notes of the musical scale. 
Thus red makes discord with orange, orange with yellow, green 
with blue, etc., except when they blend by a gradation. 

7. The neutral colors, black, gray, white, are not positively 
discordant with any, and yet they have their effect. Chevreul 
admits that black lowers the tone of all colors, white hightens 
the tone or depth of all, and gray makes them seem more brilliant 
by contrast. He considers that white combines best with light 
blue, then with light red, and badly with orange; while black 
combines best with red or rose, then with orange, then with 
yellow, and poorly with light green. 



harmonic colors in architecture. 



71 



XXX. Harmonic Colors in Architecture. 



1. There is such a great pressure of important matter that 
should be set forth with reference to the harmony and philosophy 
of colors that my applications of the subject to human art must 
necessarily be brief. 

2. Nature's contrasts do not consist of antagonism or con- 
trariness, on the contraria contraribus law, but of spirited diver- 
sity on the law of unity. How would a white house look with 
the cornices and trimmings painted jet black? I speak of this 
work of man because, in nature, I can find no such abominations 
to quote from, or at least none excepting in cases of ruin or con- 
vulsion which temporarily suspends regular processes. Although 
we may rarely ever see a person so rude in harmonic perception 
as to have his residence thus bordered with black, like a blot on 
the fair face of things, yet many there are who will have the 
body of their houses almost white and the trimmings so dark 
that they seem to be dressed in mourning. 

3 But suppose we have a house painted in its main body 
with a light yellow-gray, which is nearly cream-colored, and 
trimmed around the windows, piazzas and cornices with a dark- 
er yellow-gray, sufficiently contrasted to be very distinct without 
violence, we have then a harmonic contrast, the principle of uni- 
ty being the yellow-gray which binds both colors in a brother- 
hood while the principle of diversity is the difference of light 
and shade between the two. 

4. Another style of harmonic contrast would be to trim the 
same yellow-gray house with a purple-gray of equal depth of 
shade, as in Plate II., 5. In this case the principle of unity con- 
sists in their both being of the same tone of gray, and the same 
depth of hue, while the diversity consists in difference of effect 
between the yellow and purple, each of which brings out the pur- 
ity of the other by contrast. 

5. Again we may have a graceful Progression of Contrasts by 
having light yellow-gray for the body, medium yellow-gray for 
the inner lines of the cornices and dark yellow-gray for the outer 
lines. 

6. Soft hues of red gray for a house are exceedingly tasty, 
as they constitute a pleasing contrast with the green of the foli- 



72 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



age, and so are the different tints of the green-gray, if the green 
is not made too prominent, from its analogical harmony with the 
foliage. 

7. One great charm of a country home is to have soft but ef- 
fective contrasts of color as well as those contrasts of light, shade, 
and forms exhibited in verandahs, bay-windows, towers, project- 
ing roofs, angles, etc. In architecture a contrast of contrasts and 
gradations is often very effectively exhibited in the bold angles, 
and straight lines, softened down by curved ornaments, espe- 
cially in the Gothic style, and also in the Norman arch whose 
curves are rendered spirited by introducing straight lines and 
angles within the arch itself. To render the effect complete 
there should be a contrast of colors also. 

8. Tasty Residences are painted with the trimmings and bolder 
lines darker than the body of the house. This gives a look of 
strength, and seems to be most in harmony with nature's great 
dome-work of the sky in which the sun fills the middle portion 
with light, and shades it off at the horizon with more sober hues. 
Of course we cannot paint a hundredth part as beautifully as na- 
ture does, but we can follow her general principles afar off. The 
contrasts of different colors of stone to form the arches of win- 
dows and doors are very pleasing, if not made too distinct and if 
in harmony with the rest of the building. 

9. Within the House the hues can be made more of delicate 
contrasts, and more or less of gradation of shading and tinting 
can be used. What the wealthy should aim at in their resi- 
dences, is to have the walls shaded off and varied with a soft and 
cheerful ground work of color, in the midst of which skilled ar- 
tists should paint their scenes, not of bloodshed and horror as on 
the walls of the Palace of Versailles, but of landscape, of impor- 
tant historical events and of that which appeals to the true and 
the beautiful. Thus the storm may rage without, and the great 
bustling world may have its corrupting influences, but within 
the sacred precincts of home, forever photographing their spirit 
upon the souls of the family and visiting friends, are the bloom 
and verdure of nature, or some scene of grace and merriment, or 
a radiant and pleasing group of human forms engaged in some 
high purpose. These, of course, should not be brought out with 
glaring colors, but modestly and yet richly, so that more and more 



COLORS IN DRESS. 



73 



they will grow upon the preception as they are viewed from time 
to time. 

XXXI. Colors in Dress. 



1 . I have already mentioned some of the adaptations of color 
in male and female dress. The kind of adaptation which consti- 
tutes analogical harmony in the dress of a lady of blue eyes, fair 
complexion and auburn hair, would be well carried out by a light 
blue dress trimmed with a deeper or darker blue, and combined 
with white collars, etc., or the whole dress may be trimmed with 
white. Or if such person is not too aged, a white dress for warm 
weather would be in good taste. The blue forms a harmonic 
contrast to the auburn hair. But where the red is too prominent, 
blue should not be used. Some carry the analogical unity so far 
as to have jewels, gloves, and shoes of the same general color as 
the dress. The blue dress presents a contrasting harmony with 
auburn or light colored hair. 

2. Blondes look well in light-colored dresses, brunettes in 
darker ones, while rubicund countenances can wear to advan- 
tage subdued tints of red, as in red-gray etc. 

3. If a countenance is too pale, a greenish element will en- 
hance the rosy color by contrast, while a purple tint near the 
face will bring out the yellow and give a bilious, sickly appear- 
ance, which no one can well afford. 

4. If a person's countenance is overflushed and rosy, a condi- 
tion which is rarely seen among our American ladies, a red rib- 
bon worn near the face will give a paler cast. 

5. Contrasts of the positive colors, such as red and green, 
blue and orange, yellow and purple, are too glaring to be in good 
taste except for military or theatrical costumes, and for the 
young. The grays of these same colors are much more tasty 
and modest. 

6. Too much of the dark elements in the colors of clothing 
degrades the light into heat, and prevents its finest chemical ac- 
tion on the human system. The relation of color to health, how- 
ever, will be explained in the chapter on Chromo Therapeutics, 
XXX. 

7. Some people, including half-civilized nations and children, 
are charmed with flashing colors, and dazzling contrasts in their 



74 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



clothing, just as others must have violent contrasts of voice and 
gesture in oratory before they will admit there is any eloquence. 
This comes from an undeveloped and stupid condition of the fin- 
er perception, so stupid in fact that they must have blows that 
will almost overwhelm a sensitive person, before they can feel 
them. It is in harmony with a brilliant climate like that of Amer- 
ica, however, that the people should adopt somewhat gayer colors 
than would be most suitable in England. While our ladies as a 
whole possess exquisite taste in dress scarcely equaled in Paris, 
some of them have still certain faults, such as being a little too 
gaudy and going to the extreme of fashion, although these ex- 
tremes may at times be devoid of taste, common sense, health- 
fulness or adaptation to their form or complexion. While our men 
can bow to fashion so much as to wear overcoats which dangle 
around their heels, making them resemble somewhat a rudely 
dressed woman, or a little boy in his father's coat, our ladies 
wear skirts that drag in the mud, so that walking becomes a con- 
stant burden from the weight of drapery that they must ever be 
lugging around in their hands. 

8. The Straining after Effect, and violation of truth by the 
use of paints, enamels, bleaching and dyeing processes, are resent- 
ed by nature, for just as soon as the pores of the skin become 
habitually clogged with these paints and enamels, and poisonous 
dyeing materials are resorted to, real dying begins to take place, 
the blood moves less briskly, the skin grows more lifeless, the 
eyes grow less sparkling, and the movements less elastic. Walk- 
ing and exercising in the open air, sunlight, bathing, manipula- 
tion of the whole body, and simple nourishing food, will gradually 
and surely bring nature's imperial stamp of beauty and power, 
and prevent all need of these falsehoods and deceptions in the 
way of ornamentation. 

XXXII. Colors in Floriculture. 



1. While at the Gardens of Versailles near Paris in 1868, I 
was struck with the beautiful effect of contrasting lines of flowers, 
as well as the exquisite gradations and angles and curves in the 
flower beds themselves. Sometimes a bed would be bordered 
with long lines of purple or violet flowers running parallel to an- 
other line of yellow flowers of about the same size, sometimes 



COLORS IN FLORICULTURE. 



75 



clusters of flowers of one color would contrast with clusters of 
another color, sometimes masses of red leaves and flowers will 
be encircled with contrasting masses of green foliage, etc. All 
tasty parks and landscape-gardens now in our country and 
Europe pay much attention to the harmonies of color. 

2. For valuable hints with reference to the arrangement and 
grouping of flowers, the colors of drapery, etc., I would refer 
the reader to Chevreul's "Harmony and Contrasts of Colors." 
I will condense some of his ideas about the grouping of dahlias, 
etc. The three first groups below consist of five dahlias each 
and constitute quincunxes: the other groups have seven dahlias: — 



1 2 

o o o 

o o o o 



o o 



o 



3 4 5 6 

oo oo oo oo 

o ooooooooo 



o o o o 



o o 



o o 



These may be grouped as follows: — 

1 . Four Orange Dahlias with Purple Dahlia in centre. 

2. Four Purple Dahlias with Yellow Dahlia in centre. 

3. Four Yellow Dahlias with Purple Dahlia in centre. 

4. Six Scarlet red Dahlias with White Dahlia in centre. 

5. Six White Dahlias with Scarlet red Dahlia in centre, 

6. Six Pink Dahlias with White Dahlia in centre. 



3. The following is a linear arrange- 
ment, with blue as its centre of unity in 
the middle plant: — 

1. Red Chrysanthemum. 

2. Yellow Chrysanthemum. 

3. White Chrysanthemum. 

4. Orange Chrysanthemum. 

5. Large Blue Aster. 

6. Orange Chrysanthemum. 

7. White Chrysanthemum. 

8. Yellow Chrysanthemum. 

9. Red Chrysanthemum. 



4. The following is another linear ar- 
rangement of Primroses, 

1. Red Primrose. 

2. White Primrose. 

3. Orange Primrose. 

4. Lilac Primrose. 

5. Yellow Primrose. 

6. Violet Brown Primrose. 

7. White Primrose. 

I. Red Primrose, and so on, repeating 
as above. 



One leading law of unity in the above groups consists in having 
the same style of plant, while the diversity consists in the con- 
trasts of colors. Gradations of color, as well as in the forms of 
grouping might be suggested, but space is lacking. 



76 HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 

XXXIII. Synopses of Harmonic Laws. 

In reviewing our ground we find the following great laws 
drawn from the divine teachings of nature, and constituting a 
basis upon which all edifices of science and philosophy must be 
built if they are to assume eternal foundations: 

1. The principle of Unity universal in nature, exemplifies the 
divine Oneness and Attraction as well as the divine Fatherhood, 
also human Fatherhood and the law of Organization which is the 
unifying principle of all families, societies and nations. 

2. This Unity is projected into boundless Diversity, thus ex- 
emplifying the divine Repulsion and Infinity of Resources and pro- 
claiming the law of Individual Life and Freedom. 

3. Natures great Law of Harmony is the equilibrium of the 
principles of Unity and Diversity, exemplifying the universal rule 
of Liberty combined with Law, of Centrifugal balanced by Cen- 
tripetal Force, of Individual Effort working with Fraternal Or- 
ganization, of Repulsion and Attraction vitalizing and perfecting 
each other, of Impulse and passional Propulsion harmonized by 
the divine law of Right and self-control. 

4. Gradation or regulated Progression is one of the great 
leading methods in which nature manifests this Unity and Diver- 
sity. Its course is ever toward some principle of excellence, being 
manifested through all the details of the universe and carrying the 
whole upward toward superior conditions, and never downward 
toward inferiority, ruin or death excepting temporarily and for 
the sake of a higher perfection to come. It is a prominent law of 
beauty by means of which lights, shades and hues progress into 
each other and blend; forms move by infinite steps in curvature, 
musical tones and oratory pass into graceful sweeps and climaxes, 
while in society, this same principle softens down the angles and 
blunt points of life. 

5. Contrast is the bold and spirited method by which nature 
manifests her Unity and Diversity, combining tints, shades and 
colors in masses, forms in angular projections, and all things in 
decided transitions. It is the masculine side of nature, and presents 
that display of power which we term Sublime, just as Gradation 
is the Feminine or graceful side, belonging to the beautiful. 

6. Analogical Harmony is seen in nature in the form of some 



SYNOPSIS OF HARMONIC LAWS. 



77 



ruling characteristic throughout her leading departments, as, for 
instance, the blue color which predominates in the sky. In art on 
the same plan a leading tone of color is adopted throughout a paint- 
ing, a certain Key-note for a musical composition, etc. 

7. Violence and Flaming Contrast are exceptional mani- 
festations of nature, allowed only rarely and briefly for some 
important end. 

8. Nature s unrestricted growth is never discordant. 

9. All Beauty and all Natural Growth exemplify Moral and 
Spiritual Perfection. All objects which do not do so are deform- 
ed. The person who takes cognizance of suns, stars, leaves, 
flowers, trees, landscapes and sounds as merely an assemblage of 
forms, colors, and tones devoid of this diviner expression, is 
blind and deaf to the principal meaning of the universe, and can 
never attain to the conception of High Art. Let those who de- 
cry real Beauty then remember that they are condemning the ex- 
pression of the Infinite Goodness. 

10. Adaptation, which rules throughout nature, suspends tem- 
porarily at times the direct expression of Beauty and goodness for 
the purpose of introducing some higher Good. 

11. Truth is the voice of all nature, and so-called works of art 
which pervert it must prove failures. 

12. Elements are generally penetrating, exquisite, safe and pow- 
erful in their effect on man in proportion as they are refined and 
subtile. 

13. Force is exerted through a gradation of Instrumentalities. 

14. Colors, like Musical Tones, are divided into seven distinct 
notes, and still more fundamentally into three, constituting the 
Triad of the first, third and fifth. Forms also present their par- 
allelism. 

15. In order the better to understand the great laws of things, 
I will here present more fully than in the preceding pages some 
of the leading twofold and threefold divisions of mind and mat- 
ter. 

Dual Divisions of the Universe. 



Diversity Unity. 

Contrast Gradation. 

Spirit Matter. 



78 



HARMONIC LAWS OF THE UNIVERSE. 



Light, . . . 
Repulsion, . 
Positive Forces, . 
Centrifugal Force, 
Tints of Color, . 
Chromatic Colors, 
Masculinity, 
Straight Lines, . 
Magnetism, . 
Heat, . 
Alkalies, 
Electro-Positives, 
Organs of the Right side, 
Warm or Thermal Colors, 
Luminous Orbs or Suns, 



Shadow. 

Attraction. 

Negative Forces. 

Centripetal Force. 

Shades of Color. 

Achromatic Colors. 

Femininity. 

Curves. 

Diamagnetism. 

Cold. 

Acids. 

Electro-Negatives. 

Organs of the Left side. 

Cold, Electrical Colors. 

Non-luminous Orbs or Planets. 



Trinal Divisions of the Universe. 



Triad of Primary Colors: 
Triad of Secondary Colors: 
Triad of Achromatic Colors: 
Triad of Primary Grays: 
Triad of Secondary Grays: 

Triad of Chromatic Forces: 
Triad of Achromatic Qualities: 
Triad of Outlines: 
Triad of Forms: 
Triad of Musical Notes: 
General Divisions of the vis- 
ible World: 



Red, yellow, blue. 
Orange, green, purple. 
Black, gray, white. [gray. 
Red-gray, yellow-gray, blue- 
Orange-gray, purple-gray, 

green-gray. 
Heat, light, electricity. 
Tints, hues, shades. 
Straight lines, angles, curves. 
Triangle, hexagon, circle. 
First, third, fifth. 
Solids, liquids, gases; also 
Land, water, sky. 



16. In the foregoing the Dual divisions are contrasts and 
the Trinal divisions, gradations. Thus we see that nature, 
though at first thought it seems to be lawless in its wonderful 
freedom, is after all governed by the most absolute law, all her 
great machinery working with mathematical precision, her foun- 
tains, cataracts, etc., describing parabolic curves, her worlds mov- 
ing in elliptical spirals through the heavens and around some 
centre of unity, while the force of Gravitation, Light, etc., is 



synopsis of harmonic laws. 



79 



inversely as the square of the distance from the influencing orb. 
We may fire a cannon ball into the air in any possible direction, 
or at any rate of speed, and not for a moment can we make it 
vary from the most absolute gradation of motion, while if sent 
in any but a vertical pathway, it will describe also a perfect gra- 
dation of Direction, following nature's favorite and beautiful curve 
of the parabola. The rainbow rears its semi-circle and assigns 
just such a relative width to each color throughout, each tree 
approximates the form of an ellipse, or oval, or spire, or many 
sections of an oval, while every leaf and blade of grass and flower 
is carved out and posed on the most exquisite principles, in gen- 
eral after some one or more sections of a cone. 

17. Harmony of colors is now a science. It should no longer 
be said that this and that combination of colors is a mere matter 
of taste. Of course taste must have something to do with it, as 
the principles of harmony may not always be correctly applied 
without it, but certain rules can be laid down which place many 
points beyond guess work or caprice of taste. Ladies of refined 
taste have in general a perception of colors and their harmoni- 
ous relations quite superior to that possessed by gentlemen, 
partly from having more practice with colors, and partly from 
possessing a finer intuitional nature. In fact some of our sex will 
need all the rules and all the science they can command on the 
subject, to enable them to equal in chromatic taste many ladies 
who have had no rules excepting what their finer perceptions 
have given them. 



80 



THEORIES OF LIGHT AND FORCE. 

CHAPTER SECOND. 



INSUFFICIENCY OF THE PRESENT THEO- 
RIES OF LIGHT AND FORCE. 



1. — Science and Philosophy Should be Combined. 

1. Scientists are spanning more and more of the universe and 
weighing and measuring all things in their scales. Their acu- 
men in many fields of investigation has been so marvelous that 
all men have had to bow to their authority. From their labori- 
ous researches in many directions I have received great instruct- 
tion and shall ever be grateful for the immense assistance which 
I have derived from them in the various fields of human thought. 

2. While I would look with this admiration upon their efforts 
and with all humility upon my own powers as being quite in- 
competent to tread in many fields which they have graced, still 
it seems to me that they have failed to reach fundamental 
principles. Not for a moment would I do so base a thing as to 
disparage others in order to establish any theory of my own, for 
Truth, supreme Truth is the great central light, and let no man 
dare to hide or falsely color a single one of its radiant lines. It 
seems to me that they have not sufficiently combined philosophy 
with their science, so that their facts might be crystallized into 
great truths by comprehensive generalizations, but have dwelt 
too much upon external specialties, as Agassiz himself once 
admitted. 

3. Ancient sages scorned as vulgar the Inductive Process of 
Reasoning which brought them down to every day facts and gener- 
ally adopted the Deductive Method. Since Lord Bacon's teachings 
have been given to the world men have swung to the other ex- 
treme of induction. It seems not to have occurred to many 
people that induction and deduction should never be divorced — 
that we should look upward to causes and downward to effects 
with the same glance as far as possible using the intuitional and 



CHEMICAL AFFINITY 



81 



reasoning nature to grasp the invisible "soul of things," which 
constitutes the positive principle of power, and the perceptives to 
grasp the outward body of things which constitutes the negative 
principle. 

4. While delving so much in the cruder elements of matter, 
the interior lightning which gives it potentiality eludes the grasp 
of many of our scientific men. Although all force in its primary 
principle thus lies with the fine invisible elements, they too often 
flee from these with seeming alarm, and cling to the mere skele- 
ton of power which dwells with the gross and the tangible. 

II. — Basic Principles not yet Reached, Cohesion. 

Is my judgment harsh? Have they arrived at the funda- 
mental laws of any style of power whatever? Take a silver dol- 
lar, for instance, and ask them what makes its atoms cling to- 
gether with such tremendous tenacity. A weight of ten 
thousand pounds would not press or pull them apart. Do they 
say cohesion? But that is only a word. What causes the cohe- 
sion? We are as badly off as ever. If we understood the nature 
of cohesion, we should begin to understand something of chemis- 
try. If a substance decays it falls to pieces. Where is cohesion 
now? 

III. — Chemical Affinity. 



If a piece of zinc is put into sulphuric acid the water is set 
to boiling, countless bubbles rise, and the metal is soon torn to 
pieces. How is this done? Chemical Affinity is the answer. 
But what is the law of chemical power by which such things are 
done? Here again the scientific world comes to a dead halt. 
"Chemical force, like other force cannot be described," says 
Dr. Attfield, "for like them it is known only by its effects." 
"Chemical affinity, like all great forces in nature," says T. P. 
Barkas F. G. S., "is perfectly incomprehensible." "Notwith- 
standing our boasted advances in science," says Prof. Robert 
Hunt, "we have scarcely arrived at any satisfactory knowledge 
of the powers which regulate the internal conditions of matter. 
The molecular forces are almost entirely beyond our concept- 
ions." 



82 



THEORIES OF LIGHT AND FORCE. 



IV . — Electricity. 

1. Being badly at sea then with reference to chemical forces, 
how is science with reference to the great power of Electric- 
ity? Scientists are still quite undecided as to whether electric- 
ity is a single fluid on the theory of Franklin, or two fluids on 
the theory of Dufay, or no fluid at all but simply a vibration 
of polarized atoms. If the atoms are polarized, what polarized 
them? 

2. How are the vibrations started and continued? Just how 
does friction excite electricity? Does the instrument that fric- 
tionizes take hold of the fluid and move it along? 

3. What is the law of movement with electricity, over the 
surface of atoms, through their axial portion or how? 

4. How is Induction produced, and how Conduction, and At- 
traction, and Repulsion, and Magnetism and Diamagnetisml 

5. Ampere admits that Magnetism is one form of Electricity. 
Certainly, but what form is it, how are are its curves produced 
and how can steel hold its magnetism permanently while iron 
cannot? 

6. Has any one ever yet received an exact idea of what is 
meant by positive and negative Electricity? 

7. Is Electricity a cold or warm principle? If cold, why does 
it sometimes produce the greatest heat known to man? If warm, 
whence its contractive power? 

8. Electrical science, then, is still in a vague condition and 
the unfortunate thing about it is that many writers on the sub- 
ject are quite unaware of its imperfections and affirm that "all 
the facts of Electricity can be explained by either Franklin's or 
Dufay's theory." We have seen that none of the leading facts can 
be exactly explained by them. 

V. Gravitation. 



1. But how about Gravitation? Cannot scientists explain 
this ubiquitous principle? Are all possible objects saturated 
with it, and yet nothing known of how its potencies are exerted? 

2. Some say that magnetism is the secret, each sun and planet 
being an immense magnet. But magnetism and gravitation must 
be vastly different things, 1st, because magnetism reaches only 



LIGHT AND COLOR. 



83 



a limited number of substances, while gravitation affects all mat- 
ter; 2ndly, gravitation is incomparably swifter than magnetism; 
3dly, gravitation, so far as we know, reaches out over infinite 
space, while magnetism is very limited in its range; 4thly, a 
magnet is powerful in certain parts, and powerless in others, 
while, in the case of gravitation, all objects of equal density at- 
tract in every direction and from every part. 

VI. Physiology and Psychology. 

1. But there is a vast Physiological and Psychological world 
which still lies buried in mystery. What is the exact process of 
nervous action, muscular action, vascular action, phrenal action ? 

2. What is the exact office of the right brain, the left brain, the 
inner white brain, the outer gray brain, the different parts of the 
cerebrum, of the cerebellum, spleen, ganglia, white and red corpus- 
cles of the blood and many other parts? 

3. Through what medium does mind or volition control matter, 
and what is the philosophy of unconscious sleep, of conscious or 
somnambulic sleep, of interior, cataleptic and trance conditions, of 
statuvolism, which enables one to suspend sensation at pleas- 
ure, of Intuition, that inner reason which works so much more 
rapidly than the ordinary faculties, of intensified sensations, of 
convulsions and many other mental and physical conditions? 
Massive volumes and extensive works have been produced abun- 
dantly with reference to these subjects, but who has penetrated 
to their inner soul of power? 

VII. Light and Color. 



1. We come at last to Light and Color. Great and beautiful 
discoveries have been made with reference to this subject, and 
yet is any thoughtful mind satisfied that the basic principles of 
color potencies, or of the action of light, have been reached? 

2. "The mathematical investigations of the phenomena of 
light," says Prof. Hunt, "certainly go to support the views enter- 
tained by Huyghens and Young. The researches of Fresnel, 
Fraunhofer, Herschel and others show that a large number of 
facts can be explained upon the undulatory hypothesis; at the 
same time a great many remarkable phenomena are by no means 



84 



THEORIES OF LIGHT AND FORCE. 



elucidated: and the corpuscular theory of Isaac Newton, devel- 
oped by La Place and Biot, and supported by Brewster and 
Brougham, is capable of affording an explanation of some lumi- 
nous effects which do not appear to be the result of undulations." 
(Elementary Physics, p 380.) And yet it does not seem to have 
occurred to this clear-headed reasoner that both of these prince- 
pies could be combined. 

3. In another place Prof. Hunt uses the following language: 
"The undulatory theory explains the radiant visible property of 
light, but it does not explain the chemical effects, the optical po- 
larity of a crystal and its connection with the polaric conditions 
of its constituents — the diffraction, inflection, interferences, the 
oxydation of surfaces as the cause of natural colors, the presence 
of the chemical action of light, the presence of heat, electricity, 
magnetism; yet light produces all of these phenomena; it vital- 
izes and the organic action of light is witnessed in the fauna and 
flora around." 

4. Grove ascribes light to a "vibration or motion of the 
molecules of matter themselves, rather than to a specific ether 
pervading it, just as sound is propagated by the vibrations of 
wood, or as waves are by water. " 

5. Jencken, speaking of the undulatory theory says: "The 
correlates of light, as Grove designates heat, electricity, magne- 
tism and the gravitation of cosmic bodies, the motion in space 
stand begging at the door of this theory, wholly unexplained 
save by long and short waves, or waves vibrating at angles dif- 
ferent from the axial plane of direction. Molecular action, what 
becomes of it? Or are there many ethers, (asks Grove,) which 
co-exist and pervade space? If not, we are driven back to allow 
to one group of dynamical forces, molecular action — to others, 
wave undulations, a perplexity it is hard to get rid of, a difficulty 
it is impossible to clear away." {Light, Color, Electricity and 
Magnetism, p. 50.). 

VIII. Colors Must be Formulated by Law. 



That is, we have seven leading colors in sunlight, each of 
which is made by a special style and number of vibrations, and 
when separated by the spectrum occupying exact mathematical 



HOW EXPLAIN CHROMATIC PHENOMENA. 



85 



laws. How is this done? Have we small atoms and fine vibra- 
tions for the violet and coarser ones for the red? Is there a sin- 
gle ether which the sun divides off into seven different but ex- 
actly proportioned waves? How could the sun accomplish such 
a thing! As well fire off a cannon, and expect to have its roar 
divided into the seven musical tones of the octave. When we 
make a musical tone, it must be done by means of some exact 
length and number of waves in a given time, all of which must 
be generated through different sized tubes, or on different sized 
vibratory cords, etc. Should not writers on optics begin to in- 
quire what kind of tubes or cords nature uses in so beautifully 
systematizing the color-waves of light? For development of 
this point see Chapter Eighth, VII. 

IX. How is Light Projected so Far? 

1. If light is composed of luminiferous ether waves, why do 
they spread laterally like the hands of a clock, instead of moving 
forward like waves of water, or waves of air, in producing sound? 
Besides if there is no power to draw these solar ethers onward 
and assist them to continue their movements, how can they be 
kept moving through all the 95,000,000 miles from the sun to the 
earth; yes, and through the quintillions of miles beyond the 
earth, through which the telescope can penetrate? Sir John 
Herschel says there are stars so distant that their light must 
have been moving two million years to reach us. Now by what 
process is a wave to be kept rolling for such a length of time? 
Is there anything in waves of water to suggest a duration of 
millions of years or even of millions of seconds? 

X. How Explain Chromatic Phenomena? 



But these luminiferous waves must differ from the atmosphere- 
ic waves which produce sounds in other respects, especially as the 
effect of the seven degrees of the chromatic scale is quite differ- 
ent from that of the seven degrees in the musical scale. The 
waves of sound produce a more and more cheerful and exciting 
effect as they proceed through the scale from the grave bass to 
the enlivening tenor of the upper notes, while the color-notes grow 
more cheerful until they reach the yellow, after which the pro- 



86 



THEORIES OF LIGHT AND FORCE. 



gression changes, each color becoming more and more grave un- 
til it reaches the dark violet. Nature's unity is so absolute 
throughout all her departments, that the same general law pro- 
duces the same general effects everywhere, the difference being 
only in degree. A true theory of colors will entirely explain this 
discrepancy. 

XI. Chemical and Therapeutical Properties of Color. 



1 . Great vagueness still exists as to the properties of the dif- 
ferent colors as well as their material and law of production. 
The violet end of the spectrum, including the black for a distance 
above, was noticed to have peculiar powers to blacken nitrate of 
silver, and was often called actinic or chemical, but Prof. Draper, 
Vogel and others showed the great chemical power of the yellow 
color in bringing about the decomposition of carbonic acid in the 
leaves of plants, and it will be abundantly shown hereafter that 
one end of the spectrum is chemically as powerful as the other. 
Scientists are approximating gradually a more correct knowledge 
of the colors, but do not seem to know why the blue and violet 
rays have such powers to germinate seeds and cause such im- 
mense activity in vegetable growth, and do not explain why these 
same cold colors can, with certain other colors, cause far greater 
heat than those of the warm red end of the spectrum itself when 
taken alone. In fact, they seem to deny, as did the great New- 
ton, that the different colors have any special well-defined po- 
tencies. In his day, such a mistake was much more excusable than 
at present, when we have the wonderful revelations of the 
spectroscope to assist us. 

2. As to the marvelous therapeutic character of colors, most 
of our works on the subject are silent, and our physicians them- 
selves are generally but little acquainted with it. In fact Gen- 
eral Pleasanton of Philadelphia, though not pretending to give 
any science of colors, has given a better summary of facts con- 
cerning the healing power of one portion of them, namely "Blue 
and Sun-lights," than any medical or other work with which I 
am acquainted. Since writing the foregoing sentence, Dr. Pan- 
coast's "Blue and Red Light," has appeared, which is somewhat 
more accurate than Pleasanton's, in a medical sense. 



THE MATERIAL OR FLUIDIC THEORY. 



87 



XII. Shadow is an Entity. 

So far as I know, it is the universal opinion of the scientific 
world that shadow or darkness is a nonentity, being the absence of 
light, and that cold is also a nonentity, being the absence of heat. 
The utter falsity of these positions can be demonstrated. 

XIII. Correct Science requires a Knowledge of Atoms. 

One of the most unfortunate things for the scientific world is 
that the law of atomic action has never been ascertained. All 
science both of the visible and invisible must be deficient in its 
fundamental principles until it is known how atoms combine and 
work. Atoms have amazing activities and chemical potencies, 
but how can we get into the real knowledge of light, color, elec- 
tricity, magnetism and force of every kind as connected with 
matter, unless we know how matter itself is constituted? When 
we know more of matter we shall know more of force, and vice 
versa. Faraday says that "we know nothing of atoms;" Att- 
field's chemistry says that they are centres of "a force of enor- 
mous power," while Tyndall and many other eminent scientists 
have given extensive study to them. Until we understand these 
atoms in at least their basic principles, all theories of science 
must have more or less guess work. 

XIV. The Dynamic and the Material or Fluidic Theory. 



1. But that which seems to me as one of the greatest of all 
errors and which has kept the true knowledge of atoms and all 
other departments of nature in the back ground, is the one sided- 
ness of the prevailing theories of force. If scientists would re- 
member that all things have dual relations, a soul and body prin- 
ciple, as it were, it would save a vast number of errors. 

2. There are two great theories afloat called the dynamic, on 
the one hand, and the material or fluidic theory on the other. 
Dynamic means spirit-like, and is supposed to be a power inher- 
ent in atoms themselves, causing them to vibrate aside from all 
fluidic or etherial elements as vitalizing forces, or as Tyndall 
defines it, "An accident or condition of matter; namely a mo- 
tion of its ultimate particles." (Heat as a mode of motion, p. 39.") 
while the believers in the fluidic theory advocate the flow of fine 



88 THEORIES OF LIGHT AND FORCE. 

ethers as the sole power, seemingly forgetful of the atomic vibra- 
tions which must result from this flow and also of the atmos- 
pheric undulations which must modify the light and other forces, 
and including Newton 's emission theory of light, the caloric theory 
of heat, the flow of real fluids in electricity, etc. Scientists have 
swung sometimes to one extreme and sometimes to the other, 
but it does not seem to have occurred to them that both theories 
must be combined if nature's ordinary principles of force are to 
be obeyed. At present, the dynamic theory is most generally 
received, and this seems to imply the exertion and continuation 
of a force without any special instrumentality as a motive power. 

3. I believe I am safe in affirming that there is no such thing 
in the known universe as the exertion of power without fluidic action. 
A windmill is run by the fluid called air; a water wheel is 
driven by the fluid called water; a steam engine is driven by 
its gaseous fluids; in all animal and vegetable life such fluids as 
blood, sap, gases and judging by all analogies, the finer life fluids 
prevail; flood-wood is carried along a stream and water is the 
fluid; a whirl-wind carries dust into the sky and air is the 
fluid; chemical solutions of every kind take place but water or 
some other fluid must be the instrument; vortexes swallow up 
vessels and countless other objects by means of a fluid; the 
clouds are wafted by the aerial fluid; a stream may sweep a mass 
of debris against a dam and hold it fast, but the element of power 
is ever a fluid; some wonderful power seems to drive and hold 
the atoms together in the tremendous cohesions and chemical 
affinities that rule in solids; is it supposable that this is done 
without a fluid? Shall we fight against all analogies in the 
mechanics of nature and man, to carry out a theory? Shall we 
not reason from the known to the unknown in harmony with 
nature's infinite unity? Shall we trample upon this great law of 
things by means of which a thousand mysteries may be cleared 
away and a host of new truths discovered? 

XV. Faraday. 



1. This prince of electricians and a grand investigator in the 
field of truth, furnishes an example of the difficulties which must 
ever occur when we look at things one sidedly or in other words 
when we try to consider the soul of force apart from its body, or 



FARADAY. 



89 



the body apart from its soul, and because he could not detach the 
soul of electricity from its body he concluded it had no soul, as 
the following words will signify: 

"Another ever present question in my mind has been whether 
electricity has any actual and independent existence as a fluid or 
fluids or was a mere power of matter like what we conceive of 
the attraction of gravitation. It was in attempts to prove the 
existence of electricity separate from matter, by giving an in- 
dependent charge of either positive or negative power only, to 
some one substance, and the utter failure of all such attempts, 
whatever substance was used, or whatever means of exciting or 
evolving electricity were employed, that first drove me to look 
upon induction as an action of the particles of matter, each 
having both forces developed in it in exactly equal amount." 
{Experimental Researches in Electricity, p. 363.) 

2. I will simply remark with reference to the above, that hav- 
ing ascertained the law of atomic action in connection with ethereal 
forces, I have found it a simple matter to account for the differ- 
ent phases of electricity and magnetism. By multitudinous 
facts and deductions which seem entirely irresistible, I find that 
positive and negative electricity, frictional electricity, galvanic 
electricity, thermo electricity, magnetism, and diamagnetism 
consist of various grades of electricity which move through 
atoms in the same general manner, while the variations of phe- 
nomena proceed from the different manner in which the atoms 
are polarized and combined. 

3. The fluids alone which may be called electro-ethers are not 
electricity. This special kind of atomic vibration, which will be 
explained in the next chapter, constitutes the principle of elec- 
tricity, or the dynamic side of the question, the fluid itself con- 
stitutes the element of electricity or the material side of the ques- 
tion, while both together constitute electricity. Thus does 
Nature's plan ever take the golden medium between extremes, or 
rather it includes the extremes. 

4. The term Material Theory is hardly proper as contradistin- 
guished from the term Dynamic Theory, as the latter deals with 
matter just as truly as the former, and having less to do with the 
spirit-like ethers that penetrate and vitalize the coarser elements, is 
really a grosser conception. 



90 



THEORIES OF LIGHT AND FORCE. 



XVI. Lord Bacon. 

In the second book of his "Novum Organum" says that "heat 
itself, its essence and quiddity, is motion and nothing else." 
Motion of what? Can there be motion without something to be 
moved, or without some instrument through which this motion 
must come? (See Chapter First, XVI). This point however, 
will stand out more clearly in the next chapter. 

XVII. Locke and Tyndall. 

The following passage from Locke is said by Prof. Tyndall to 
be stated with "singular felicity:" — "Heat is a very brisk agita- 
tion of the insensible parts of the object, which produce in us 
that sensation from whence we denominate the object hot; so 
what in our sensation is heat, in the object is nothing but mo- 
tion." The error in this consists in confounding the sensation 
or perception of heat with heat itself, or an effect with a cause. 
Real heat is in the object itself rather than in the mind which 
perceives it, and produces all the effects of heat, such as melting, 
scorching, expanding, disintegrating, etc., without reference to the 
sensations which any animal or human being may receive there- 
from. We might as well say, what in our sensation is color, in 
the sunlight is nothing but motion, consequently there would be 
no such thing as color if people should happen to be born blind, 
although the sky might glisten with rainbows. 

XVIII. — Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, etc. 



1. This one-sidedness of conception is carried still farther by 
the German idealists. Kant considers that space and time are 
mere conditions of our own perceptive faculties and that we cannot 
know anything of the external world truly, but must simply recog- 
nize certain delusive appearances, while Fichte denies the exis- 
tence of anything excepting man and his own consciousness. Dr. 
Buchanan calls their doctrines the climax of pure absurdity, and 
yet Schelling and Hegel go still further into this intellectual 
chaos. 

2. Now I would ask if this dynamic theory is not leading the 
brilliant scientists whom I have quoted, and many others, toward 



THE laws of optics. 



91 



the same absurd extreme? The most plausible argument in 
favor of the dynamic theory of heat has been presented perhaps 
by Count Rumford, but his points can be answered more easily 
in the next chapter, after we have considered ethereal and atomic 
forces. After all I cannot blame these eminent men for having 
unsatisfactory theories of force so long as no distinct conception 
of atomic action has been presented to the world, for it is hard to 
conceive how ethereal forces can sweep through atoms, unless it 
can be shown that there are powerful elements of suction in the 
atoms themselves, which draw these forces onward at the same 
time that they are being vitalized by these forces. 

3. If the reader shall find my etherio-atomic law in harmony 
with established scientific facts, and a key to unlock many of 
the mysteries of force, thus leading us some steps higher up the 
infinite ladder of causation, I here confess that I could never 
have made this discovery by my own unaided power. The 
achievements of scientists, considering the incorrect system 
which they have followed, have been truly amazing, and I should 
by no means dare to present a theory to the world which would 
not harmonize with their leading discoveries. I have had to sit 
at the feet of Newton, the Herschels, Faraday, Kirchhoff, Bun- 
sen, Angstrom, Tyndall, Darwin, Lommel, Huxley, Schellen, 
Huggins, Brewster, Lyell, Reichenbach, Helmholtz, Elliotson, 
Crookes, LaPlace, Davy, Austin Flint, Jr., Draper, Ampere, J. 
R. Buchanan, and many others. I had to test my atomic Key 
by their light and my own experiments, and having become sat- 
isfied that it is correct, find it will often unlock doors into which 
my masters themselves have not penetrated. 

XIX. — The Laws of Optics, Refraction, Reflection, 
Absorption, etc. 



Transparency, and Polarization of Light seem to be but 
dimly apprehended. Gold is said to be yellow because it reflects 
the yellow and absorbs the other colors. What property is it in 
gold which accomplishes such a result? What principle in 
sodium makes it give out a yellow flame? What are the general 
properties, both chemical and therapeutical, of blue flowers or 
fruit, of yellow, purple, red or other colored substances? A true 
knowledge of this subject should enable a person to pass through 



92 



THEORIES OF LIGHT AND FORCE. 



forest and field and tell the leading properties of plants and 
flowers and mineral substances, by their colors and often by their 
forms, without having to kill or injure so many persons by experi- 
ments upon them. By this I do not mean to say that experi- 
ments are unnecessary; for theories should be tested by experi- 
ments and experiments by theories if we are to make swift and 
correct progress in Knowledge, but I do say that by the aid of 
a true philosophy of force the experiments could hit the mark 
with far less blundering. 

XX. — New Worlds of Light and Color. 

Finally there are new and surpassingly beautiful worlds of color 
which seem to be almost entirely unknown to our writers on 
Optics, but which can be demonstrated on scientific principles 
and by abundant facts and observations. These colors reveal 
the very dynamics of nature and man, and the most exquisite and 
interior principles of force which reach far into the mysteries of 
mind and matter. They help to make a science out of what 
would otherwise be guess work, broader than mere physics, 
broader than mere metaphysics, and combining both on nature's 
great law of duality to form the grander science of Psychophy- 

SICS. 

XXI. — Summation of Points. 



To review our ground, then, we see, that notwithstanding all 
the brilliant achievements of science, the fundamental principles of 
Cohesion, Chemical Affinity, Electricity, Magnetism, Diamagnet- 
ism, Gravitation, Physiology, Psychology, Light, Color and other de- 
partments of knowledge are unknown — that the cause of this defi- 
ciency is the failure of scientists to ascertain the atomic constitution 
of things and their ignoring of the dual nature of the universe in 
their efforts to divorce matter from force, or force from matter, or at 
least in their swinging to the extremes of the dynamic theory on the 
one hand, or the material theory on the other, while the whole known 
mechanics of nature teach this great lesson, that all force must act 
through relatively static and fluidic conditions of matter, the finer 
fluidic conditions vitalizing the more stationary conditions, and the 
more stationary conditions reacting upon and answering as a base 



SUMMATION OF POINTS. 



93 



work for the fluidic conditions. In closing I will simply add that 
there are many grades of fluidic and also of relatively static condi- 
tions, the coarser grade of the static being acted on by the coarser 
grade of the fluidic, a still finer grade of the static by a finer 
grade of the fluidic, and so on upward toward the infinitely fine. 
A slower fluidic force may also be vitalized by finer and swifter 
fluidic forces. See Chapter First, XVI. 



91 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 

CHAPTER THIRD. 



THE ETHERIO- ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY 
OF FORCE. 

I. — Atoms. 



Atoms are the primary and indivisible particles of things. 
To understand them fully would be almost to understand infinity. 
In fact we cannot understand the exact nature of the simplest ob- 
ject without apprehending its atomic constitution. We shall not be 
real philosophers until we can reach far back toward primates 
and thence onward toward ultimates. We shall be but poor 
chemists so long as we cannot tell the law of atomic action in 
any substance whatever, or the basic principles of chemical af- 
finity. 

II. — Force. 

Force is a leading phenomenon of the universe. Without 
it, all movements of worlds, all chemical affinities, all wonders of 
light, color, sound and motion, all attractions and repulsions, all 
life, human, animal and vegetable, in fact every impulse of 
thought or affection itself must forever cease. Happy shall we 
be if we can get even a glimpse of its basic principles, for force 
and matter include the sum of all things. 

III. — The Size of Atoms. 

The infinity of smallness in nature is quite as wonderful as 
the infinity of vastness, and equally beyond all human compre- 
hension or flight of imagination. Persons of large conceptions 
which lead them far into the grasp of things as they are, are 
often called visionary by those of smaller conceptions, but the 
grandest visions and stretches of thought are tame and small 



THE FORM OF ATOMS. 



95 



compared with the realities of things. Ehrenberg, who investi- 
gated the subject of infusoria very extensively by means of the 
microscope, estimates that an ordinary drop of water, one-twelfth 
of an inch in diameter, may contain 500 millions of these animal- 
cules, and remarks that "all infusoria, even the smallest monads 
are organized animal bodies and distinctly provided with at least 
a mouth and internal nutritive apparatus." As each of these 
must have some tubing and fluidic circulation it would doubtless 
be safe to estimate its number of atoms as high as 1000. This 
would make the number of atoms in the animalcules of a drop 
500,000,000,000, besides the countless atoms which compose the 
water itself. The atmospheric bacteria are still smaller, as other 
scientists have shown. Thompson, by means of numerous ex- 
periments, has established the fact that in transparent bodies the 
atoms are so small as to require 250,000,000 to 5,000,000,000 to 
extend one inch, and Gaudin calculates for the smallest particles 
of matter figures much the same as those of Thompson, making 
the number of atoms for a large pin's head about 8,000,000,000,- 
000,000,000,000 (8 sextillions) which, if measured off at the rate 
of a million a second, would take over 250 million years to com- 
plete! This taken in connection with the wonderful and beau- 
tiful character of each atom becomes one of the most amazing 
facts in the universe. But even this is doubtless far below the 
infinitude of nature's smallness, as the finest ethers must have 
atoms quite transcending in minuteness all measurements, or 
comprehension of the human mind. 

IV. The Form of Atoms. 



1. In the first place atoms are evidently not spherical, as 
some have supposed, as they would not combine thus properly, 
and would not so well carry out the law of positive and negative 
conditions without which all life and action must cease. This 
will be shown hereafter. 

2. The lines of atomic force, are doubtless not in circles, this 
being contrary to the general untrammeled movements of nature, 
as the pathway of missiles, cataracts and planets is in the sec- 
tions of a cone. 

3. Some philosophers, believing with Bishop Berkeley that 



»o 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



the whole universe is spiritual in its nature, conclude that atoms 
must be spiritual, or mere circular forces which in some way 
overlap, combine and crystallize into the forms which we call 
matter. Others, believing with Hume and Buchner, that matter 
is the beginning and end of all things, of course consider the 
atoms merely material. 

4. We have seen the folly of these extreme positions in the 
last chapter, and having learned that everything possesses a finer 
positive principle, and a coarser negative principle, we may confi- 
dently presume that each atom has its imperishable frame- 
work, with the definiteness of position which is supposed to 
belong to materiality, and yet an inconceivable exquisiteness, 
elasticity and spirit-like freedom and flow of force. 

5. What, then, are the lines of atomic force? Let us see if we 
cannot find a suggestion by noticing what are nature's great lines 
of force. Our sun, as we have seen, is moving around some 
greater sun. This greater sun is also moving onward, probably 
around some still greater centre, and carrying our sun with it. 
Our sun, under this double motion, then, must describe a vast 
spiral through the heavens. Again, our earth moves around the 
sun, and at the same time is carried by the sun around its centre, 
making a smaller spiral somewhat less than 200,000,000 miles in 
diameter through the heavens. Then, finally, the moon makes its 
baby spiral of about half a million miles in diameter around our 
earth. Thus we have first the great solar spiral, then the telluric 
spiral around the solar, then the lunar spiral around the telluric, 
three distinct gradations on nature's favorite trinal plan. 

6. Let us suppose now that atoms are in ellipsoids, or rather 
in the modifications of this form in the ovoid, which, as we 
have seen, in Chapter First, is the most easy and beautiful of sim- 
ple enclosed forms. "What nature does generally is beautiful," 
says Ruskin, and atoms being the most general of all things, we 
cannot suppose them for a moment to be anything but beautiful. 
So far, it may be said, we are building on mere supposition, but 
it will be shown more and more as we advance that there is a ne- 
essity for this form. One thing in proof of this is the fact that 
atoms will combine and polarize better by having a smaller end, 
while, as will be shown, the law of positive and negative action 
forces one end to be smaller than the other. 



THE FORM OF ATOMS. 



97 



7. But where must the lines of force run, over or through this 
atom, or both? Let us see. We have ascertained in Chapter 
First that the spiral, itself the most beautiful of continuous forms, 
is the great leading law of motion in nature. Let us presume, 
then, that the spiral direction rules in atoms as well as in worlds, 
especially as, according to the great unity of law, we must judge 
the unknown by the known. In fact the spiral is a necessity if 
we are to get any continuous lines around the atom and have it 
progress regularly so as to cover its whole form and then convey 
its force over to the next atom. So far, then, we have the exter- 
nal atom clad with spiral lines of force, or rather, a spiral frame- 
work, and tube-work through which, and over which, this force 
must vibrate and flow. 

8. Fig 132 gives a simple representation of 
this atomic coil or helix, commencing below 
and moving round and round the atom from 
left to right, until the other end at 4 is reached. 
Let us first consider the effect of this external 
spiral movement which sweeps around with in- 
conceivable rapidity. It is a well known fact 
in electricity and magnetism that when the 
conducting wire is wound in a spiral coil, its 
heat producing power is greatly increased. 
Another fact which harmonizes with the same 
thing is that the greater the heat, the greater the expansion, 
other things being equal, and here we can see just how it is that 
heat produces expansion, for the more powerful the sweep of 
forces around the atom, the more it will increase the outward or 
centrifugal force. One leading principle for the development 
of heat is that there shall be obstacles to overcome, or a laboring 
style of movement, and this explains why this ever twisting 
movement of the spiral is the distinctive one for heat. 

9. Let us see how the line of force would work as it vibrates 
this exquisite wire-work which is untold millions of times finer 
and more elastic than any wires of copper or steel. Com- 
mencing at 1 it gets under greater and greater momentum until 
it swells the atom out to its greatest size at the middle or a little 
beyond, and then becoming gradually spent, the coil grows 
smaller at 3, and reaching the larger negative end at 4, the 

7 




132. Outline of an 
A torn, 



08 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



heat-force of the other end is felt through the axial portion and 
draws it in through the middle of the atom to the smaller end, 
where the circuit is recommenced. 

10. This current of force through the centre of the atom, act- 
ing like any fluid under the same circumstances, becomes a vortex 
and tends to draw the other portions inward by its suction. 
This, without doubt, is the principle of cold as is proved by the 
following facts: — 1st, it is contracting in its nature, and cold is 
contracting; 2dly, it moves in the opposite direction from heat 
which shows why the needle of the galvanometer, connected with 
the thermo-electric pile, moves in one direction for cold and 
another for heat, as Tyndall and others have often noticed; 3dly, 
the swifter the movement of the forces, the more narrow, pierc- 
ing and contracting is the stream, and this harmonizes with the 
known effects of cold, which is piercing and contracting in pro- 
portion as it becomes intense; 4thly, as a great principle of 
equilibrium in nature, it is necessary that one part of atomic 
force should develop cold in a way to balance the heat action, 
and 5thly, the flow of forces could not be kept up at all were it 
not for the law of cold, to intensify the law of heat, just as the 
heat intensifies the law of cold, as will be seen more clearly here- 
after. 

1 1 . But in order to work properly, there must be a more intense 
heat-action at the smaller end in order to draw in the forces that 
reach the negative larger end from the outside. How can this 
be effected? Is not the heat the greatest at the larger part of 
the atom where the spiral is most expansive and intense in its 
action? Yes, so far as this spiral is concerned, but there are 
other processes by which this may be caused. As nature ever 
deals with gradations of refinement, and as in the solar system we 
see three grades of spirals with the smallest encircling the next 
larger, and this larger encircling one still larger, so we may pre- 
sume that the atomic system continues the analogy and has dif- 
ferent grades of spirals also. The fact also that there are known 
to be so many grades of force, would argue in favor of different 
grades of fineness in the atomic coils. 

12. Fig 133, presents the main spiral which passes around 
the atom, then a sub-spiral which encircles the main spiral. 
This may be called the first spirilla or little spiral. Judging by 



THE HEAT END OF ATOMS. 



oo 



nature's usual law of trinal grada- 
tions there is probably a still finer 
spirilla that encircles this first one 
which may be called the second 
spirilla, and another which en- 
circles the second one, more 
minute still, and properly con- 
stituting the third spirilla. The 
different grades of forces that flow along this spiral and these 
spirilla? must pass around the atom in the same direction, just as 
the sun, planets and moon all move along through space in the 
same direction, namely from west to east. 




Piece of Atomic Spiral with 1st 
2nd and jrd Spiralis. 



V. The Heat End of Atoms. 



1. From the foregoing, then, we may now begin to see how 
one end of the atom will naturally become warmer than the 
other end, although the spiral itself may be less expanded with 
heat action. The first spirilla, being much more elastic than the 
spiral, must spring into its full heat action and power near the 
positive end, say at 1, and the 2d and 3d spirillse still sooner. 
These become more exhausted and feeble at 2, near the negative 
end, after having imparted their force to the spiral. That is, the 
3d spirilla, being most active, quickens the 2d, the 2d quickens 
the 1st, and the 1st quickens the spiral itself. 

2. Another method of intensifying the heat of the positive 
end is to have the spiral lines nearer together there than at the 
negative end, as in fig 132, a method which nature probably 
adopts, as it is absolutely necessary to have the positive and 
negative distinctions well emphasized to attain the highest power. 
Does the reader see this important point? By having the external 
positive end hot it draws all the more powerfully upon the axial 
current within and thus intensifies the cold, and then again the 
swifter the cold-producing currents the more will they react and 
draw upon the heat-currents on the external atom, other things 
being equal. Thus beautifully does nature develop her inten- 
sity of life and action, by causing one extreme to vitalize and 
balance the other. Action on any other plan would be ruin, or 
rather action without positive and negative forces would be im- 
possible, and so universal death would ensue. 



100 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



VI. Nature of Atomic Spirals. 



1. As in animal life there are millions of tubes, such as lym- 
phatics, lacteals, capillaries, veins, arteries, nerves, etc., and as in 
all vegetable growth there are countless tubular ducts to convey 
the life fluids, so we may conclude that an atom with its inten- 
sity of life-like action has its spirals and spirilla in the form of 
tubes, within which are still finer ethereal juices which constitute 
its most interior life-force. That these spirals are amazingly 
elastic is shown by the fact that they expand to a size 2000 times 
greater in ordinary atmosphere than in water, while in the upper 
atmosphere, and especially in the ether beyond, they must be far 
more expanded still. 

2. The most common arrangement of atomic spirals is doubt- 
less two-fold, as will be shown hereafter, consisting, 1st, of 

coarser and more external groups of spirals 
such as 2 and 4 in fig. 134, which may be termed 
extra spirals, and 2dly, finer spirals set farther 
in, such as 1 and 3, which may be called intra 
spirals. 

The need and existence of these will become 
more and more apparent as we advance, besides 
fulfilling nature's analogies. Instead of there 
being but one intra-spiral at 1 and 3, or but one 
extra-spiral as at 2 and 4, there is probably a 
gradation of several of them placed side by 
side in all the more complex grades of atoms, say from 3 to 7 in 
each place. The need of seven spirals in all transparent atoms, 
in other words in atoms of substances which transmit all the 
colors as in transparent bodies, will be evident. The positive 
intra-spirals are grouped at 1, the positive extra-spirals at 2, the 
negative intra-spirals at 3, the negative-extra spirals at 4, the 
atomic vortex into which the spirals all sweep with vortical whirl 
is at 5, the torrent at which the forces become most pointed and 
swift is at 6, and the axis or axial current from 5 to 6. The 
curves caused by the vibration of spirals are not shown in the 
cut, nor are any but the first of the spirillse given and shown as 
they must be in nature, and there are doubtless points of connec- 
tion between spirals, spirillae and all other parts of the atom 
which make it a complete unity. 




Fig. 1 34. Extra Spirals 
and Intra-Spirals. 



GENERAL FEATURES OF ATOMS. 



101 



VII. General Features of Atoms. 



1. Years of investigation of what the general form and con- 
stitution of atoms must be to harmonize with and furnish a key 
to the facts discovered by the scientific world, aided by many 
more years of inquiry into the fundamental principles of nature, 
have led me to a very positive conclusion that fig. 135 is the gen- 
eral outline of an ordinary atom, especially of one by means of 
which all the colors can be made manifest. The hundreds of 
points to prove it correct cannot be given here, but they will 
appear more and more all through this work in the mysteries 
which are cleared up thereby, especially in Chapter V. as well as 
in this chapter. Although the modification of tints, hues and 
other forces which are manifested through atoms is almost infinite 
from the fact that atoms of the same substance must vary within 
certain limits in the size of their spirillse of the same kind, yet facts 
seem to indicate seven intra-spirals (4) on the outside of atoms 
for the warm or thermal colors, and which are properly the thermo- 
lumino group, whereas the same spirals form the principle of the 
electrical colors while passing through the axis of atoms. These 
are all named and located in fig. 135, commencing with the largest 
spirilla for the hot invisible solar rays called thermel, after which 
is the slightly smaller spirilla for red, another for red-orange, 
etc. Passing around the atom and becoming smaller and finer, 
the same spirillae form the channels for the electrical colors by 
passing into the vortex and through the axis, thermel being con- 
verted into blue-green, red into blue, red-orange into indigo-blue, 
orange into indigo, yellow-orange into violet-indigo, yellow into 
violet, and yellow-green into dark violet. The group of thermo- 
spirals at 3, 3, are called positive, because the spirillse that sur- 
round them are larger and the heat greater than the portion of 
the same group at 5, 5, which are therefore called negative thermo- 
spirals. The group 2, embraces the positive color-spirals, 
but as they are concealed by gliding into the contiguous atoms, 
it is only the same group at 4 that are visible as thermo-color 
spirals, or at the vortex above as electro-color spirals. 9 and 10 
represent minute streams of ether, which are simply combina- 
tions of much finer atoms, that flow from the thermo spirillse and 
the thermo-lumino spirillse into the same grades of spirillse in the 
atom above; 7 and 9 are axial ethers which flow from the atom 



102 



ETHERJO-AIOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



I 



p.; 



■:'':$;\ 



I'U'i'Ji •: 



//W$%p A$p£ I n d . vM v. 




Fig. 135. The general Form of an Atom, including the spirals and 1st -Spirilla, together 
with influx anil efflux ethers, represented by dots, which pass through these spirilla;. The 
2d and 3d spirillse with their still finer ethers are not shown. 






GENERAL FEATURES OF ATOMS. 



103 




Fig. 1 36. 
Atoms joined. 



above into the axial spirilla? of this atom; 8 rep- 
resents ethers which flow through the ligo tube, 
and these and other ethers are represented as pass- 
ing on through their appropriate channels until they 
emerge at the torrent end. These ethers sweep 
through the atom and quicken its spiral wheel-work 
into new life, just as the winds move a wind-mill, or 
the waters a water-wheel, while the atom itself, armed 
as it is with its vortical spring-work, must have a 
great reactive suction which draws on these ethereal winds.* 

2. Why are ethers drawn from spirillar of one atom to the 
same kind of spirillse in a contiguous atom, and why does a cer- 
tain grade of ether exactly harmomize with, and seek out, a cer- 
tain size of spirilla? For the same reason that a tuning fork or 
the cord of a piano will be set into vibration by a tone made in 
its own key. In the case of a piano, a cord vibrates to tones of its 
own pitch, or in other words, to tones whose waves synchronize 
with its own vibrations. Let us apply this principle to atoms. 
The vibratory action of the red spirilla throws the current of 
ether which passes through it into the eddy-like whirl which just 
harmonizes in size and form to the red spirilla of the next atom 
above it with which it comes in contact, and which must neces- 
sarily draw it on. This second atom passes it on to the red 
spirilla of the third, the third to that of the fourth, and so on 
through millions of miles, so long as there is a spirilla of the right 
grade to conduct it onward. The same process applies to the 
orange, or yellow, or any other spiral, and, constituting as it does 
a fundamental principle of chemical action, the reader should 
note this point well. The same principle applies to the axial 
spirals whose lines of force, reaching the positive end at 1, make 
a sudden dart to the outside and thus in part jolt their contents 
into the answering spirals of the next atom, the blue ethers of 
this plunging into the blue spirilla of the next, the violet ethers 
of this into the violet spirilla of the next, and so on. 

3. The ethers are efflux as they flow out of one atom or 
series of atoms, and influx as they flow into an atom or series of 



*As will be shown hereafter, there must be still finer atmospheres within the or- 
dinary atmosphere, so fine doubtless that they permeate solids and fluids, and form a 
base- work for fluidic action which may assist the spiral eddies and vortical suctions of 
the larger atoms. 



104 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



atoms. Thus 9 and 7 are influx, and 6 and 10 efflux ethers. 
The ethers at the torrent end are powerfully efflux, and have 
momentum not only from the projectile force of this atom, but 
from the suctional force of the next, into whose vortex this atom 
is inserted. 

4. It should be noticed that the same spirilla? which wind 
around the outside of atoms on the expansive law of thermism, 
pass on through the axis on the contracting law of cold, and 
after becoming the most contracted and intense at the positive 
end of the atom, suddenly plunge to the outside and again be- 
come thermal. Thus the very intensity of the interior cold forces 
may develop intensity of heat, and we at once see why it is that 
an object which is so cold as to be 60° F. below zero is said to 
have an effect similar to that of red hot iron. 

5. The First Positive Thermo-Spiral at A projects beyond 
the intra-spirals below and forms a regulating barrier to deter- 
mine just how far this atom shall be inserted into the vortex of 
the next atom: in other words, this atom becomes sheathed in 
the next as far as A, while the atom above becomes encased in 
this precisely the same distance, and so on, which accounts for 
the great regularity of form in crystallizations, etc. In chemical 
affinity, as I shall show hereafter, the atom glides into a wide 
mouthed atom up to its shoulders at A' where the second circuit 
of these same thermo-spirals is seen. By this means the color- 
spirals are hidden in the encasing atom, and this explains some 
mysteries of color change which puzzle the chemist, and which 
will be explained in Chapter V. 

6. The Ligo is supposed to exist only in solids, such as rocks, 
metals, fibrous substances, etc., in which it forms the leading 
element of cohesion and hardness, while in liquids, gases and 
ethers it is wanting, which accounts for their flowing qualities. 
This tube probably has spiral convolutions with openings in the 
sides something like those Chimney pieces, the object of which 
is to cause a draft. 

7. The seven thermo-lumino spirals which become the elec- 
tro-lumino spirals on reaching the vortex and axial portion of the 
atom, naturally grow somewhat smaller, from the smaller space 
in which they move, and receive a finer grade of ethers from 
the axis of the atom above at 9 and 7 than those which course 



THE THERMO SPIRALS. 



105 



through them in their thermal portions on the outside. As they 
progress through the axis they become narrower, more nearly 
straight and consequently more keenly electrical until they reach 
the torrent end. The reason the dark violet is the coldest of all 
the colors is, because from its position it must circulate with a 
more narrow and interior course through the axis, as being the 
highest (See fig. 135), it reaches the vortex and enters before the 
others, next to which comes the violet, then the violet-indigo, 
the indigo, the indigo-blue, the blue, and warmest and least 
electrical of all in the electrical group, the blue-green. My rea- 
sons for calling these the electrical group of colors will be fully 
shown in XXIX of this chapter. All axial forces move on the 
law of electricity of some kind, while the coarser grades of electri- 
ity impart the ruder sensations of cold, which are so distressing. 
The finest grades of electricity, while producing the phenomena of 
cold, such as contraction, do not impart the chilling sensations of 
cold at all, to most persons. To compose all the colors which 
constitute white light, both the electrical and thermal colors 
must be combined and carried along side by side through con- 
versely polarized lines of atmosphere, or other media, through 
which they are conveyed. 

8. The axial spirilla? doubtless fill up the whole interior of 
their atoms from their elasticity, which fact the artist has not 
quite expressed. 

VIII. The Thermo Spirals. 



So useful, as we have seen, in regulating the joining of atoms 
according to absolute system, have other important qualities. 
They are important factors of heat or thermism in its ordinary 
coarser grade, and when moving axially constitute the principle 
of frictional electricity (See XXV). These being extra-spirals, 
and consequently the most external of all, it is easy to see why 
friction or pressure begets heat as well as electricity. It is easy 
to see, too, why frictional electricity moves especially over the 
surface of bodies as these spirals are so projecting as to strike 
very freely against all surrounding atoms, consequently their 
movements are smothered before they reach any considerable 
depth below the surface. These extra spirals would naturally 



106 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



emerge from the axis of atoms on a side opposite to that from 
which the intra-spirals emerge, to maintain an equilibrium of 
forces, and would also pass into the vortex on the opposite side. 

IX. — Ethereal Forces. 



1. We have now seen that an atom is a wonderful little 
machine with wheels within wheels, a miniature world through 
which are manifested the principles of all power both on the 
earth beneath and in the heavens above. But how is this 
machine made to run? How do these atomic springs keep up 
their ceaseless motions, their amazing vibrations, millions of mil- 
lions of which take place in a second of time, as for instance in 
light? Has such a thing ever been heard of as a spring that 
will vibrate forever of its own accord? Has not science deter- 
mined that perpetual motion in mechanics is impossible? We 
have seen in the last chapter that in all the known mechanics 
of man or nature, force is never propagated excepting through 
fluidic action of some kind. As the wind-mill must have its 
wind to keep up motion, so must the atom have its flow of ethers 
to keep its wheels in operation, and form different sized eddies 
of force. Democritus speaks of "minute atoms in swift motion 
which by their smallness and rapidity were able to permeate the 
hardest bodies." In this idea he almost reached the very key 
of force, showing that he had an idea of ethereal fluids without 
which no correct conception of nature's dynamics can ever be 
acquired. 

2. But here it may be asked, what keeps the ethers in per- 
petual motion, for, like the more static atoms through which they 
move, even they must be vitalized or they will cease. While 
the spiral forms of the atom, when once in motion, attract the 
ethers with a fine suction, and while the arrangement of positive 
and negative portions of the atoms gives still further vitality, 
making it almost self-acting, still there is the edict of mathematic- 
cal science which says that perpetual motion in mechanics is im- 
possible. And yet nature and life are in everlasting motion 
and not an atom of the universe is at rest. How shall we get 
out of this dilemma? Let us dwell a moment on this point. 



DIFFERENT GRADE OF ETHER. 107 

X. The Primate of Force. 

We have seen that the finer and more subtile a substance 
becomes, other things being equal, the more potent is its char- 
acter (Chap. First, XV.), and the more nearly does it seemingly 
approach self-action. We see also that the merely material uni- 
verse has no power in itself of perpetual movement — that pro- 
toplasm, for instance, which some physicists proclaim as the 
starting point of all life, must be entirely powerless without some 
higher and finer principle beyond it: whence, then, is the power 
that animates all being? If matter alone proves thus insufficient 
for this continuity of life, are we not driven irresistibly to the 
conclusion that what we call spirit, must be a necessary factor? 
In fact is there an example that can be produced in the whole 
realm of being, in which continuous and self action exists ex- 
cepting when some principle of spiritual force is combined with 
material conditions? To reach the primate of power, then, we 
seem compelled to mount the ladder of fine forces to those which 
are still finer, until we arrive at conditions so exquisite as to be 
able to receive directly the impress of Infinite Spirit. But Spirit 
itself, if we are to judge by all analogies, must flow out and 
permeate all atoms and beings on a diviner plan, though in har- 
mony with the fluidic process. 

XI. Different Grades of Ether. 

1. I have been convinced beyond all doubt by numerous facts, 
that there are many different grades and styles of ether, and that 
long before I saw the suggestion of Grove. I will simply notice 
two or three of these facts in proof here, as the reader will see 
the necessity of these grades more and more as we proceed. 
Scientific men generally admit that there is one ether as a 
medium for communicating waves of light, etc. This of course 
is immensely elastic and has sometimes been called the Cosmic 
Ether which is a very proper name, as it constitutes an exquisite 
atomic bridge-work between the starry worlds over which pass 
and repass the fine solar and stellar forces of all kinds, such as 
the different grades of light, electricity, heat, gravitation, etc. 
The law of atomic arrangement in this cosmic ether will be 
shown hereafter. In speaking of these ethers and some other 



108 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



subjects, I must in some cases give simply the results of my 
investigations, reserving the fuller proofs for another part of this 
work or for a future treatise. 

2. The fact that scientific men in general have not ascer- 
tained that there is more than one ether just as there is more than 
one grade of gases or liquids, shows how completely they have 
ignored the finer and mightier forces, and confined their investi- 
gations to the cruder elements principally. In 1773, La Place 
demonstrated that gravitation acts at least fifty million times as 
swiftly as light. Can anybody suppose that such a movement 
of force comes from waves of the same ether, without some finer 
element being involved? What would be thought of a person who 
would assert that waves of air in some cases move 1100 feet in a 
second, as in the production of sound, and in other cases millions 
of times as rapidly? But nobody will be so absurd in reasoning 
about visible and tangible matters, and they should use equal 
judgment in reasoning about the invisible. The analogies of all 
nature and the necessity of different grades of fluidic elements 
to express the different grades of force, constitute abundant proof 
of the plurality of ethers, as will be seen hereafter. 

3. In giving the different grades of ethers, those which are 
generally in motion gliding through larger atoms will be repre- 
sented by terms ending in o, but those which are more commonly 
stationary, or nearly so, like the water of a lake, or a quiet 
atmosphere, will be signified by terms ending in ic. The former 
are more fluidic, the latter more nearly static. Static ethers are 
of course sometimes capable of becoming fluidic, just as water 
may at times flow in streams, or the air be swept into currents, 
but I speak of their general character, which is to form a bridge- 
work of channels through which the fluid ethers may pass, just 
as polarized lines of atmosphere form channels for the solar 
ethers in the processes of light. But these very solar ethers, 
even while in full flight through space, may form the bridge-work 
of incomparably swifter and more subtile ethers, such, for in- 
stance, as those which cause the attraction of gravitation, and 
thus, for the time being, become relatively static though not 
absolutely so. My investigations have led me to adopt the fol- 
lowing as constituting the leading divisions of ethers, progress- 
ing, for the most part, towards superior fineness as we advance. 



DIFFERENT GRADES OF ETHER. 



109 



I give them names mainly from the spirals in connection with 
which they move. 

4. The Thermo Ethers flow through the thermo spirilla; and in 
connection with these, which as we have seen are the most ex- 
ternal of all, constitute the ordinary coarser grades of heat. These 
ethers are too coarse to become visible in the way of colors, but 
when the heat action is very intense, as for instance in heated 
iron, the intra spirals become roused into action and manifest 
first the red light, then the orange and yellow light, then white 
light, when the iron is called white hot. 

5. Electro Ether is the element of frictional electricity used 
in connection with these same thermo spirals, only on the axial 
portion. These spirals being the highest and most external while 
on the outside of atoms, must necessarily enter the vortex first 
and become the most interior and direct while in the axial por- 
tion, hence the swiftness and intensity of its ethers which are 
transmitted by the shortest pathway, and hence, also, the fact that 
they are more thoroughly electrical than the other elements of 
electricity (See XXV.). On the supposition that there are three 
grades of thermo and electro spirals, there must be three grades 
of thermo ether and three of electro ether. 

6. Thermo Lumino Ether is used in the intra spirillae which 
form the thermal colors, or in other words with the thermo 
lumino spirillae. The different grades may be designated the 
thermel ether, red ether, orange ether, etc. There seem to be two 
distinct grades of ether for each color, and a very important 
principle being involved here, a few words of explanation will be 
necessary. The reader should remember that the seven tubes 
which pass around the atom constitute the thermal color-spirals, 
while the still finer tubes that wind around these spirals them- 
selves, are the first spirillae which form channels for the color 
ethers. Now suppose a red color ether should be thrown upon 
a red spirilla from the outside, what would be the effect? The 
finer atoms of such ether would be small enough to penetrate 
between the tubes of the spirilla and become a part of the in- 
terior current, while the coarser atoms, being too large to pass 
inside, would strike the tubes and bound off. This would con- 
stitute a reflected red as in a red building, while the other would 
constitute a transmitted red as in red glass. If this is true the 



110 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



interior transmitted color should be more exquisite than the 
ordinary reflected colors, which in fact is remarkably the case, as 
the colors of a prism or of colored glass are so much more 
beautiful than those of the ordinary reflected colors seen in 
paints or dyes, that a young person viewing them for the first 
time is apt to make an exclamation of delight. The diamond is 
a good illustration of exquisitely fine transmitted ethers which 
are shown by its refractive power. That all substances have 
different grades of fineness is shown in Chapter Fourth, VII., 
1 — 5. These grades can be called transmitted red, reflected red, 
transmitted orange, reflected orange, etc. 

7. Electro Luinino Ether is of course that which is connected 
with the spirillse of the electric colors, and may be called the 
blue-green ether, the blue ether, the indigo-blue ether, and so on 
with the other four colors. These, too, have the fine transmitted 
grade of ethers and the coarser reflected grade, the latter of 
which must bound back from the spirillse just within the vortex. 
The color ethers (or in other words light), move 186,000 miles a 
second, or about two-thirds as rapidly as frictional electricity, as 
measured by Wheatstone. It should be remembered that the 
color-ethers grow finer as they progress through thermel, red, 
red-orange, orange, etc., up to dark violet and really far beyond 
that, although they become invisible to the ordinary eye. 

8. So far we have the principal ethers which flow through a 
transparent substance, like glass, including the thermo ethers 
which flow through the extra spirals, and the electro ethers which 
flow through the axial portion of the same; also the lumino 
ethers, both thermal and electric, which flow through the intra 
spirals and their axial portions. There must be still finer ethers 
in connection with the second and third spirillse of these same 
substances, but these will be understood better hereafter. But 
are there no other forces in nature excepting those thus far named, 
including light, reflected and transmitted, ordinary heat as mani- 
fested by the thermo spirals and spirillse, and ordinary cold and 
frictional electricity, as manifested by their axial spirals and 
spirillse? Yes, for there are different grades of electricity, such 
as the galvanic and magnetic among the more positive styles, 
and weaker negative grades of electricity, and other still finer 
forces which will be explained hereafter. 



DIFFERENT GRADES OF ETHER. 



Ill 



9. We may now descend to a somewhat coarser grade of 
ethers which sweep through atoms of somewhat coarser charac- 
ter than those that are used for the transmission of light. Iron, 
and perhaps a majority of opaque substances, belong more or 
less to this grade. Farther on in this chapter (XXXIII), facts 
will be adduced to show that the atoms of these substances 
also have their seven intra spirals in which the ethers are 
a little too coarse to appear as light, as well as the usual 
thermo spirals, through which the ethers flow as a somewhat 
coarser grade of caloric than that of the other atoms. The 
intra spirals, when they reach the axis of these atoms, have 
ethers which correspond to those for blue-green, blue, indigo- 
blue, indigo, violet-indigo, violet and dark violet of the lumen- 
ous atoms, only, as I have said, somewhat too coarse to pro- 
duce the effect of color on the retina of the eye. What effect 
do they produce, then? That of electricity of course, as they 
flow axially. But what kinds of electricity? We may divide 
them into three grades, namely, Chemico electricity, Galvano 
electricity, and Magneto electricity, or the chemico, galvano 
and magneto ethers in connection with their axial prince- 
pies. 

10. Chemico Ether is a lower grade of chemical force, pre- 
sumed to flow through the axial spirilla corresponding to the 
blue-green in the color atoms and perhaps the coarser grade of 
blue, and constituting the feeblest style of electricity as it is 
more external than the other axial spirillse. It is doubtless an 
element of negative electricity, and is quickened into decided 
action by sulphuric acid coming into contact with zinc, etc. See 
XXVI. 

11. Galvano Ether, the element of galvanic electricity, seems 
to correspond with the ether for blue, indigo-blue, and probably 
indigo. It is finer and more powerful than the chemico grade. 
See XXVII and XXXIV. 

12. Magneto Ether, used in Magnetic electricity and Mag- 
netism. Its spirillse correspond to those for violet-indigo, violet 
and dark violet, as shown by spectrum analysis. This, in connec- 
tion with some galvano ether, constitutes the positive or north- 
pole currents of the magnet, while chemico ether is used in the 
feebler currents of the south pole in connection with thermism. 



112 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



See Chromo-dynamics; also Plate III., in which the odic colors 
are a fair test of the potencies of the magnet. Iron, the great 
leading metal of magnetism, when intensely heated for spectro- 
scopic analysis, has the violet-indigo the strongest of its electri- 
cal colors, also the violet, indigo, blue, and blue-green large, 
which last is the element of Chemical electricity. (Chap. Fifth, 
XIII). 

13. Odylo-Ether, the basic fluid of odic light and force as 
discovered by Baron Reichenbach, and a grade higher than the 
ethers of ordinary light. It flows through the 2d spirilla? of the 
intra spirals just as ordinary light does through the first spirilla? of 
the same: also through the first spirillse of odic atmosphere 
just as light does through the same spirillse of common atmos- 
phere. (See Chap. Ninth.) 

14. Psycho Ether, used in connection with mental action 
(Chap. Tenth), twice as fine as Odylo ether, four times as fine as 
light, as will be shown. It can pass through the 3d spirillse of 
intra spirals of ordinary atmosphere, also through the 1st spirillse 
of the psychic atmosphere, which form all analogies we must 
suppose to exist. 

15. Gravito Ether, the central element of gravitation, incon- 
ceivably fine and swift. The reader may already see from the 
foregoing description of atoms, something of how its attractive 
processes are carried on between all bodies, all atoms of which 
exert their suctional forces in all directions so far as this fine 
ether is concerned. At some future time I shall attempt to ex- 
plain the processes by which this is done, and by which some 
atoms become heavy and others light. 

16. Cosmic Ether. I will mention briefly some static ethers 
which are signified by names ending in ic, as I have before said. 
Cosmic ether, from Cosmos, the world, is the great world-connect- 
ing ether of space, whose atoms, polarized by the light of suns and 
stars, become crystal railways over which light and various 
other forces pass. In Chapter Fourth, VIII, I have given a 
number of facts in proof that this cosmic ether is simply a con- 
tinuation of the finer elements of the atmosphere of the earth 
and other orbs in the shape of an exquisite grade of hydrogen as 
its leading element. 

17. Odylic Ether is the finer atmosphere within the coarser, 



DIFFERENT GRADES OF ETHER. 



113 



through which the odylo ether or odic force finds its most natu- 
ral pathway. For description see Chapter Ninth, III, 2. 

18. Psychic Ether, the atmosphere still finer than the fore- 
going, through which psycho ether with the psychic lights and 
colors makes its pathway. It is the same to psycho ether that 
the atmosphere is to light. (See Chap. Tenth). 

19. Miscellaneous Ethers. There are ethers probably still 
coarser, and of course still finer than any of the foregoing. There 
is probably a very slow Animo ether which constitutes a vitaliz- 
ing principle of animal life and the coarser grade of nerve-force. 
According to experiments made by Helmholtz and Baxt, the 
mean rapidity of the motor nerve force is 254 feet per second. 
As we have already seen, the lines of all spirals and spirillse 
must be tubes if we are to judge by analogies. When I say the 
line of a spiral, I do not mean the line that passes around the 
spiral, for this would be the 1st spirilla, but the spiral itself. 
Within the spiral tube would naturally be polarized lines of 
minute atoms forming a static ether which may be called Spiric, 
while in the spirillse tubes the same kind of still smaller atoms 
may be called Spirillic. These must serve a great purpose, for 
as they wind around in tortuous lines and are swept by the 
ethereal forces into countless vibrations, these internal ethers 
must be chafed with intense frictions which would immediately 
render the whole tubes alive with heat and quicken the action of 
the whole atom with all its grades of ether. These spiric and 
spirillic ethers would also be quickened and held together by ex- 
quisitely fine fluid ethers which move in endless circuits through 
them, and which should properly be called Spiro-Ether and 
Spirillo Ether. The Ligo Ether, which sweeps through the ligo 
and drives the atoms together into a close cohesion, must be a 
cold and swift current on the general plan of electricity. In 
order to the greatest harmony, the ethers that pass through the 
channel (not the tube), of the third spirillse, must be twice as fine 
as those of a 2d spirilla, and those of a 2d, twice as fine as those 
of a 1st, and the size of these channels themselves, as well as the 
size of the tubes that form the channels, must vary accordingly. 
This makes every alternate wave of force harmonize, just as is 
done in tones which are an octave apart. This same kind of 
harmony is carried out in male and female voices which average 



114 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



just an octave apart. The reader will understand this the better 
by studying the laws of undulatory harmony and discord, and by 
remembering that nature ever works according to the most per- 
fect system. Let not the reader consider the foregoing nomen- 
clature and division of ethers quite imaginary, as he will be 
finding facts in corroboration all through this work, and still 
other facts in a future work of the author. 

XII. Ethers have Weight, 

Otherwise they could not have momentum. It is common to 
call electricity, magnetism, light, heat, etc., imponderable, because 
human instruments are not delicate enough to weigh them. 
Prof. Crookes, however, has succeeded in measuring the momen- 
tum of light by means of his wonderful little instrument called 
the radiometer. By its means he has estimated the propulsive 
power of sunlight for the whole earth at 3000 millions of tons! 
His instrument has given the dynamic theorists much trouble. 
The light of a candle he has found to weigh .001728 or nearly a 
900th part of a grain. The amazing forces used in chemical af- 
finity, such as chemico-ether, the luminous ethers, electro-ether, 
etc., as will be shown hereafter, sweep the atoms even of solids 
into every style of arrangement and polarization, and consequently 
must have a tremendous momentum. The etherio-atomic law 
demonstrates this point in a multitude of ways. Dr. William 
B. Carpenter, who seems to be but little acquainted with the 
fine forces, has written an article in the "Nineteenth Century," 
in which he takes the most difficult methods of explaining away 
the power of radiation to produce electricity and mechanical 
force as in the radiometer. "There is no reason whatever," he 
says, "for attributing to radiation any other power of exciting an 
electric current than that which it exerts mediately through its 
power of heating the thermopile." Even if this assertion should 
prove true, how can sunlight heat the thermopile, or anything 
else, except by the impact and momentum of its rays upon it, 
especially as it is admitted that radiating light has no per- 
ceptible heat of itself, excepting as it strikes something? 

XIII. — Polar Cohesion of Atoms. 



I think the ground is now sufficiently clear for an understand- 



LATERAL COHESION OF ATOMS. 



115 




137. Polarized 
Atoms. 



ing of the methods by which atoms become polarized and com- 
bine into solids and other substances. 

Fig. 137 represents two atoms polarized and joined at 1, the 
upper atom sinking into the lower as far as the 
positive thermo spirals, which thus regulate the 
distance. The dotted lines represent the ethers 
which flow axially from 3 to 5, and thermally around 
the atoms in the other direction; 4, 4 shows how 
the ethers are drawn on from one atom to another 
by the eddy-like forces of the spirals and spirilla? 
of the same grade with which they come in contact. 
The ligo of the upper atom glides into the ligo of 
the lower, and the two thus become riveted into 
one, and held doubly tight by the spiral sweep of 
the ligo-ether. The artist has doubtless rep- 
resented the upper ligo as being inserted too far in the lower 
ligo, as the axial spirals which encircle the upper might interfere 
somewhat, unless they are exceedingly elastic. But how do the 
atoms thus arrange themselves in this orderly manner? Why 
do not the wrong ends come together? Not only does the vorti- 
cal and ligo suction of the lower atom draw the second, but the 
torrent or axial current above drives the second against the lower 
atom and holds them together. They could not possibly be joined 
wrong end first, as the currents would then drive in opposite di- 
rections, and repulsion would occur. They can no more avoid this 
arrangement under the play of ethereal forces than a stick of 
wood on the brink of a maelstrom can avoid being swept in. 
The positive end of the line is at 5, the negative end at 3. 

XIV. Lateral Cohesion. 



1 . Having explained the mystery of polar cohesion, let us see 
how atoms can cohere laterally. Fig. 138 presents two lines of 

polarized atoms drawn with a single 
thermo spiral and its first spirilla. 
The lines are placed conversely so 
that a positive spirilla of one atom 
occurs by the side of a negative 
spirilla of another. If they were 
placed so that the eddies of two 




Fig. 13S. Atoms arranged Conversely. 



116 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



positive spirillse should come together, they would repel each 
other; but a powerful eddy placed near a feeble one would over- 
come it and draw it toward itself. Thus the positive spirilla 1, 
outdraws the negative spirilla 3 at the point 2, and so links that 
portion of the upper atom to the lower, while the positive spirilla 
5 outdraws the negative spirilla 4, and thus holds that portion of 
the lower atom as firmly as the lower atom held the upper in the 
other case. The other atoms work in the same way. 

2. Thus we see that heat action, which is generally so expan- 
sive and disintegrating, may become an element of cohesion, 
though a much feebler one than cold exerted through the ligo, 
and axes of atoms in polar cohesion. This will explain why 
wood, stratified rock, etc., will split more easily in one direction 
than another. The polar cohesion is in the direction of the 
fibres, grains of wood, etc., while the lateral cohesion is at right 
angles to this. The curved line, showing how ethers may pass 
out of the torrent end of one line of atoms and be drawn into the 
vortex end of another line, will give a hint of how magnetic curves 
are formed, although it is incorrect to represent it as passing out 
and into contiguous lines or out and into the same layer of atoms. 

3. The cut will show how atoms can communicate their im- 
pulses laterally, as from 1 to 3, as well as longitudinally from 7 to 
8. The lateral movement of light may be understood by study- 
ing it, as it can never be understood otherwise. 

XV. The UNrrY of Atoms. 



Judging by all other works of nature, atoms must be united 
by bonds of unity through all their parts, so that all spirals must 
be connected more or less with all other spirals by small pillars 
or tubes. These may be called atomic tendrils. The 3 rd 
spirilla imparts action to the 2d, the 2d to the 1st, and the 1 st 
to the parent spiral itself, while each spiral is so connected with 
its brother spirals as to act and react upon them. Even the 
thermo spirals are doubtless connected with the intra-spirals, as 
well as with each other, by delicate tubes which are so arranged 
as not to impede the passage of ethers. In this way atoms are 
doubly armed against stagnation and death, for if only a single 
ether should be moving through the minutest spirilla, it would 
impart more or less of its vitalizing power to the whole atom. 



LAWS OF ATOMIC COMBINATION. 

XVI. — Converse Layers of Atoms 



117 



Are such as are represented in the cut, fig. 138, with the 
lines running in parallel but alternately in opposite directions. 
The next layer placed upon this would exactly reverse the order, 
and be the same as this turned over, so that the upper atoms 
would come on the lower and the lower on the upper. This 
must be the arrangement of the cosmic ether by means of which 
it is enabled to carry both cold and warm forces to and from the 
sun and other orbs. It is probably also the most common ar- 
rangement of ordinary matter. 

XVII. — Transverse Layers of Atoms 

Are those which cross each other at right angles, or nearly so, 
and must bind the particles into a greater hardness or toughness 
than they would otherwise have, as they are polarized longitude- 
nally and laterally. Steel must be composed of transverse layers 
just as iron is doubtless composed of converse ones mainly. I 
will mention here simply two proofs of this, 1st, steel or car- 
buretted iron is harder than ordinary iron; 2d, magnets must 
necessarily have transverse layers of atoms as can be demon- 
strated by this atomic law, as well as otherwise. Steel when 
once magnetized remains a permanent magnet because of its 
transverse polarizations, while the layers of iron arc held trans- 
versely only when under the electric or magnetic current, con- 
sequently its magnetism ceases when the current is withdrawn. 
See XXX of this chapter. 

XVIII. — Laws of Atomic Combination. 

1. Atoms must combine to a considerable extent according 
to the general law of their spirals. Two distinctive styles of 
atoms seem to be clearly demonstrable in different substances, 
in one of which the spirals move around almost perpendicular to 

the direction of the atom, as in fig. 139, 
while in the other, their movement is 
more diagonal as in fig. 140. The for- 
mer would tend to make the atoms 
broader and capable of more specific 
heat, while the latter would extend 
them into a longer and narrower form, 
with the external spirals more drawn 




118 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



out, somewhat as they are in the axial or electrical portion of the 
atom. The one would doubtless find its type in steel, the other 
in bismuth or antimony, the specific heat of which is exceedingly 
small. 

2. Figures 139, and 140 will show just why certain substances 
will have tranverse polarizations, in which the layers of atoms 
cross each other very nearly at right angles, while others will have 
transverse diagonals, for the following reasons: — The spirals in 
139 running in the direction of 1, 2, form little whirlwinds of 
force in that direction which, striking a contiguous line of atoms, 
must tend to wheel it around accordingly and hold it there, espe- 
cially under excitement, as in 5, 6, while in fig. 140, the lines of 
force being diagonal, must sweep the atoms around until they be- 
come diagonally transverse, as in 5, 6. In most cases, however, it 
is probable that the line 6, 5, should be reversed with the vortex 
end at 6 instead of 5, in which case we could easily see how such 
a phenomenon as double refraction might occur as in Iceland 
spar, a part of the light striking at 3 and moving on to 4, and an- 
other part striking at 6 and moving on to 5. 

3. It is evident that when any substance is aroused to extra- 
action by friction or by passing an electrical current through it, 
a part of the lines will be thrown into a transverse arrangement, 
or at least into transverse diagonals, according to whether the 
spirals pass around the atoms, as in fig. 139, or obliquely, as in 
fig. 140. What proof have we that this is so? We know that 
if we rub any object briskly, and hold it near a hair or some 
other light object, it will attract it. The fact of this attraction 
shows that there are eddies of etherial force which sweep around 
in and out of the object frictionized, and draw other objects to- 
wards itself. But what has this to do with showing that excited 
objects have their atomic lines arranged transversely? my reader 
may say. Just this; if the lines should all run in the same 
direction, there would be no counter-currents to deflect them so 
that the neighboring vortexes could draw them in and thus es- 
tablish a circuit of forces which, like a miniature whirlwind, is 
attractive to everything around. Thus a piece of iron in its 
ordinary condition will attract nothing, but pass a current of 
electricity through it and it immediately becomes magnetic and 
highly attractive, and this attraction is caused by circuits of 



PARAVERSE LAYERS OF ATOMS. 



119 



force as shown by iron filings which may be placed above it on a 
piece of paper. (See. fig. 23.) Glass must have its atomic lines 
polarized in various directions, or it would not be transparent in 
all these directions, for which reason it is highly attractive when 
excited, and for which reason, also, glass and other irregularly 
polarized objects are called non-conductors of electricity as the 
transverse lines obstruct the electrical ethers. Transverse 
diagonals, if not arranged somewhat amorphously, must be less 
obstructive and consequently better conductors of both heat and 
electricity than transverse lines in which the more perpendicular 
spirals rule, as in fig. 139. Silver, copper, etc., which are such 
fine conductors, may be presumed to be more diagonally arranged 
than steel, which is a poor conductor, comparatively. Good con- 
duction also requires continuous lines of polarity, and all amor- 
phous bodies must necessarily be poor conductors, as well as all 
bodies which have polarizations in too many directions, like gutta 
percha, leather, etc. That these last bodies must be polarized 
in various directions is evident from their toughness in all direc- 
tions, the greatest cohesion, as we have seen, being in the line of 
polarity. 

XIX. Para verse Layers of Atoms. 



Are those in which the lines are all turned in the same direc- 
tion, (See fig. 141), the positive spirillae of one line being arranged 

against the negative spiril- 
lae of the contiguous line. 
This should give seemingly 
a lateral cohesion about the 
same as that in converse lines, 
though somewhat less per- 
haps from the less perfect 
union of graded spirillae. It 
throws the second range of 
atoms a little farther along 
than the first, the third one still farther on, etc., resulting in di- 
agonally formed and rhomboidal crystallizations, as in bismuth, 
antimony, quartz, ice, etc. It is probable that this paraverse ar- 
rangement of atoms comes from diagonal spirals. It will be seen 
in the cut how the large, active sub-coils of one atom come 
opposite to the feebler ones of another so as to promote attrac- 




Fig. 141. Pamviirse Layers of Atoms. 



120 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



tion. Thus the positive spirilla 7 binds the negative spirilla 
6 and 8 to it, 2 draws 1, 5 draws 4, etc. 

XX. Crystalloid and Amorphous Bodies. 

Crystalloid and other re gulary formed or morphous bodies are 
such as grow into some definite forms on account of a general 
and regular polarization of their atoms. They are capable of strong 
chemical effects, and examples of them may be seen in crystalliza- 
tions, stratified rocks, grained woods, etc. Amorphous Bodies, or 
literally those without form, are deficient in continuous polarities 
and orderly arrangement of molecules. Clumps of earth, many 
ores in a crude state, pulverized substances, snow, etc., are amor- 
phous. When the ores are worked up into bars of metal, they 
generally become more or less crystalloid. No forms whatever 
are entirely destitute of polar arrangement, but amorphous bodies 
have but short or irregular lines of force, and consequently are 
negative and lacking in chemical effect. 

XXI. Heat and Cold. 



1. Heat expands, individualizes, works on the centrifugal law, 
and in excess tends to disorganize and tear into pieces; Cold 
contracts, polarizes, organizes, crystallizes, works on the centripe- 
tal law, and in excess tends to lifelessness and congelation. 

2. The Law of Motion for heat is the spiral with its eddies of 
force passing around the outside of atoms; that for cold is the 
same combination of eddies narrowed down to a vortex which 
passes in the opposite direction through the axes of atoms, and 
becomes swifter, narrower, and straighter as it proceeds. 

3. The greatest Heat Lines are in the greatest curves — the 
greatest Cold Forces approximate more and more the straight 
line. 

4. Heat produces its sting by laying on countless millions of 
lashes every second, and cold, by piercing with countless gimlets 
on the boring process. 

5. There are various grades of heat and cold, the coarser grades 
consisting of the coarser ethers passing through the coarser spi- 
rillse. These in excess are more painful and hurtful to the human 
system, while the finer grades, being connected with the finer spi- 



ATOMIC DIVISIONS. 



121 



rals, are more penetrating and soft in their influence. (See 
Chap. First, XV.) We may be pierced by a razor, and it will 
hurt us far less than will so coarse an instrument as a hoe; a cur- 
rent of electricity may penetrate entirely through a portion of our 
bodies, and make but a gentle shock from its fineness, while cur- 
rents of human magnetism, being still more exquisite, may at times 
permeate the whole system without our consciousness. This will 
explain the effect of different grades of fineness of heat and cold, 
and will also show why sun-light is less hurtful to the eyes than 
the coarser gas-light, which has more of the yellow and red 
principle, and why the color-electricities of blue and violet, for 
instance, are so much softer than the electricity of the battery. 

6. It may be well to remark that all the finer grades of cold 
are simply grades of electricity, as will be seen hereafter. 

7. I will merely hint here at the fact that the heat and cold prin- 
ciples in atoms form a chemical affinity for each other, which ex- 
plains why it is that the greatest heat is developed by combining 
cold and electrical elements with those which are warm, as the blue 
with red light, or the electrical principle of oxygen with the ther- 
mal principle of potassium, by the union of which aflame is kin- 
dled. (See Chromo Chemistry.) 

XXII. Atomic Divisions. 



1. Before we can understand the philosophy of force we must 
thoroughly understand the construction of atoms. If any one 
should remark that no human eye has ever seen an atom, and con- 
sequently it cannot be described, I would remark, 1st, that hu- 
man reason, aided by scientific discovery, can penetrate far be- 
yond telescopes and microscopes; 2dly, I conclude that this 
atomic theory is fundamentally correct, because it explains multi- 
tudes of mysteries not before understood, and harmonizes with or 
corrects all scientific facts or hypotheses to which I have applied 
it. If I should apply a key to a hundred doors in some temple, 
and it should unlock them all, I should say it was the correct key; 
3dly, by understanding law we may at times discover a fact or 
truth by means of reason sooner than we would by outward per- 
ceptions without a knowledge of law, just as LeVerrier discov- 
ered where the planet Neptune must be from his knowledge of 
mathematics, before it was discovered by the telescope. I admit 



122 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



that we must test theories by facts and facts by theories, a rule 
which may be observed with reference even to atoms, and which 
I have ever aimed to observe. 

2. I must again ask the reader to take some of my statements 
at present on trust or from their apparent reasonableness, promis- 
ing hereafter in this work, and still further, in a succeeding one, 
to give facts and reasons. If so much discussion of the subject of 
atoms is considered dry reading, it should be remembered that 
we shall be but charlatans in science until we can reach basic 
principles. 

3. We have, then, the atom with its wonderful diversity of 
powers, including thermal spirals and spirillse, axial spirals and 
spirillse, and the ligo tube, with all the internal and external 
ethers. I have called the form of the atom an ovoid, but this 
ovoid is evidently more or less oblate or flattened, 1st, because it 
would combine more systematically to form layers of matter, and 
2dly, because it would readily assume such a form, as the axial 
spirals, emerging near the small positive end with great velocity 
of vibratory force, would naturally be swept too far one side to 
make a complete circular spiral, and so it would assume more of 
an oval spiral, exactly in harmony with the motion of planets 
around the sun. 

4. As to the extra or thermo spirals, the following are among 
the arguments in proof that the foregoing conception is founded 
on nature; 1st, it is an important dual division of forces in har- 
mony with analogies in general; 2dly, atoms can be inserted into 
each other by an exact system in the ordinary polar cohesion and 
by another exact system in chemical combinations in case certain 
thermo spirals project beyond the rest, and thus form regular 
barriers; 3dly, frictional electricity, especially, is confined to the 
surface of bodies, and is aroused by external friction or pressure 
which goes to show that some part of their spirals is external; 
4thly,the fact that frictional electricity is swifter than other grades 
could be accounted for by supposing its spirals to be the most 
interior in the axis of atoms where the pathway is shortest and 
nearest straight. But if its axial spirals are most interior, their 
thermal portions would naturally be the most exterior; 5thly 
Magneto-electricity and magnetism can penetrate considerably 
below the surface of bodies, which could not be if any part of 



COHESION. 



123 



the spirals concerned were external, as their action would then 
be smothered before they had penetrated far within. This shows 
the necessity of intra-spirals. 6thly, the fact that the electrical 
colors can penetrate deeply within substances, as in the case of 
seeds which are reached and germinated by them to a considera- 
ble depth below the surface of the soil, shows that no part of 
their spirals is external, consequently colors must require intra- 
spirals. 

5. That there are seven intra spirals in ordinary transparent 
bodies, six of which constitute the principle of the thermal colors 
when moving thermally, and that all seven of the same spirals, 
when moving axially, constitute the principle of the electrical 
colors, will be more and more evident hereafter. That there are 
seven intra-spirals of somewhat coarser grade in iron, copper and 
other opaque bodies, devoted to the manifestation of different 
grades of heat and electricity, will be shown in this chapter, 
XXXIII., 2. 

XXIII. Cohesion. 



1 . We have already seen how the Ligo rivets the atoms together 
until they become masses of solid substance, such as metals, rocks, 
woods, bones, muscles, etc. The suction caused by the ligo ether, 
together with the firmness of its parts, must cause the principal 
cohesion, although the other ethers assist to some extent. 

2. In such a metal as mercury and in the liquids and gases, 
the ligo is probably wholly wanting, excepting as some foreign 
substance may exist in their midst. 

3. In case of intense cold the vortical and electrical forces 
become so swift as to sweep the atoms together into a congealed 
or solid mass without the aid of the ligo, except as foreign parti- 
cles may intervene. It should be remembered that the tendency 
of cold is not only to diminish the size of all atoms, but to thicken 
or harden all masses of atoms. The fact that water, and melted 
iron, bismuth, zinc and antimony, become somewhat increased in 
bulk on becoming hardened by cold, does not invalidate the rule, 
but shows how the process of crystallization can pile some po- 
larized lines upon others in a way to enlarge their size as a mass. 

4. When the heat becomes very great the spirals of atoms 
expand to such an extent and become so furious in their centri- 



124 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



fugal action as to throw even the particles of iron and other 
metals asunder in a melted condition, in spite of the ligo, and 
when much greater still, the atoms become so detached as to be 
wafted off into the air on the swift currents of ether, in the form 
of vapor. The tendency of heat is to soften and disintegrate. If 
bodies like moist clay become hardened by heat, it is because it 
evaporates the water and leaves only the atoms which possess 
the ligo. The small amount of cohesion that exists between the 
atoms of liquids, gases, and ethers, comes doubtless from the flow 
of electrical forces through their axes. 

XXIV. Different Kinds of Electricity. 

My researches in connection with my studies of atomic law 
have convinced me of the existence of six or more distinct grades 
of electricity, besides some minor divisions, namely, Frictional 
Electricity, Chemico Electricity, Galvano Electricity, Magneto 
Electricity, Chroma Electricity, and Psycho Electricity. The 
swiftest of these, so far as known, is the Frictional, although 
Chromo-Electricity is much softer and more penetrating. A 
brief account of these will be in place here. Psycho-Electricity 
will be explained under the chapter on Chromo-Mentalism. 

XXV. Frictional Electricity 



Is sometimes improperly called Static (standing or stationary), 
as there is no such thing as any electricity which is not in rapid 
motion. According to Wheatstone this style of electricity moves 
at the rate of 288,000 miles a second. For the reason of its 
swiftness and intense action see XI. 5, of this chapter. Its ele- 
ment is electro-ether while its principle consists of the axial por- 
tion of the thermo-spirals, for the character of which see fig. 135. 
Being extra spirals in their thermal portion, it will readily be 
seen why all friction, rubbing, and pressure, will arouse them 
into action, produce heat as well as electricity. It may be asked 
why is not frictional electricity, as developed by the electric 
machine, used for healing purposes? Because it moves almost 
entirely on the surface of the skin where the nerves of sensation 
are most active, consequently its effect is exciting rather than 
soothing or healing. Frictional electricity, as aroused by the 
hand moving over the surface, is generally very vitalizing and 



CHEMICO ELECTRICITY. 



125 



soothing as it is softened down by the finer vital electricities. 
Magneto and chromo electricity are finer than the frictional, 
penetrate more deeply from being connected with intra spirals, 
and are better for therapeutical purposes. What is called 
thermo-electricity is often mere frictional electricity, aroused 
by direct heat in connection with the thermo spirals. 

XXVI. Chemico Electricity 



Seems to be caused by a somewhat coarse ether moving in 
connection with the axial portion of the coarsest of the intra- 
spirals (see fig. 22), corresponding probably to the spiral for blue 
green only coarser. It is doubtless the electricity which is 
generally called negative in its nature, except in galvanism, 
although the substances which constitute its most natural abiding 
place from having the right sized spirals, are improperly called 
electro positive, such as potassium, sodium, the metals, etc., while 
other substances in which frictional, galvano and magneto elec- 
tricity most naturally dwell are called electro-negatives, such as 
oxygen, sulphur, etc., although these kinds of electricity are strong 
positive grades as compared with chemico-electricity. To avoid 
confusion, however, I shall sometimes adopt the terms as scientists 
have generally established them, begging the reader to remember 
that what are called electro-positives are substances which are 
really the most feebly electrical, while those which are called 
electro-negatives are those which are really the most electro- 
positive, or, in other words, which are the most strongly electri- 
cal. The scientists have fallen into this error from supposing 
that electricity is a mere dynamical force dwelling entirely within 
the atoms of a substance, and as dissimilar electricities attract 
each other, a substance was supposed to be negative in case a 
positive electricity was evolved from it and vice versa. Under 
the caption of Galvanism it will be shown how chemico elec- 
tricity is evolved in connection with the zinc of the battery and 
moves through the sulphuric or nitric acid to the plate of copper 
or platinum, while a finer grade of electricity, the galvanic, passes 
from these latter metals to the zinc. Three things are especially 
evident with respect to chemico-electricity, — 1st, its movement 
is always attended with more or less heat as well as cold; 2dly, 
other things being equal, it is the feeblest of all grades of elec- 



126 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



tricity and the least electrical in its nature, for which reason it 
is sometimes called negative by electricians; 3dly, in galvanism 
it moves through alternate lines of converse atoms in exactly the 
opposite direction from galvanic and magnetic electricity. Its 
movement is attended with heat and a feeble grade of electricity, 
because, being the last spiral to enter the axis of the atom (see 
fig. 135), it must necessarily encircle all the rest and have less of 
that swift narrow and pointed style which constitutes cold and 
electricity. The causes of its moving in opposite directions will 
be given under the head of Galvanism, XXXIV. 

XXVII. — Galvano-Electricity 

Is a grade finer than the chemico, and answers to the axial 
spirals which correspond to the electro-lumino spirals for the 
blue, including also indigo-blue and probably indigo, though 
coarser than these. It is the finer positive electricity which 
moves in the galvanic circuit from the copper to the zinc, etc., and 
doubtless exists in many so-called electro-negative substances. 
How do we know that galvano-electricity is not as fine a grade 
as that of the blue color? Because if it were it would give out 
a blue appearance, and moreover its effects are less soft and pene- 
trating than those of blue sunlight. See Galvanism, XXXIV. 

XXVIII. — Magneto-Electricity. 



A Grade finer than the galvano, and made in connection with 
spirals that correspond with the electro-lumino-spirals for the 
violet, including violet-indigo, violet and dark violet. The finest 
induced currents of the battery, sometimes called Faradaic, from 
Faraday, consist of magneto electricity. The positive pole of 
the magnet gets its power from magneto electricity bent into 
curves, while the negative or south pole is presumably charged 
with the chemico-grade. See Magnetism (XXX.) Although 
the magneto grade is coarser than the color electricities, yet, 
under the force of the magnet, it is readily driven through glass 
whose spirals form a natural pathway of light and color. This 
may be proved by placing iron filings on a pane of glass and 
holding a magnet below it, in which case the filings will be thrown 
upward and also into a great number of lateral curves on both 
sides. 



CHOROMO-ELECTRICITY. 



127. 



XXIX. — Chromo-Electricity. 



We come at last to a grade of electricity whose ethers and 
spirals are fine enough to appeal to the eye in the form of the 
electrical colors, such as blue, violet, etc., already mentioned. 
Although the scientific world has not yet learned that these 
colors constitute one grade of electricity, yet they have dis- 
covered many facts that bear in that direction. I will mention 
some points in proof: — 

1. Electricity, as I have already shown, consists of the cold 
contracting principle. The violet end of the color scale is known 
to consist of cold colors, just as the red end is warm, as shown by 
the thermometer and thermo pile. 

2. Morichini, Carpa, Ridolfi, and Mrs. Somerville state that, 
by exposing common steel needles to the violet rays of a spec- 
trum, or by covering one-half of them with blue glass, they become 
magnetic. Ampere has shown that magnetism is identical with 
electricity, and it will be shown hereafter in this work that mag- 
netism consists of electricity thrown into curves by passing in 
transverse lines. The persons who deny the electrical charac- 
ter of the violet and blue rays present insufficient facts, although 
the grade of electricity is finer than that which usually influences 
the galvanometer, or perhaps even the magnet. 

3. Zantedeschi exposed a magnet, which would carry 15 
ounces, to the sun 3 days, and increased its power two and a half 
times. Barlocci found that a magnet which would lift one pound, 
would lift nearly two pounds after exposing to strong sunlight 
24 hours. No one will pretend that the red or other thermal 
colors could have done this, while the facts of the last paragraph 
show that the violet end of the scale is quite competent to it. 
The reader may wonder how sunlight can arouse magnetism if, as 
I have shown, the magnetic ethers are somewhat coarser than 
chromo-electricity. I shall show hereafter under the head of 
Fluorescence (XXXIII), and elsewhere, that under stimulus, 
coarse ethers can sometimes be forced through spirals which are 
naturally too fine for them, and fine ethers through spirals which 
are naturally too coarse for them. Although chromo-electricity 
may stimulate, and to some extent pass through the atomic spirals 
of a magnet, this stimulus evidently tends to draw in from the 



128 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



atmosphere magneto-electricity, especially in cold weather, from 
the fact that if the former electricity were sufficiently abundant, 
the magnet itself would be bathed in blue and violet colors. 

4. Electricity being the principal cause of phosphorescence, and 
these colors having the same power, tends to prove their simi- 
larity of character. "Beccaria examined the solar phosphori," 
says Prof. Hunt, "and ascertained that the violet ray was the 
most energetic, and the red ray the least so, in exciting phos- 
phorescence in certain bodies. M. Biot and the elder Becquerel 
have proved that the slightest electrical disturbance is sufficient 
to produce these phosphorescent effects. May we not then re- 
gard the action of the most refrangible rays, namely, the violet, 
as analagous to that of electrical disturbance? May not elec- 
tricity itself be but a development of this mysterious solar 
emanation?" To this question, aided by our knowledge of atoms, 
we may answer no, so far as ordinary electricity is concerned, as 
ordinary electricity and magnetism are aroused only indirectly 
by the solar rays. 

5. Electricity is the principle of cold, but, by means of chemi- 
cal action with thermal substances, can develop the greatest heat 
known; in the same way blue, indigo and violet constitute the 
cold end of the spectrum, and yet by means of chemical com- 
bination with thermal colors can develop greater heat than 
could be done with the red color alone. I will cite one example 
merely. General Pleasanton, of Philadelphia, by putting blue 
glass in among the panes of clear glass so as to bring blue and 
white light together, caused the thermometer in his grapery to 
rise to 110°, while on the outside the temperature was only 35° 
F., or a little above the freezing point. The General supposed 
that this effect occurred partly by gaining some electrical force 
from transmission through the glass, but we shall see under 
Chromo-Chemistry that the blue rays develop this great heat by 
combining chemically with the thermal rays of the sunlight. 
Like other styles of electricity the blue and violet colors can 
develop no heat, excepting in chemical affinity with warm sub- 
stances, or when bent into magnetic curves. 

6. The odylic colors, explained in the chapter on Chromo 
Dynamics, and developing the finer potencies of things, prove the 
electrical nature of blue, violet, etc. 



MAGNETISM. 



129 



7. It will be fully shown hereafter in this work, that there 
can be no possible style of chemical affinity without combining 
some style of electricity with the principle of thermism in atoms. 
If it should be proved that all shades and hues of blue, indigo 
and violet fill the office of electricity in chemical combinations, 
would it not be absurd to say they are not electrical? How fully 
this can be proved will be seen hereafter. 

8. Thus do we have the most overwhelming proofs from the 
construction of atoms, and from actual experiment, of the elec- 
trical nature of these colors, including blue-green, blue, indigo- 
blue, indigo, violet-indigo, violet and dark violet. 

XXX. — Magnetism. 



1. Having attained to some conception of electricity as a 
principle and as an element, and the law of its movement through 
atoms, it would be well to inquire how it is modified to constitute 
magnetism. We have already seen that the reason why steel 
constitutes a permanent magnet when once charged with the 
proper electricities is, that its atoms must be arranged in trans- 
verse layers. This is shown by a bar magnet placed under a 
piece of card-board or glass upon which iron filings are lying, as in 
fig. 143. These filings will be drawn into concentric curves each 
side of the magnet, currents of ether sweeping in connected cir- 
cuits around, through and on both sides of the magnet, sometimes 
making the filings project a half an inch above the glass, while 
through the centre in the direction of N. and S. they lie in straight 
lines. It is easy to see how transverse lines of force, caused by 
transverse atoms passing at right angles, could deflect each other 
from a straight line, and being once deflected they could be drawn 
into a neighboring vortex of a line of atoms in the magnet where, 
after passing through, they would be deflected again and perhaps 
return into the same old channels of the magnet to continue their 
endless circuits. 

2. The straight lines through the centre show that some lines 
of force are constantly gliding through the magnet lengthwise, 
having its influx at one end, its efflux at the other. Experiments, 
especially with the odic lights and colors, seem to prove that 
these lines of force, sweeping in one direction, consist of magneto- 
electricity which passes in at the south or negative pole and 



130 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



passes out at the north or positive pole, while sweeping 
through the centre in the other direction is the weaker chemico- 
electricity, entering at the positive pole and emerging at the 
negative. This will at once show why the magnetic needle points 
north and south, or at least in the magnetic meridian, as the strong 
electric and magnetic currents which ever pass northward above 
the equator and southward below the equator, hold it in the di- 
rection in which they move, turning the positive end northward 
in north latitude, and southward in south latitude. And yet these 
currents of force that have sufficient momentum to turn the 
needle in their own direction, just as a vane is turned by the 
wind, or to throw their curves around heavy weights and bind 
them to the magnet, are named by our scientists imponderable! 
An electro horse-shoe magnet has been made to lift 10,000 
pounds by means of these hooks and lines of so called imponder- 
able forces, which are really ethers. The curves at the feebler end 
of the magnet have a predominance of the chemico-electricity, 
those at the positive end, of magneto-electricity. 

3. The reader can now solve the great mystery of why similar 
electricities repel, dissimilar ones attract. When two positive 
poles are placed together the currents of magneto-electricity dash 
against each other and find no vortexes of the right size in the 
opposite pole to draw them on. When the negative poles are 
joined the chemico-electricity wars upon chemico-electricity in 
the same way. When positive and negative poles are joined, the 
magneto-electricity of the positive end rushes outward and is 
drawn into its own grade of spirals in the negative end, while the 
chemico-electricity of the negative end passes outward into its 
own affinitive spirals of the positive end. 

4. Fig. 138 shows by the dotted line 6 how a line of magnet- 
ism may pass out of the torrent end of one line of atoms and 
into the vortex end of another line. It is not probable, however, 
that it would ever pass out and into contiguous lines as repre- 
sented in the cut, nor in any two lines in the same layer of atoms, 
as the atomic torrents would be apt to deflect the currents above 
or below, especially above and northward, as may be supposed 
from the earth's currents and in a somewhat diagonal direction. 
That the magnetic currents have this direction may be seen by 
studying their action on iron filings. 



MAGNETISM. 



131 



5. Why does not iron, like steel, become permanently mag- 
netic when once charged? Because it needs an electric or 
magnetic influence to polarize its lines transversely. Above all 
other substances iron seems to have the right sized spirals for 
magneto-electricity, although, as Faraday has shown, nickel, 
cobalt, manganese, chromium, cerium, titanium, palladium, crown 
glass, platinum, osmium, and oxygen are more or less magnetic, 
commencing with the strongest. 

6. Why the atmosphere is but slightly magnetic may be ac- 
counted for by the fact that the radiations of fine ethers from the 
sun in the daytime, or from the earth at night, are but slightly 
transverse, consequently it is diamagnetic. 

7. When glass, sealing wax and other substances are rubbed 
they become electrical, and the fact that they will attract hairs, 
feathers, &c, shows that, for the time being, they are in a condi- 
tion something like magnetism or at least diamagnetism. Ferro- 
magnetism is by no means the finest or only quality of magnet- 
ism, that of light being more exquisite, while the finer grade of 
human magnetism is so refined as to defy the measurement of 
the most delicate instruments. Multitudes of examples could be 
given of persons who possess that psycho-magnetism which en- 
ables them to attract and control sensitive persons at a great 
distance. Sensitives should understand this fact and use their 
will-power to prevent undue control. 

8. "What is the thing that causes magnetic attraction?" says 
Tyndall. "The human mind has striven long to realize it. * * * 
The real origin of magnetism is yet to be revealed." The mat- 
ter seems to be very simple when aided by a knowledge of fluidic 
and atomic forces. We know how a whirlwind draws in all sur- 
rounding objects and holds them fast in its own embrace, and we 
have seen just how a magnet has millions of minute whirlwinds 
which sweep into and out of the atomic lines of a magnet and 
draw a kindred substance like iron to itself. It cannot draw 
lead or most metals to itself, because their spirillse are not of 
the right size to receive magnetic currents. 

9. Why is the middle of a magnet devoid of attractive force? 
The magneto-electricity seems to charge all the spirals and cir- 
cuits of the positive end towards which it flows as far as it can 
without escaping into the air, and the same is the case with the 



132 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



chemico-electricity at the negative end towards which it flows. 
The air being partially non-conducting, hedges in the electricity 
until it fills some considerable distance from each end, but not 
enough to reach to the middle. 

10. Great Heat destroys magnetism by rendering the currents 
too powerful to be deflected into curves. A magnet must draw in 
and emit constant streams of electricity from and to the atmos- 
phere. A wire through which a galvanic current is passing be- 
comes for the time being a magnet able to attract iron filings, 
and causing, by its transverse curves, a magnetic needle to stand 
at right angles to itself. 

11. If we put a magnet under a pane of glass upon which 
iron filings have been placed, we can at once see that the currents 
of magneto-electricity throw the filings upward, forward and 
laterally, thus showing that many of the lines of atoms are polar- 
ized in at least three directions. Fig. 143 will show some of the 
curves and straight lines of force flowing laterally and longitude- 
nally in connexion with a bar magnet, and the lower portion of 
Plate III will show some of the lines of force which are mani- 
fested when the sides of the poles of a horse-shoe magnet are 
placed under the same pane of glass, while the colored flames 
from each pole, which can be seen by some persons, will show 
that the north pole has greater power than the south and is man- 
ifested by a different array of colors, the significance of which 
will be explained in the chapter on Chromo Dynamics. The 
superior attractive power of the north pole is well known and can 
be tested at any time. 

12. I have given thus much attention to magnetism, not only 
from its great importance and the impossibility of understand- 
ing the various potencies of light without it, but because its laws 
are not understood, and like a hundred other mysteries never 
can be understood without a knowledge of atoms. The cause of 
the two directions and two grades of electricity will be shown 
under the head of Galvanism, in XXXIV of this chapter. 

XXXI. DlAMAGNETISM. 



1. If an iron nail or other magnetic substance should be sus- 
pended from the middle between the poles of a horse-shoe mag- 
net it will immediately arrange itself in the magnetic axis and 



MAGNETISM. 



133 



point to the north and south pole thus, N — S, but if a piece of 
bismuth, or phosphorus, or antimony, should be suspended in the 
same way, it will be arranged equatorially or at 
right angles to the axis as in fig. 142. Such 
substances are diamagnetic, and they are com- 
monly supposed to repel the magnetic currents. 
This, as I have learned, is a mistake and they 
assume that position because the diamagnetic 
axis crosses these substances laterally in- 
stead of longitudinally, as is done in the case of 
magnetic substances: thus the following 
represents a diamagnetic substance between 

Fig, 142. Hnrse-hnoe * ° 

Magnet. the magnetic poles: — 




Magneto-electricity flowing from the 
positive pole of the magnet, through the 
substance laterally and into the nega- 
tive pole of the magnet. 



I 



Chemico-electricity flowing from the 
negative pole of the magnet in opposite 
direction into the positive or north pole 
of magnet. 



The following represents the axis of a magnetic substance:- 



Magneto-electricity flowing from 
positive pole of magnet through the 
substance longitudinally and entering 
the positive pole of magnet. 



Chemico-electricity flowing from 
S, n, negative pole of magnet in opposite 

direction and entering the positive pole 
of magnet. 



2. A little better conception of the distinctions which seem to 
arrange all substances under two divisions, the magnetic and 
diamagnetic, may be obtained by considering figs. 143 and 144. 
Fig. 143 shows a bar of steel, S N, which has been converted 




m 



Fig. 143. Magnetic lines as shown by 
iron filings. 



Fir. 144. Supposed Diamagnetic lines of 



into a magnet, N being the north or positive pole, and S the 
south or negative pole. When a pane of glass or a piece of 
card-board, sprinkled with iron filings, is laid upon this bar, the 
filings will be arranged as shown in the cut, and some will also 
be thrown upward in a bristling attitude which cannot be shown 
here. It will readily be perceived from the lines running longitud- 



134 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



inally that there must be polarized lines of atoms running con- 
versely from S to N, and from the curves which sweep directly 
across the bar that there must be transverse lines in the direction 
of T, L and L, T. The many curves of force which must sweep 
in and out at the ends do not appear distinctly. It will be seen 
that the longitudinal lines are sufficiently strong to prevent the 
transverse forces from passing at a point midway between the 
poles where the magnet is weakest, although consequent points 
of special power are sometimes formed between the poles where 
the forces break through, especially in a long magnet. 

3. In fig. 144, illustrating what is probably the pathway of 
forces in one kind of diamagnetism, if not in all, the arrangement 
of atoms is quite different, being on the law of transverse diag- 
onals, some modification of which is no doubt the universal law 
in diamagnetism, just as lines directly transverse or nearly so, are 
required for magnetism. Before going further the reader should 
be familiar with the combination of atoms as described in pre- 
vious figures, especially 139 and 140. In fig. 144 we will sup- 
pose a diamagnetic substance 3 has diagonal polarizations in the 
direction of 2, 7, and 4, 6, or still more diagonally. When the 
electro ethers are radiated powerfully by means of electrical or 
magnetic excitement into two or more general directions, diag- 
onally transverse, those passing through the atmosphere in one 
direction must create currents which will deflect some of the lines 
passing in the other direction sufficiently inward to cause them 
to be drawn in by the vortical suction, and thus lines of force 
would be formed as in the figure. In such transverse diagonals, 
there being no longitudinal lines, a passage way is naturally 
easily forced through the shorter pathway from side to side, 
whereas it must be a difficult matter to force it lengthwise. 

4. In speaking of magneto and chemico electricity as passing 
through diamagnetic substances, I simply mean that they do so 
under the pressure of magnetic excitement. It is reasonable to 
suppose, however, that the ethers which usually course through 
diamagnetic substances differ from each other in different bodies 
and especially from ferro-magnetism. It has been found that a 
powerful magnet will either attract or repel all substances. Those 
substances which are spoken of as being repelled by it are 
doubtless simply diamagnetic. 



PHOSPHORESCENCE. 



135 



5. We learn then, that while a magnetic substance consists of 
converse lines of atoms which cross each other at right angles, or 
nearly so, the lines of a diamagnetic substance cross each other 
diagonally, or consist of transverse diagonals. These diagonals 
may be the natural arrangement of atoms in a diamagnetic sub- 
stance, or may be polarized into this shape by the power of 
light or electricity. Diamagnets have a very much feebler at- 
tractive power than magnets, as comparatively few of their lines 
are bent into curves. The flame of a candle as well as electric 
light has been found to be diamagnetic, and the sunlight coming 
to us in convergent and divergent rays and polarizing the atmos- 
phere accordingly, must impart more of the diamagnetic than 
the magnetic style of influence, as electricians have ascertained. 
The names of some of the diamagnetic substances as ascertained 
by Faraday, commencing with the most decided, are bismuth, 
phosphorus, antimony, zinc, tin, cadmium, sodium, flint-glass, mer- 
cury, lead, silver, copper, water, gold, alcohol, ether, arsenic, uranium, 
rhodium, iridium, tungsten, nitrogen, etc. Faraday says that man 
as a whole is diamagnetic. This is doubtless true, the right side 
being positive, the left negative, all the way from the head to the 
feet, as will be shown hereafter. The living human form may 
also be called a series of magnets. 

XXXII. Phosphorescence. 



1. "The sulphur compounds of calcium, strontium and barium 
(which should be kept in hermetically sealed glass tubes) do 
not exhibit the faintest light in a dark room. Moreover, if they 
be covered with a yellow glass and illuminated with the light of 
a magnesium lamp, they remain as dark as before. But if the 
yellow be exchanged for a blue glass, and the magnesium light 
be allowed to play upon them for a few seconds only, they emit 
in the dark a soft light, each powder having its own proper tint 
of color." (Prof. Eugene Lommel's Light and Color.) This 
power of shining in the dark is termed phosphorescence, and as in 
the above case it is developed by the electrical blue, so in all 
cases must some principle of electricity be used in its produc- 
tion. The electrical principle strikes some sensitive substance 
for which it has a chemical affiinity, and creates such activity of 
atomic action as to render it partly incandescent. 



136 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



2. "Mademoiselle Linnaeus" says Pouchet, "first discovered 
that the monkshood sent out passing gleams of light which were 
generally attributed to electricity." 

3. In phosphorus, touchwood, fireflies and different kinds of 
marine animals, the light is awakened by certain physiological as 
well as chemical processes in which electricity and heat are com- 
bined. The gentle style of combustion which constitutes phospho- 
rescence, seems to be attended with so fine a grade of heat as to 
be imperceptible as heat to most persons. 

4. Several substances may be exposed to brilliant light like 
that of the sun or a magnesium light, and on darkening the room 
will continue to glow for hours, emitting the red, blue, green, 
etc., according to the nature of the substances. Alumina, when 
phosphorescent, emits a red light; diamond, from its refrangibil- 
ity, emits most of the colors. Phosphate of lime, fluor spar, etc., 
phosphoresce with different colors. Metals, liquids, &c, do not 
phosphoresce from the power of light. 

XXXIII. Fluorescence, Calorescence and Kindred Prin- 
ciples. 



1. This is a proper place to show how nearly the ethers, and 
the spirals through which they pass, must correspond in grade 
with each other. In music, a stretched cord or a tuning fork 
will respond to vibrations of the air which synchronize with their 
own, so in atoms, as we have already seen, each spiral cord must 
vibrate to and invite onward that grade of ether whose waves are 
simultaneous with its own movements. Thus the red forming 
spiral naturally invites a certain grade of ether; the blue, being 
finer and more frequent of movement, invites a finer ether, while 
the violet and the space above the violet invite still finer ones. 
What I wish to state here is, that although this is the general 
law, yet under the stimulus of electricity, or light, or heat, or 
chemical action, a grade of ether may at times be forced through 
spirals naturally too fine for it, and at other times through spirals 
not fine enough for it. Take glass for instance. Its spirals being 
of the grade suited to the ethers which go to make light, are too 
fine to admit the ethers of frictional or galvanic electricity at any 
ordinary pressure, consequently glass is used as an insulator to 
prevent their passage. If we charge a bar of metal strongly 



FLUORESCENCE, CALORESCENCE, ETC. 



137 



with electricity, however, and place a pane of glass near one end 
where the electrical tension is great, another bar of metal held on 
the other side will become charged by induction through the glass. 
In the same way, the electrical currents of a magnet are so pow- 
erful as readily to sweep through glass in all directions, as may 
be seen by placing iron filings on the upper side of glass and a 
magnet below. It is evident that all ordinary grades of electricity 
must become somewhat refined by being strained through glass. 

2. Calorescence. Again, take an opaque metal, such as iron or 
copper for instance. This has its seven intra spirals, as facts go 
to show, corresponding with the color spirals and yet of a coarser 
grade. If they were of as fine a grade as the color spirals they 
would transmit all the colors in their natural state just as glass 
or water or the asmosphere does, and hence be transparent. As 
the metal becomes heated its atoms expand with violent motion, 
and its ethers are absorbed and transmitted with power. When 
heated to 700° F. it begins to emit a dull red color in the dark. 
Why is this? The following seems to be the answer: — The ther- 
mo spirals which are the first to respond to heat, being put into 
violent motion, agitate the thermel and red of the iron, or rather 
the spirals corresponding to the thermel and red, into such a vio- 
lent whirl as to draw on and propel to the eye not only the ethers 
which naturally answer to it, but a certain amount of a still finer 
ether which constitutes the element of red. This transmutation 
of power under extreme action is common in nature. So fine a 
substance as the air when in violent motion, may carry so coarse 
a substance as water into the sky, and this coarse element of 
water may be made to move so rapidly, as to sweep a current of air 
along with it. Even a cannon ball will at times kill a man with- 
out touching him, simply by the terrific atmospheric forces 
which it arouses. So, reasoning from the known to the unknown, 
we see how a coarser current in violent action may draw on or 
propel a little finer current of a color-ether. As the heat rises 
to 1000° F. the red-orange spiral, which is contiguous to the red, 
becomes sufficiently agitated to put into play the red-orange 
ethers and thus the iron appears red-orange. When reaching 
1100°, the spiral answering to yellow is reached, and so the metal 
is said to be at a yellow heat; when the heat ranges from 1400° 
to 3280°, a sufficient amount of the green and blue-green has 



138 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



been reached to form, when combined with the lower colors, 
white, consequently the iron is said to be at a white heat. When 
still hotter, the blue and indigo become so intense as to pre- 
dominate and cause a blue heat. This shows three things, 1st, 
that ethers can be propelled by spirilla? which are naturally too 
coarse for them; 2dly, that iron and other metals have the same 
number and general system of gradation in their intra-spirals as 
have the color spirals of transparent substances; 3dly, that in 
circumstances of great activity, a coarser spirilla may work with 
a color ether somewhat too fine for it, and not very much pervert 
the color itself. It is true that what we call red hot is not a pure 
red as compared with carmine and the other colors thus caused, 
though luminous, are not absolutely pure, but are a close ap- 
proach to it and become the more pure by being strained through 
the color spirilla? of the asmosphere which are of the right grade. 
This development of colors in metals and other bodies by dif- 
ferent grades of heat is well called Calorescence by Tyndall. 

3. On the other hand white light may be transferred into the 
coarser spirals of a black substance and transform its color forces 
into heat, through the attractive power of chemical affinity. 

4. The invisible portion of the solar spectrum above the violet 
is sometimes called ultraviolet, which means extreme violet. But 
we have seen that this portion is not violet at all, but rather a 
finer grade of reddish color towards which the violet progres- 
ses and consequently such a term as trans-violet {beyond the 
violet) would seem more proper. The invisible portion below 
the red is not properly ultra or extreme red, as it is sometimes 
called, but rather the trans-red (beyond the red), the beginning of 
which is the thermel. 

5. The trans-violet may suddenly be made visible in the form 
of blue and sometimes lavender if its rays are made to pass through 
fluor spar, or a decoction of the bark of horse-chestnut, or a 
solution of sulphate of quinine, etc. This is an example of fine 
ethers being drawn on into spirillse which are naturally too 
coarse for them, by means of the chemical affinity which these 
substances have for them, and is called Fluorescence, from 
fluor spar. Fluorescence, then, is caused by straining the trans- 
violet colors which are too fine to be seen, through spirillse, whose 
movements are sufficiently slow to affect the vision. The pro- 



GALVANISM. 



139 



cess of lowering a color to a coarser grade is sometimes called 
the degradation of light. 

6. We may thus see how several mysteries are cleared up by 
this department of the etherio-atomic law, and new light thrown 
upon the convertibility of forces. 

XXXIV .—Galvanism. * 

1. Galvanism is electricity which is developed by chemical ac- 
tion, just as frictional electricity is developed by mechanical and 
thermal action. The one may be artificially developed by aid of 
what is called the battery, usually supplied with acidulated water 
and two heterogeneous metals; the other, by means of the 
electrical machine, which is supplied with a glass plate or cylin- 
der. This is revolved against some frictionizing substance, 
such as gutta percha or leather, which contains a more negative 
quality of electricity. Galvanism develops chemico-electricity, 
galvano-electricity, and to some extent magneto-electricity. 

2. Water, as can be shown, naturally winds up into ball-coils 
whose threads are polarized lines of atoms composed of hydrogen 
and oxygen. Hydrogen, which has an immense thermal action of 
its atoms, far greater than that of any other known substance, 
tends to draw the other atoms around to itself, and thus the 
winding process is commenced. Drops of water are spherical 
ball-coils. Acids are highly electrical and abound in chemico 
as well as other kinds of electricity. One part of sulphuric 
acid to 8, 10, or 12 parts of soft water is generally used, though 
other acids and substances are frequently employed. 

3. This powerful acid thus combined has its thermal and axial 
forces especially aroused and immediately unwinds and straightens 
out by its swift forces, the polarized lines of water, loosening the 
cohesion of its own atoms of oxygen and hydrogen, and probably 
arranging them conversely with those of that fluid accord- 
ing to a necessity which we have already seen. Two metals of 
diverse character are placed in this liquid, one of which, as 
zinc for instance, must have a much greater affinity for oxygen 
than the other, which is usually copper or platinum. In fig. 145, 



*From Galvani, who first discovered it, although Volta made such improvements 
in it that it is often called Voltaic Electricity 



140 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 




Fig. 145. A Cjalvani<: 
battery. 



Z is the zinc plate, and C the copper plate, set into the diluted 
sulphuric acid, and connected at the top 
with a wire. No. 1 shows a polarized line 
of molecules of water; No. 2 consists of 
a contiguous line of the molecules of sul- 
phuric acid polarized in the opposite direc- 
tion. The galvano, and doubtless the 
magneto electric current, sweeps through 
the line of water No. 1, enters the zinc, 
passes up and around through the wire 
and through the copper plate back into the 
zinc again, and so continues as before. 
The chemico, and perhaps some other 
electric currents, under the active movement of the sulphuric 
acid, pass through line No. 2 from the zinc to the copper and 
then around through the wire back into the zinc and acid again. 
What gives the starting impulse of these great forces? In the 
first place, in the polarized lines of water, the atoms of oxygen 
nearest the zinc rendered intensely active by the presence of 
sulphuric acid, are both swept and drawn by affinitive currents 
into the vortexes of the zinc, and consequently are torn away 
from their affinitive atoms of hydrogen. These atoms of hydro- 
gen thus set free seize upon the atoms of oxygen of the contigu- 
ous molecules, and thus their atoms of hydrogen become free. 
This second set of freed hydrogen atoms seizes the third set of 
oxygen atoms, and so the process goes on until all the molecules 
leading to the plate of copper have thus been readjusted. When 
the last molecule contiguous to the copper has been reached, the 
freed particles of hydrogen finding no oxygen to combine with, 
rise to the top of the liquid and emerge into the air in small bub- 
bles. The vortex end of this line of atoms with suction made es- 
pecially powerful by such an active chemical readjustment, draws 
on the affinitive currents from the copper itself, and this again 
from the wire, and the wire from the upper portion of the zinc 
until original currents through the water have again been reached, 
and so the current is rendered continuous as long as the wire 
joins the plates and the chemical action is kept up. The atoms of 
oxygen which are first driven and drawn into the vortexes of 
the zinc in connection with the sulphuric acid, loosen and sepa- 



GALVANISM. 



141 



rate these contiguous atoms of zinc which encase them from the 
original metal, and fall into the liquid as the sulphate of zinc, 
there to be dissolved. This leaves the atoms of zinc exposed for 
the next set of atoms of oxygen, which rush in and cause another 
redjustment all the way to the copper. This process is continued 
until the zinc is eaten away, or the acid exhausted of its power. 

4. "If the zinc, after being thoroughly cleansed by immersion 
in the acidulated water, be rubbed with mercury, it immediately 
acquires a bright amalgamated surface, and when restored to the 
water it no longer exerts any decomposing action, and particles 
of hydrogen are no longer seen to rise from it. The instant, 
however, that a connection is made by a wire or otherwise, with 
the conducting plate, hydrogen bubbles at once begin to be dis- 
charged from it as before. The cause of this is not understood, 
but constant use is made of the fact to protect the zinc plates 
from corrosion, except during the period when the battery is 
actually in action." (Pynchon's "Chemical Forces.") 

5. The above mystery is readily solved by the principles 
already illustrated in paragraph XXXIII. The mercury which 
forms the amalgam of the zinc evidently has spirals too fine to 
be penetrated by the currents which ordinarily draw the oxygen 
up to the zinc, but when the circuit is made complete by uniting 
the wires, the electro motive force becomes sufficiently powerful 
to drive them through. 

6. Electricians, being unacquainted with the laws of atomic 
action, commonly suppose that the leading electric current must 
move from the zinc to the copper because chemical action is in 
that direction, but the error of this is easily seen. The chemico- 
electric current which flows through the sulphuric acid passes 
in that direction, but it is really less penetrating than the other, 
although its ruder style of power may produce a more immediate 
effect. It moves in a direction opposite to that of the water because 
the atoms are polarized conversely to those of that fluid. The 
reasons for saying the chemico electricity circulates through the 
acid will also be given in the paragraph XXXVI. The fact 
that the chemico electricity may in galvanism become a seem- 
ingly positive current, stronger in electrolysis than even the 
currents in the opposite direction, shows that a grade of elec- 
tricity, naturally weak, can be made powerful by an intense acid. 
In the magnet, however, its weakness is more evident. 



142 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



XXXV. — Why does Frictional Electricity move Mainly 
in one Direction? 




Fig. 146, Atomic Purees. 



1. We will suppose that in fig. 
146, a rubber of an electrical ma- 
chine should be passed over the 
atoms from right to left. The 
motion being in the same direction 
as the spirillae of the lower line of 
atoms, 1, 4, 9, would intensify their 
motion. On the upper line of atoms, however, the spirillae being 
in the opposite direction would be impeded in their action. The 
negative eddy 3, would be robbed of a portion of its ethers by the 
positive eddy 1, and by the time it should pass axially from 7 to 
8 its principle of electricity would be very feeble. A movement 
from left to right would set the upper spirals into active move- 
ment and impede the lower. A movement from 3 to 1 would 
have the same effect. A movement from 1 to 3, would arouse 
the lower spirals and deaden the upper, so that in whatever way 
the friction is directed, only the alternate spirals, which move in 
one direction, are appreciably affected by any ordinary action, in 
any one part of a substance. The common supposition that 
there are two kinds of electricity moving in opposite directions 
in frictionized substances, would seem, then, to be an error. 

2. Magnetism has its bipolar conditions and its different 
electricities moving in opposite directions, but these are ac- 
counted for on the same principle as the same thing in galvan- 
ism, magnetism usually being generated through the aid of 
galvanism. The loadstone or natural magnet, composed of the 
oxide of iron, probably owes its dual polarity to liquids and 
elements of the soil which act on the galvanic principle. 



XXXVI. PosrrrvE and Negative Electricities. 



1. It is now time to attack this great mystery and see what 
light can be afforded by the etherio-atomic law. "Notwithstand- 
ing the great importance of the numerous electrical phenomena, 
we are still ignorant of their cause," says Ganot. Chambers's 
Encyclopedia admits that the terms positive and negative, as 



posrrrvE and negative electricities. 



143 



generally used, are "meaningless," but are adopted for con- 
venience. Certain substances, when rubbed or beaten, send 
forth more positive electrical effect than others. Thus fric- 
tionized glass produces a decided action and is said to have 
positive or + electricity, while frictionized gutta percha, shellac 
or resin, being feebler, are said to have negative or — electricity. 
Why should one substance thus have stronger currents than another? 
One great cause of electrical power in bodies is their superior polar- 
ization, as the others must sweep with much greater force through 
unbroken lines than they would through amorphous bodies, or those 
in which short or confused lines prevail. But why should some 
bodies possess this finer polarization and crystallization? Evi- 
dently because they have spirals which invite the finer and swifter 
electricities that are so powerful as to straighten out the atoms into 
continuous lines. Take the two substances, glass and shellac, 
for instance. Shellac is evidently more amorphous than glass, 
from having coarser and weaker electricities. Glass, as we 
have seen, must have spirillae adapted to the electro-lumino as 
well as the magneto ethers, and capable of thorough polariza- 
tion from its power to transmit light. Shellac has no spirillae 
fine enough to admit light, and very probably has the chem- 
ico-electricity as its prominent force, which would account 
for its different and weaker character. But frictional electricity, 
it may be said, does not deal with these more interior electrici- 
ties. Not so directly, I admit, although powerful fractionizing 
machines have developed even galvano and magneto electricities 
by reaction, no doubt, upon the intra-spirals. It is evident, how- 
ever, that if glass has longer lines of polarization than shellac, its 
frictional electricity must be more positive than the same electri- 
city of that substance. 

2. But another principle must be considered. Metals doubt- 
less have quite as long lines of polarization as glass or silk. Why, 
then, will they not produce the attractive and electrical effect 
when rubbed that these substances do? Because they are such 
good conductors that their electricity escapes. Glass, silk, flannel, 
etc., have a sufficiency of transverse lines to deflect a portion of 
their currents into curves somewhat like the magnetic, which 
accounts for their power to attract light substances, such as hairs, 
feathers, etc., and also for their poor conduction. Unlike the 



144 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



magnet, however, we can scarcely say that there are two electrici- 
ties moving in opposite directions in such substances as they 
are not bipolar. 

3. "The electricity developed on a body," says Ganot, "de- 
pends on the body rubbed. Thus glass becomes negatively 
electrified when rubbed with catskin, but positively when rubbed 
with silk." In the following list, the substances are arranged in 
such an order, that each becomes positively electrified when 
rubbed with any of the bodies following, but negatively when 
rubbed with any of those which precede it: 1 catskin; 2, flannel; 
3, glass; 4, silk; 5, the hand; 6, wood; 7, metals; 8, caoutchouc 
{India Rubber); 9 resin; 10, sulphur; 11, gutta percha; 12, 
gun cotton. The ordinary supposition that each substance can 
develop two different kinds of electricities in other substances 
is unnecessary and unnatural. (See P. XXXV.) The following 
seems to be an easy solution of the difficulty: glass becomes 
negative when rubbed with catskin because its currents are over- 
powered and driven inward by the stronger currents of the latter. 
It becomes positive when rubbed with silk because its currents 
are strong enough to drive inward those of that substance. The 
same principle holds with the other substances. The metals 
may naturally have swifter styles of electricity than catskin or 
silk, but these latter, by their curved and transverse lines, can 
hold the electricity until its tension is sufficient to overpower 
even the metals. A negative body, or part of a body, is that in 
which the influx electricities preponderate over the efflux, while a 
positive body or part of a body, is that in which the efflux electrici- 
ties preponderate over the influx. It is easy to see, then, why 
positive and negative conditions of electricity attract each other, 
as the influx or vortical currents of the latter attract the torrents 
of the former, and it is also plain that two positives must repel 
because their torrents dash against each other, or that two nega- 
tives must also be inharmonious as they draw in opposite direc- 
tions. The law is that contrasting electricities attract, similar 
electricities repel. 

4 Why one end of a magnet is more positive than the other, 
as we have already seen, comes from the fact of a more interior 
and potent electricity. Fogs, snow and rain are nearly always 
charged with a positive grade of electricity, and clouds quite fre- 



CHEMICAL AFFINITY. 



145 



quently are. The earth is negative in the daytime to the atmos- 
pheric electricities, which, under the polarizing power and stimulus 
of the sunlight, are radiated into its surface, while in the night 
it becomes positive to the atmosphere, radiating its electric cur- 
rents upward and outward. A thunder-cloud with its transverse 
and irregular lines, is capable of holding the electricity in curves 
around its surface until a large amount is collected and the elec- 
trical tension becomes very great. Suppose, now, that this cloud, 
so strongly or positively charged, should approach another cloud 
less charged. The vortical attractions of this feebler cloud will 
cause this mass of electricity to burst the barriers of the non- 
conducting atmosphere and dash into its neighbor with an explo- 
sive and frictional force which gives the effect of lightning and 
thunder. The clouds are relatively + and — in their electrical 
condition. When a positive cloud approaches the earth, which 
is negative, the electricity passes into the earth. When a nega- 
tively charged cloud approaches the earth, however, we sometimes 
have the ascending lightning, the electricity passing from the 
earth to the cloud. 

XXXVII Chemical Affinity. 



1. This great mystery of chemical affinity which has so long 
puzzled the chemists, becomes comparatively simple by under- 
standing the working of ethers and atoms. The reader, who has 
not become familiar with the matter already explained, should go 
back and study the form and working of atoms, together with the 
etherial winds of force which sweep them together, or drive them 
asunder. Chemical affinity results principally from the two fol- 
lowing laws: 

2. The leading cause of chemical affinity appears in the fact 
that atoms of one kind, having a strong thermal and vortical action, 
become thus expanded so as to receive far within themselves atoms 
of another kind which are drawn in narrower by means of their 
strong axial or electrical action. 

3. There must be a similarity in the character and size of some 
of the leading spirillar of the combining atoms so that the same 
ethers may glide unimpeded through the whole to bind them to- 
gether by a common propulsion and suction. The first of the above 

10 



146 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 




Fig. 147. A Chem- 
ical Molecule. 



rules gives the law of diversity, the second the law of unity in 
chemical combination. 

4. It is easy to see how the wide mouthed heat-atom, with its 
powerful vortical forces, can draw the narrower cold producing 
atom into itself, while on the other hand, the powerful axial 
forces from behind drive the narrower electrical atom into the 

wide one. It is easy to see, also, how such a 
powerful affinitive action can drive the one atom 
into the other all the way up to the ridge formed 
by the widest thermo spirals which are near the 
vortex, as represented in fig. 147, while ordinary 
cohesion is not strong enough to drive the atom 
into the encasing one farther than to the first or 
positive thermo spirals, as seen in figs. 136 and 
137, which are non-chemical. But why do I 
know that the basic atom in chemical affinity encases the other 
up to these larger thermo spirals? Because, first, I know that 
chemical union is closer than that of ordinary cohesion, cones- 
quently it must sink the atoms deeper than to the smaller or 
positive thermo spirals. Having surmounted these there will be 
no barrier until the larger spirals are reached; and, secondly, 
chemical affinity hides the color spirals of the encased atom. 
Thus carbon is a black substance, while potassium and sodium 
are white. According to the 2d rule, what should their color be 
when combined chemically into carbonate of potassa, and car- 
bonate of soda — that of the black carbon, or that of the white 
potassium and sodium? It should be that of the encasing atom, 
and the encasing or thermal atoms here must be the potassium 
and sodium which are electro-positive, as will be shown hereafter, 
while the carbon, being more electrical, must have its atoms 
encased and thus have their color spirals hidden by the white of 
the potassium, etc. In the same way common salt, which is 
formed of chlorine and sodium, shows only the white color of 
the latter, the atoms of which entirely swallow up the greenish 
yellow color of the former. See Chromo-Chemistry for further 
illustrations. 

5. It is important to dwell a moment on the causes which 
give to atoms these dual styles of form by which they are ena- 
bled to be combined so beautifully and powerfully. Fig. 148 



CHEMICAL AFFINrrY. 



147 




Fig. 148, Thermal 
or Encasing Atom. 



Fig. 149. Electrical 
Atom. 



shows the encasing atom made broad by its thermal activity. 

The figure represents two types 
of atoms, one represented by the 
dotted line, of which potassium 
is a good example, and the other 
shown by the main line, of which 
hydrogen is a good example. 
Hydrogen, having more specific 
heat than any other substance 
must have the broadest atoms, 
taken all in all, and yet potassium, with far less specific heat, can 
outdo the hydrogen as shown in its power to tear the atoms of 
oxygen away from it when thrown into water for instance. 
How is this? Hydrogen, which is distinguished for its deli- 
cacy of action, doubtless has an abundance of fine spirilla? 
which quickly kindle into action the main spiral, and this com- 
mences to lessen before it gets so near the negative end. The 
potassium has doubtless much coarser spirillse and corresponding 
coarse ethers, among which the chemico is doubtless prominent, 
and working more slowly does not attain its maximum power until 
the vortex is nearly reached. This gives it a powerful vortex 
and hence great attractive force. Hydrogen, having an immense 
amount of heat, has very probably more than three thermo 
spirals. Its chemical action is fine and powerful, but if its in- 
tensity of movement were to be transferred to the vortex it would 
be terrific and kindle into flame every time a chemical union 
with other atoms should occur. As it is, it is a great leading de- 
veloper of heat and light. Sodium, magnesium and other alka- 
line and electro-positive elements belong to this general style of 
atom, ranking between the extremes of the hydrogen and potas- 
sium. This includes most of the metals whose thermal spirals and 
ethers are sufficiently coarse and slow of action not to gain their 
full power until the vortex is approximated, so that they become 
wide mouthed and especially attractive to the other style of 
atoms. 

6. Fig. 149 presents the more narrow and electrical style, in 
which the axial activities are more potent than the thermal, and 
in which even the thermal spirals are probably more oblique than 
in the broader atoms as shown in the diagram. It includes such 



148 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



atoms as those of the oxygen, sulphur, chlorine, and the other 
electro-negative substances. This grade of atoms, among which 
the oxygen is foremost, is prominent in acids in which electricity 
rules, although hydrogen intensifies the same. The dotted line 
shows an atom of this grade whose vortex is somewhat expanded 
and its positive end drawn in small. This is a good type of an atom 
of oxygen, whose pointed end being small by being the most elec- 
trical of atoms, makes it especially suited to penetrate other sub- 
stances and oxydize them.* More than that its vortex is suffi- 
ciently large and active to attract other atoms into itself, and 
this diversity in its two poles is a great leading cause of its being 
able to combine with all other elements excepting fluorine. 
Another reason why it can combine thus universally is that it 
must have a diversity of spirilla? by means of which it is supplied 
with those ethers that work harmoniously with the atoms of 
other substances and drive them together. It is known to be 
the most electro-negative of substances, which is a term that sig- 
nifies it is the most electrical. Faraday has shown its magnetic 
character which proves that it has magneto-electricity. Its wide 
vortex and the fact that it affinitizes with metals and so many 
substances in which chemico-electricity must exist, argue that 
chemico ether is one of its forces. As a gas or liquid in air and 
water, it transmits light, being transparent, which shows that the 
color electricities may pass through it. Thus does oxygen have 
affinitive spirals, which are able to receive more or less well the 
thermo, chemico, thermo-lumino, electro, electro-lumino, galvano 
and magnetic ethers which, with the form resulting from connec- 
tion with them, makes it on the whole the most powerful known 
agent of chemical action, and constituting, according to Dr. Att- 
field, about half of the substance of the globe. Gold, silver and 
platinum, and a few other bodies, have but feeble affinities for 
oxygen excepting when the added electricities of sulphur are 
brought into action, consequently they maintain their brightness 
under all ordinary circumstances. 

7. The thermo spiral at 2, in fig 149, shows how far the atom 
generally sinks into the encasing atom in chemical combinations, 
while that at 1 shows how far it sinks in cases of ordinary cohe- 



*When metals are oxidized they are said to be covered with rust, which is simply a 
chemical deposit of oxygen. 



CHEMICAL AFFINITY. 



149 



sion or mere mixtures, as in the oxygen and nitrogen which con- 
stitute air, as well as in other substances. In chemical affinity, 
however, in which there is an alternation of both the narrow and 
broad atoms, it is not probable that the broader atom sinks into 
the narrower as far as the narrower sinks into the broader in 
many cases. Thus in common salt there is an alternation of sodium 
as the broad mouthed, and chlorine as the narrow-pointed atom, 
forming when combined what is called a molecule of salt. The 
chlorine sinks far down into the sodium and hides its color. 
When the next molecule is joined to this, the broader sodium 
atom has to be inserted into that of the chlorine, but it evidently 
does not become encased in it farther than the first or positive 
thermo spiral at 1 , because if it entered as far as 2, its color-spi- 
rals would be covered up and it would no longer appear white. 
It is quite probable, however, that in the case of sulphuric acid 
(H 2 S0 4 ), and some similar combinations in which the forces 
move with tremendous power, all the atoms are driven into each 
other up to their shoulders, in other words to number 2, and such 
may be the case with water, which is really the most powerful 
solvent, taking it all in all, to be found in nature. Closely as the 
atoms are driven together in sulphuric acid and water, they become 
three per cent, smaller still when these substances are combined 
equally, thus showing that the electrical forces are made even 
more powerful by their union. 

8. Acids are substances in which the electrical forces predom- 
inate, as I have already remarked, oxygen, or some other electri- 
cal element, being the acidifying principle, while hydrogen, also 
a common ingredient of acids, although possessing a predominant 
thermism, must yet be highly stimulating to the electrical forces. 
For proof of the cold, electrical nature of acids, see the chapter 
on Chromo Chemistry, XVII, 6, 7, 8. 

9. Alkalies, the contrast of acids, belong to the thermal side 
of the question, and are included among electro-positives and 
broad mouthed atoms. As the result of this they must be expan- 
sive and relaxing in their general character. This is verified in 
our medical books, which prescribe as their principle laxatives 
and purgatives substances which have alkaline bases such as 
magnesia, sulphate of potassium, sulphate of magnesium (Epsom 
salts), tartrate of potassium and sodium (Rochelle salts), etc. 



150 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



Citrate of magnesia, Vichy water and some other alkaline drinks 
are called cooling, but this can come only from their reactionary 
effect, or from the electrical principle with which they are 
combined. 

It is perfectly clear, then, why acids and alkalies have such an 
affinity for each other, as they include the dual conditions of 
narrow and broad forms, &c. 

10. Color Affinities may be merely mentioned here. In 
the chapter on Chromo-Chemistry this whole subject will be 
developed much more minutely. The reader has already seen 
that the colors on what is sometimes called the warm end of the 
spectrum, including red, red-orange, orange, yellow-orange, yel- 
low and yellow-green, are made in connection with the spirillse of 
the thermal or widening portion of atoms, while the cold colors, 
blue-green, blue, indigo-blue, indigo, violet-indigo, violet, and 
dark violet, are made in connection with the spirillse of the axial 
or contracting portion of atoms. It is evident at once, then, that 
substances in which the thermal colors predominate must affini- 
tize with those in which the electrical colors rule. But what is 
the exact affinity of each color? Let us take the blue-green for 
instance. The very spiral, or more exactly the spirilla which 
works as the blue green principle in the axis of an atom, works 
as the principle of thermel on the outside (See fig. 135). Is it 
not evident, then, that when the thermel is swept by strong 
ethers the vibration extends to the inner blue-green portion and 
vice versa? Again the axial spirilla for blue is simply the inner 
portion of the thermal spirilla for red. When the blue part is 
quickened the red part responds by reaction, or when the red 
part is quickened the blue part responds by direct action. Is it 
not plain, then, that a broad atom in which red rules would 
naturally draw into its vortex the narrower electrical atom in 
which blue rules, especially as the inner portion of each has a 
leading spirilla of exactly the same size and responding to the 
same ethers, while both thermal and axial forces must quicken 
each other? On the same principle, then, the following are the 
affinitive colors: 

Thermel (invisible), affinitizes with Blue-Green. 

Red " Blue. 

Red-Orange " Indigo-Blue. 



ARE ATOMS ANIMALS? 



151 



Orange affinitizes with Indigo. 

Yellow-Orange " Violet-Indigo. 

Yellow " Violet. 

Yellow-Green " Dark-Violet. 

For abundant facts in proof that these are affinitive colors, 
see Chromo-Chemistry (XX), and Chromo-Dynamics. 

XXXVIII. Are Atoms Animals? 



We have already seen that atoms constitute the most won- 
derful of machines. Has the reader noticed, also, that they 
are formed almost like an animal? On their outside we have 
the large and small arteries in the shape of the 1st, 2d, and 3d 
spirilla? within which the etherial blood flows, and the tubing 
which constitutes the frame work of these spirillse, wherein dwell 
the still finer ethers that may be called their nerve force. The 
axial spirillse passing in the other direction on the law of elec- 
tricity constitute the veins. Does the reader notice the remark- 
able analogy to the human system? Do not the arteries carry 
the warm red blood in one direction, while the veins carry the 
more electrical purple blood in the other? We have the ligo as 
the spine, the tubing of the main spiral as the bowels, that of 
the spirillse as the nerves, the vortex as the point of ingress, the 
torrent as the point of egress, the channels laid out by the exter- 
nal spirillae as the arteries, those by the axial spirillse as the 
veins, while the ethers constitute the blood and nervous aura. 
And yet a single atom can never constitute a living animal. 
Different atoms must be combined on the law of chemical affinity 
before we can presume to have that swift flow of force which 
helps to inaugurate life. The space is too limited here to show 
how lines of active atoms may, under the stimulus of a certain 
amount of heat, be wound up into spirals, spiral balls, tubes, etc., 
in a way to constitute the static life of vegetable growths or the 
locomotive life of animal existences. Hints could be given of 
how organized vegetable life developed in connection with the 
soil could establish a flow of fine ethers and gases constituting 
its vitality, and then how a neighboring organization of finer 
atoms might eventually draw off these ethers and life forces of 
the vegetable into itself and succeed in reaching a grade of being 
sufficiently active to exist a brief time aside from the soil which 



152 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



would thus constitute animal life, and again how this animal life 
might give up its fine forces to some organization a little higher 
still and so on until this everlasting progression and evolution 
from lower to higher conditions, working through countless ages, 
has attained to the present marvelous developments of vegetable, 
animal and human life. Is it atheistic to speak of this sublime 
law of nature because it is seemingly self-acting? By no means, 
for as we have seen (X) there must be some infinite spiritualizing 
Power beyond coarse matter, beyond even the finest ethers, 
before natural forms can be potentialized into life and motion. 
The conception of Deific wisdom which can arrange such won- 
derful laws and self-acting conditions is far grander than the 
God of confusion, too often conceived of, who works very gener- 
ally without law and who must be constantly supplementing the 
deficiencies of things by some special efforts. 

XXXIX. Count Rumford and the Dynamic Theory. 



1 . We have already seen the one-sidedness of a mere dynamic 
theory of force on the one hand, or of a mere material or fluidic 
theory on the other hand, see Chapter Second, XIV — XVIII. 
We have also seen in this Chapter, how many mysteries of 
matter and force stand revealed by uniting both theories in one 
on the etherio-atomic law. In order that this mere dynamic 
theory, now so much advocated by scientists, should if possible 
be laid on the shelf so as no longer to retard the progress of 
correct knowledge, a little more should be said in this place. 

2. In 1798, an eminent philosopher, by the name of Count 
Rumford, read an essay on Heat before the Royal Society, which 
has been the stronghold of the dynamic theorists, and is perhaps 
the most plausible thing that has thus far been presented on 
that side of the question. Of this essay Prof. Tyndall says, 
"Rumford, in this memoir, annihilates the material theory of 
heat. Nothing more powerful on the subject has since been 
written." (Heat as a Mode of Motion, p. 39.) In this essay 
the Count explained an experiment of boring into steel, while 2Vi 
gallons of water surrounded the boring apparatus, and thus 
developing an amount of heat that caused the water to boil. 
Seizing the small amount of steel dust that had been caused by 
the boring, he had held it up and exclaimed: "Is it possible that 



COUNT RUMFORD AND THE DYNAMIC THEORY. 



153 



the very considerable quantity of heat produced in this experiment, 
could have been furnished by so inconsiderable a quantity of 
dust?" I quote his strongest point, Italics and all, in the follow- 
ing: — "What is heat — is there any such thing as an igneous 
fluid? Is there anything, that with propriety can be called 
caloric? We have seen that a very considerable quantity of 
heat may be excited by the friction of two metallic surfaces and 
given off in a constant stream or flux in all directions, without 
interruption or intermission and without any signs of diminution 
or exhaustion. In reasoning on this subject we must not forget 
that most remarkable circumstance that the source of heat gen- 
erated by friction in these experiments appeared evidently to be 
inexhaustible. It is hardly necessary to add that anything which 
any insulated body or system of bodies can continue to furnish 
without limitation cannot possibly be a material substance; and 
it appears to me to be extremely difficult, if not quite impossible, 
to form any distinct idea of anything capable of being excited 
and communicated in those experiments except it be motion." 

3. It will be seen from the above that Rumford was reasoning 
on the supposition that heat must be confined to the portion bored, 
and that the metal acted as an insulator to prevent heat from 
coming into the water from without. But we have seen how 
heat and electricity when under stimulus can pass through all 
substances including atmosphere, water and metals, and how easily 
the ethers can sweep through steel, as in the magnet, for instance, 
in which the forces come from the atmosphere and pass into the 
atmosphere again, as shown by the iron filings which they influ- 
ence. We have seen that atoms are a kind of wind-mills or fan- 
ning-mills into which and out of which the currents of ether 
flow, their spiral wheel-work becoming especially active when 
frictionized or pressed so that both the caloric and electricity 
must be drawn along with the greater rapidity. The Count's rea- 
soning then is on a par with the following, with reference to a fan- 
ning-mill: — The fanning-mill is turned and a very considerable 
quantity of air is "excited and given off in a constant stream or 
flux" in various directions, "without interruption or intermission, 
and without any signs of diminution or exhaustion. In reason- 
ing on this subject we must not forget that most remarkable cir- 
cumstance that the source of wind (heat) generated in these ex- 



154 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



periments appeared evidently to be inexhaustible. It is hardly 
necessary to add, that any" air which a fanning-mill, covered with 
a wire screen (insulated), "can continue to furnish without limita- 
tion, cannot possibly be a material substance; and it appears to 
me to be extremely difficult, if not quite impossible, to form any 
distinct idea of anything capable of being excited and communi- 
cated in those experiments, except it be motion." 

4. This is parallel to the common reasoning of to-day on this 
subject. To speak of insulating or shutting out the heat currents 
by means of steel is very similar to insulating or shutting off the 
air currents from a fanning-mill by a wire screen. Very many 
persons are able to feel, as I myself have sometimes done, the 
warm currents flowing from the negative pole of a magnet and 
the cold currents flowing from its positive pole. Baron Reichen- 
bach furnishes numerous examples of persons who can do this, 
and who can see fiery emanations from both poles, the warm red 
flames coming from the south pole, and blue flames from the 
north pole, which is more positively electrical. (See Chromo-Dy- 
namics.) Suppose a person should hold his hand in front of the 
fanning-mill, and, as he feels a strong breeze emanating from it 
should declare there was nothing there but motion, would his 
observation be considered very scientific? If not, neither is it 
scientific to reason in the same way about the ethereal breezes. 
It is absurd to suppose that there can be motion without some- 
thing to make the motion. 

5. A similar error was committed by Faraday in the measure- 
ment of electricity. As Rumford presumed that heat can be shut 
in by a bar of steel so did Faraday presume that electricity can 
be enclosed and then measured in a drop of water, as signified in 
the following sentence: — "One grain of water acidulated to pro- 
mote conduction, has a quantity of electricity equal to a power- 
ful flash of lightning." (Experimental Researches in Electricity, 
p. 250.) In answer to this statement which has been widely quoted 
as a fact, I would say 1st, that a grain of water is about equiva- 
lent to one drop. A powerful flash of lightning from a cloud 
doubtless comes from thousands of drops; is it to be supposed 
that one drop should equal this? 2dly, we have seen under the 
head of Galvanism (XXXIV) that acidulated water, by means of 
chemical action, brings not only its own electricities into play but 



WEIGHT AND SPECIFIC HEAT OF ATOMS. 



155 



those of the surrounding metals and wires. How then shall its 
electricity be measured aside from theirs? 

6. That all the fine forces of light, heat, electricity, etc., 
include both atomic vibrations and ethers, should by this time be 
quite clear to the reader, especially as on this theory so many 
mysteries of nature stand revealed which on the mere dynamic 
plan must ever remain inexplicable. I have myself collected 
several colors on chemically prepared paper, and this directly 
from the sunlight, with only colored glass between, thus proving 
that light is a substance as well as the result of vibrations. The 
following from Prof. Henry, one of our most eminent scientists, 
shows the fluidic and material side of electricity: — "In a new in- 
vestigation of the discharge of a Ley den jar, the facts clearly in- 
dicated the transfer of a fluid from the inside to the outside and 
a rebound back and forward several times in succession until 
equilibrium was obtained by a series of diminishing oscillations" 
(Patent Office Report on Agriculture in 1857.) 

XL. Weight and Specific Heat of Atoms. 



The specific heat in the following table is given as determined 
by Regnault and others, and the relative weight of atoms as 
established by chemists. The real weight of atoms of course 
cannot be ascertained. Hydrogen is the lightest substance, has 
the lightest atoms of any which chemists have been able to take 
cognizance of, and its atomic weight is called 1 ; the carbon being 
12 times as heavy, is called 12, Oxygen 16, etc.; chemists have 
concluded that all atoms in a gaseous form occupy equal sizes or 
volumes, those of oxygen gas, for instance, occupying the same 
amount of space as those of hydrogen, although 16 times as heavy. 

1 will give the names of the substance, then the chemical symbol, 
as O for Oxygen, H for Hydrogen, Na (natrium) for Sodium, Fe 
(ferrum) for Iron, etc. In compound substances, the different 
elements and the quantity of each is represented chemically by 
placing the symbols with figures thus: H 2 for water, meaning 

2 atoms (or volumes) of hydrogen to one of oxygen, or eight times 
as much by weight of Oxygen as of Hydrogen. In the next 
column I furnish the relative weight of each atom, then the 
specific heat which each atom has the capacity for as compared 
with water, then the products of the specific heat multiplied by 



156 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



Elements' 



Gases. 



■73 

5.8 

E s 
BW 

u 



G.TJ 



Hydrogen. 
Nitrogen . . 
Oxygen . . . 



Air. .......... 

Carbonic Acid. 
Watery Vapor. 

Liquids. 



Water 

Alcohol. 

Ether 

Chloroform . 

Bromine 
Mercury . . . 

Solids. 



<**-■ I cSSS , 



Sodium . 

Magnesium 

Aluminum. .... 

Silicon 

Phosphorus 

Sulphur .', 

Potassium 

Manganese 

Iron 

Nickel 

Copper 

Zinc 

Silver 

Cadmium 

Tin 

Antimony 

Iodine 

Gold 

Platinum 

Mercury (Solid) . 

Lead 

Bismuth 



Atomic 
weight, Hy- 
Symbols. drogeu being 



H. 
N. 
O. 



CO, 



H s O 
CJtifi 

c 4 h io o 
Crici, 

Br. 
Hg- 



Na. 

Mg. 

Al. 

Si. 

P. 

S. 

K. 

Mn. 

Fe. 

Ni. 

Cu. 

Zn. 

Ag. 

Cd. 

Sn. 

Sb. 

I. 

Au. 

Pt. 

Hg. 

Pb. 

Bi. 



14 

16 



So 

zoo 



23 

?4 

27 
38 
3 1 
3 3 
39 
55 

I 
63-5 

10S. 

113 

Il8 

122 

127 

106.7 

197.4 

200 

207 

210 



Specific Heat. 
Water being 1. 



3.4.046 
.244 
.2182 

.2377 
■33 08 

■475° 



1. 0000 
.615 

-5"3 
.2293 

.106 
■0333 



.147 
.242 

•2934 
.2499 

-2143 
.176 
.1887 
.2026 

.16956 
.1217 

■"379 

.10863 
.095 r 5 

•09555 
.05701 
.05669 
.05623 
.05077 
.05412 
.03244 

.03243 
.03192 
.0314 
,03084 



Products of specific 

heat multiplied 

by Atomic 

Weight. 



3.4046 

3.416 

3-49 12 



6.744 
6.66 



1.764 
2.904 
6.748 
5-998 
5.786 
4.928 

5-8497 

6.483 

66128 

6.6934 

6.3722 

6409 

6.0419 

6.2108 

6.157 

6.3482 

6.6356 

6.1939 

6.8732 

6.38 

6-3952 

6.384 

6.4999 

6.4764 



the atomic weight, which makes about the same amount for nearly 
all the elements. Dulong and Petit were the first to deduce the 
law that the specific heat of an elementary body is inversely as its 
atomic weight. The rule seems to be that the greater the thermal 



LATENT AND SENSIBLE HEAT. 



157 



activity and capacity of an atom the less is it liable to be loaded 
down and saturated with gravito- ether, whose attractive principles 
give the effect of weight. The heaviest atoms do not always make 
the heaviest substances, as bismuth, whose atoms are the heavi- 
est of all, is not 10 times as heavy as water, while gold is so com- 
pact as to weigh over 19 times more than that fluid. The 
formula for Alcohol as above is C 2 H 6 0, 2 equivalents (volumes) 
of Carbon, 6 of Hydrogen and 1 of Oxygen, or by weight 24 
parts of Carbon, 6 of Hydrogen and 1 6 of Oxygen. 

XLI. Latent and Sensible Heat. 



How is it that atoms become so vastly expanded when in the 
gaseous state over what they are in the liquid or solid condition, 
or when heated, over what they are when cold? The channels 
formed by the spirillse around the main spiral through which the 
fluid ethers flow, must ever remain much the same in size ex- 
cepting under great pressure (See XXXIII), otherwise we could 
not get the same color continuously, or the same grade of elec- 
tricity within the same spirilla, for if it grew larger or smaller it 
would vibrate at different rates and attract different grades of 
ethers. The atoms of water expand nearly 1700 times on being 
converted into steam, and something wonderfully elastic and 
spring-like must be thus projected outward by the centrifugal 
force of the heat currents. As the thermo-spirals form the channels 
of the ordinary heat currents, suppose we consider the tube of the 
same. Within this tube is the spiric ether, which, though static 
to some extent, yet like the static atoms of jelly may be supposed 
to move about only with incomparably more freedom than that 
substance from its great fineness. This spiric ether must be 
swung with tremendous velocity against the outside portion of 
the tube which contains it, causing it to project in case it is thin 
and elastic. That it must be thin would seem to be indicated by 
the fact that the billions of revolutions and vibrations of the heat 
forces every second, acting ever centrifugally, are constantly 
hurling this ether against the outward membrane and thus ren- 
dering it pliable. Knowing now as we do, that something must 
protrude far beyond the body of the atom, and that this some- 
thing may be thus naturally accounted for by this elastic and 



158 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



pouch-like membrane of the spiral tubes driven outward by the 
momentum of the ether within, I think we may settle down upon 
this as the correct hypothesis. The greater the heat action, 
other things being equal, the farther will this membrane be pro- 
jected outward. In gases, there is no power to hinder it, and it 
may thus extend very far. Now this spiric ether while within its 
tube may be called latent heat, but when it is projected outward its 
ribbon-like membrane, lashing against all surrounding objects 
gives the burning effect of sensible heat causing the thermometer 
to rise. Of course the fluid ethers must combine with this lash- 
ing to give the full effect of heat, and excite the spiral tube itself. 
But why, it may be said, is the heat of boiling water more severe 
to the sensation even than that of steam, as long as the atoms 
are so much nearer together and the lashing membrane so much 
shorter? Because 1700 times as many lashes are laid on in the 
same space by water as by steam, so they make up in num- 
ber what they lack in length. This shows why the latent heat 
generally diminishes in proportion as the sensible heat increases, 
as the spiric ether lessens in its tube as it is projected externally. 
According to the experiments of Clement and Desormes, a cer- 
tain weight of steam at 212° F. condensed into water at 32° 
exhibited: 

Of Sensible heat, 180°— of Latent heat, 950°,— total 1130°. 

The same weight at 250° manifested: 
Of Sensible heat, 218°— of Latent heat, 912°— total 1130°. 

The sensible heat, it will be remembered, is that which is 
measured by the thermometer. 

XLII. Theories of Atoms. 



1 . It is becoming more and more apparent to men of thought 
that the knowledge of atoms is the foundation stone of the tem- 
ple of Science. The ignoring of the fine ethers, however, which 
vitalize and propel the atoms, has made it a very difficult matter 
for them to gain any kind of rational conception of how they 
work. Tyndall and others very correctly conceive that there is 
some spiral style of movement connected with heat, and yet the 
following is his conception of the matter: "I have here a weight 
attached to a spiral string; if I twirl the weight round in the 
air, it tends to fly away from me, the spring stretches to a cer- 



THEORIES of atoms. 



159 



tain extent, and as I augment the speed of revolution the spring 
stretches still more, the distance between my hand and the 
weight being thus augmented. It has been thought that the aug- 
mentation of the distance between a body's atoms by heat may be 
also due to a revolution of its particles. And imagine the motion 
to continue until the spring snaps; the ball attached to it would 
fly off in a tangent to its former orbit, and thus represent an 
atom freed by heat from the force of cohesion, which is rudely 
represented by our spring." Thus does Tyndal hint at a "revo- 
lution of particles." If he means a revolution of etherial parti- 
cles around the main atoms through some directing lines of force 
or spiral spring work, then it is clear enough just how this "rev- 
olution" can be effected; but if he means that the main atoms 
revolve spirally around each other without any guiding force, or 
channel, to systematize this revolution, the mystery is as great as 
ever; for how could they ever become polarized or crystallized in 
the midst of this constant whirl, and whence comes their propel- 
ling power? 

2. Molecular Astronomy. I have just met with a very good 
synopsis of the views of scientists on these revolutions of atoms 
which is strangely confirmatory of what I have already been 
stating with reference to the atomic structure when viewed in 
one light and yet strangely absurd as a whole. The theory is 
very pretty, and it is given in All the Year Round, from which I 
quote the following: — 

"Comparing the infinitely small with the infinitely great, it 
is held that a body, of what kind soever, represents in miniature 
and very exactly, an astronomical system, like those which we 
behold every night in the firmament. If we could construct a 
miscroscope of sufficient power, we should be able, by the help 
of such an instrument, to resolve the molecular constellations of 
every little terrestrial milky way, exactly as our first rate tele- 
scopes resolve the celestial nebulae and separate double and tri- 
ple stars. Were our sight sufficiently penetrating we should be- 
hold what now appear mere confused heaps of matter, arranged 
in groups of admirable symmetry. Bodies would appear honey- 
combed in all directions, daylight would stream through vast in- 
terstices as it does through the columns of a temple or the tree 
trunks of a forest. Nay, we should see immense empty spaces, 



160 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



like those which intervene between the planets. From distance 
to distance, too, we should perceive clusters of stars, in harmo- 
nious order, each surrounded by its own proper atmosphere; and 
still more astounding spectacle! — every one of those little mole- 
cular stars would be found revolving with giddy rapidity, in more 
or less elongated ovals, exactly like the great stars of heaven; 
while by increasing the power of our instrument, we should dis- 
cover around each principle star minor stars — satellites resem- 
bling our moon — accomplishing their revolutions swiftly and reg- 
ularly. This view of the constitution of matter is aptly described 
by M. de Parville as molecular astronomy, maintaining even that 
astronomy, without our suspecting it, is dependent on mineralogy; 
and that whenever we shall have discovered the laws which gov- 
ern the grouping and the movements of the infinitely small, as- 
tronomers will have only to follow in our track. But who, a hun- 
dred years ago, could dare to imagine that the infinitely small was 
so infinitely great? What is now believed to be the nearest guess 
at the truth appears, at first sight, to be the dream of a madman." 

3. This system of molecular astronomy, with its circles within 
circles, is remarkably in harmony with what I have ascertained 
must be the law of the atom, working with its spirals and dif- 
ferent grades of spirilla?, with its flow of small ethereal atoms 
which revolve around and through the main atoms and its still 
more delicate atoms that circulate through them. But it is an 
immense absurdity to suppose that atoms exist at great distances 
apart in open vacuity, which must at once make them independent 
of the rest of the universe and cause immediate lawlessness and 
ruin. It can be shown that the gravitation which holds all 
worlds in their orbits would at once cease were there not an al- 
most infinite series of atomic pathways held in a beautiful polar- 
ity and contiguity by means of sunbeams and starbeams through 
which the amazingly swift and attractive ethers pass and repass 
and hold suns and systems to their allegiance. 

4. Mr. L. R. Curtiss, in an article on Molecular Magnitudes 
in the Popular Science Monthly, of Oct. 1877, uses the following 
language: "As to the shape and internal structure of atoms, 
there is no definite knowledge, but Helmholtz's studies of certain 
equations in hydro-kinetics, several years ago, gave rise to the 
idea that vortex motion in a frictionless medium would exist for- 



SUMMATION OF POINTS IN CHAPTER THIRD. 



161 



ever — an assumption which is purely hypothetical; but since the 
proposition has been enlarged upon by Sir William Thompson — 
who conjectures that the atoms might be filaments or rings en- 
dowed with a vortex motion — the subject assumes a shape better 
calculated to form the basis of a scientific theory." The above 
shows that scientists are approaching more and more nearly to 
the true conception of atoms. But when Helmholtz, Thompson, 
and others talk about a vortex, they are considering something 
altogether vague, unless they also admit the necessity of fluidic 
ethers to sweep through this vortex, for otherwise the atoms 
must be as lifeless as a windmill without wind. 

5. These and many other atomic theories are pretty and in- 
genious, and give some conception of the immense movements 
that are ever taking place among atoms, but how these movements 
occur and why they occur, and what is the philosophy of mole- 
cular action, has thus far never been presented, so far as I know. 
A thousand hypotheses concerning atoms may be propounded; 
but so long as they are not reduced to definite law and harmon- 
ized with the mechanics of nature, they will be entirely unable to 
unfold the fundamental principles of light, color, heat, electricity, 
magnetism, physiology, psychology or dynamics of any kind, and 
the world must continue to build on conjecture. 

XLIII. Summation of Points in Chapter Third. 



1. Correct science is impossible without a knowledge of atoms. 

2. All things are comprised under the terms force and matter. 

3. While the largest atoms are inconceivably small, they are vast as 
compared with those of the finest ethers. 

4. The form of atoms must be that of an oblate ovoid, or the shape of 
an egg flattened somewhat on the sides, from the necessities of force. This 
form is not solid, but consists principally of an immensely elastic spring- 
work of spirals encircled by spirillce of different grades, which form con- 
stant channels of force. These channels move spirally around the outside 
of atoms as the principle of expansion and heat, and forming a vortex at 
the larger end, pass through the center in the other direction, tending to draw 
the atom in smaller on the principle of cold and electricity. 

5. The smaller positive end of the atom has the greater intensity of heat, 

11 



162 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



cold, repulsion and efflux power; the larger vortical or negative end is the 
point of greatest attraction, and influx power. 

6. Ordinary atoms must have certain spirals that are more external 
and projecting than the others, which are finer and set farther within. 
The external are known as extra-spirals, the internal, as intra- spirals. 
These pass within as axial extra-spirals and axial intra spirals. 

7. The thermo or extra-spirals are the principle of the ordinary coarser 
grades of heat, and when passing axially are the principle of the coarser 
grades of cold and also frictional electricity, which last works much like 
thermo-electricity. The intra-spirals in transparent bodies are the pathway 
of the warm or thermal colors, and when moving axially, of the electrical 
colors. In somewhat coarser and opaque bodies these same spirals become 
the principle of coarser grades of heat, and when moving axially, of the 
chemico, galvano and magneto electricities. 

8. Atoms in harmony with all mechanical action are kept in move- 
ment by fluidic forces. These forces are called ethers and are guided and 
drawn on by and through the channels called the spirillce. The finer 
spirilla; respond to the finer ethers. 

9. Ethers have weight, otherwise they could not have momentum. 

10. Polar cohesion is caused by the flow of ethers which sweep and 
draw the positive end of one atom into the larger vortical end of a con- 
tiguous one. Lateral cohesion is caused by the contiguity of positive and 
negative thermo -spirals. 

1 1 . The unity of atoms requires that the spirals and spirilla; should 
be connected with each other by various little pillars or tubes from one to 
the other. These pillars may be termed atomic tendrils. 

12. The most common method of polarization among atoms is in con- 
verse layers, in which the lines of atoms run side by side, but alternately 
in opposite directions. Transverse layers are those which cross each other 
at right angles or nearly so; transverse diagonals, those which cross 
diagonally and irregularly, while paraverse layers have all the atoms of 
a layer pointing in the same direction. 

13. Heat tends to individualize and disintegrate, cold to organize and 
make rigid; both combined to create harmony. It is only the coarser grades 
of heat and cold which are most painful to endure. The finer grades are 
more soothing and penetrating. The different grades of electricity are sim- 
ply grades of cold. 



SUMMATION OF POINTS IN CHAPTER THIRD. 



163 



14. Polar cohesion is aided by the flow of electricities, and in hard or 
solid bodies, doubtless, by a special riveting arrangement called the ligo. 

15. There are six especial divisions of electricity, 1, the frictional; 2, 
Chemico electricity; 3, Galvano electricity; 4, Magneto electricity; 5, 
Chroma electricity; and 6, Psycho electricity. Other grades exist in con- 
nection with the fine spirilla;, etc. Frictional electricity is the most interior 
and probably the swiftest, psycho electricity the finest, and chromo-electricity 
somewhat coarser, while chemico electricity is slow and negative. Unan- 
swerable facts show that the various shades of blue, indigo and violet are 
electrical. 

16. Magnetism consists especially of two leading grades of electricity, 
the more positive of which is the magneto, the more negative, the chemico, 
deflected to a great extent into curves by the transverse polarization of the 
atoms of certain substances through which they pass. The negative, some- 
times called the south pole of the magnet, is saturated with the chemico 
electricity, the positive pole with magneto and perhaps galvano electricity, 
being stronger in both its attractions and repulsions than the negative pole. 

17. Diamagnetic substances are those which have a lateral axis, instead 
of a longitudinal one like that of the magnet, and this comes from the polari- 
zation of its atoms into transverse diagonals. 

18. Phosphorescence, like every other style of combustion or chemical 
action, is always developed in connection with some grade of electricity, 
whether caused by vital action, the blue color, or otherwise. Its light is of 
too fine a grade to give the painful heat sensations of ordinary burning 
objects. (See XXI.) 

19. Fluorescence, Calorescence, etc., prove that under the stimulus of 
chemical or electrical action, fine ethers can sometimes be attracted through 
spirilla; which are naturally too coarse for them, and coarse ethers driven 
through spirilla; naturally too fine for them. 

20. In galvanism the acid or other substance used is polarized con- 
versely with the molecules of water, the galvano and magneto electricities 
passing through the water from the platinum to the zinc, and so on through 
the circuit, while the chemico electricity passes through the acid in the other 
direction. 

21. In frictional Electricity there are not two kinds of electrical force 
passing in two directions, as is often supposed. 



164 



ETHERIO— ATOMIC PHILOSOPHY OF FORCE. 



22. A negatively electrified body, or part of a body, is one in which the 
influx electrical currents preponderate over the efflux ones, while a positive- 
ly electrified body, or part of a body, is one in which the efflux currents pre- 
ponderate over the influx ones. Positiveness of electrical power sometimes 
depends upon the quantity and tension of electricity in one body as opposed 
to less of the same in another, and sometimes upon a stronger as opposed to 
a feebler quality of electricity, as the magneto in one substance as opposed 
to the chemico in another. 

23. Chemical affinity occurs between atoms that have been made full 
and wide mouthed from their strong thermal and vortical action and 
those that have been made more narrow from their strong electrical action, 
especially if some similar grades of ether are able to pass through and con- 
nect them both. The most direct affinity occurs between the electro-positives, 
including the alkalies, and the electro-negatives, including the acids, the former 
having the more wide mouthed atoms, the latter, the more pointed and elec- 
trical atoms. The electrical colors affinitize with the thermal colors. 

24. Atoms constitute at once the most perfect of machines and yet pos- 
sess many leading characteristics of an animal. 

25. The reason why the etherio- atomic law is a key to unlock so many 
mysteries of science, is, that it adopts the system of duality so universal in 
nature which combines the form and working of atoms as the base work of 
matter and the vitalizing flow of ethers, as the instruments of force, neither 
of which departments can ever be divorced from each other any more than 
action can be sundered from reaction. 

26. The heavier the atom, the more feeble is its capacity for heat. 

27 '. Scientists are right in presuming that atoms revolve around other 
atoms like planets around their parent sun, but these revolving atoms con- 
stitute the ethers which circulate through their spiral orbits around the 
parent atom. The orbits are brought to the most unerring system by means 
of the 1st, 2d and 3d spirilla; which represent orbits like those of the moon, 
earth and sun. 

28. Thus is an atom an epitome of the universe, having a 
gradation of elliptical and spiral orbits in imitation of those of the 
solar system; having its axial center of unity around which its 
external spirals revolve as a principle of diversity; having its 
positive end at which repulsion rules, and its negative end at 



SUMMATION OF POINTS IN CHAPTER THIRD. 



165 



which attraction is the dominant principle; constituting the 
most marvelous of machines with wheels within wheels driven 
by water, even the water of ether, some of which is much swifter 
than the lightning; resembling also an animal with veins, arteries, 
nerves, spine, viscera, blood, nerve-force, etc. In general form 
it resembles the egg, which at one time was thought to be the 
starting point of all life, Harvey having written "omne vivum 
ex ovo." Atoms indeed are the eggs out of which the whole 
universe is built, though on quite another principle. Their ac- 
tivities are so amazing that if one of them could be enlarged to 
the size of a man's head, constructed of some material millions of 
times stronger than anything known upon earth, and the tre- 
mendous whirl of forces set to revolving through their spirals 
which at their ordinary speed vibrate several hundred trillion 
times a second, what must be the effect? If such an atom should 
be set in the midst of New York City, it must create such a 
whirlwind that all its palatial structures, ships, bridges and sur- 
rounding cities, with nearly two millions of people, would be 
swept into fragments and carried into the sky. 

If the reader has become familiar with the foregoing chapters 
and gained possession of the atomic key, I think we shall be able 
to go hand in hand through many hidden pathways of power and 
open new doors in the infinite temple of knowledge. 



166 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



CHAPTER FOURTH. 
THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 

I. Introductory Point. 

Whence is the radiation that kindles all things into brilliance, 
and without which the whole universe would be but an infernum 
of blackness and death? It is meet that we should mount from 
atoms to suns, nature's opposite extremes of wonder. Opposite 
Extremes, did I say? They are identical, for suns and planets are 
but aggregations of atoms. 

II. World Formations. 

Something concerning cosmical formations will explain 
the existence of suns and fixed stars, or the luminous worlds, and 
also of the planets and moons, which are non-luminous. 
The etherio-atomic key opens up the law of forces so clearly as to 
make it evident that astronomers with all their wonderful achieve- 
ments have committed some important errors in getting at the 
development of worlds and of cosmical forces. For many years 
there has been a great division of sentiment as to whether the 
universe is the result of instantaneous creation, or of progressive 
growth and development from nebulous conditions. The nebu- 
lous theory declares that originally world matter was spread out 
through space in cloud-like forms of almost immeasurable extent. 
Scientists have often spoken of this as having been caused by 
heat so intense as to convert liquids, metals and mineral forms 
generally into a vapor which is thus spread out through space, 
and which is finally condensed into suns and worlds by natural 
processes. The prize essay of the World's Evangelical Alliance, 
written by Mr. Pearson, admits that the world is far older than 
six thousand years, but considers that all things were spoken 
into existence from nothing. He thinks that because the tele- 



NEBULOUS MATTER. 



167 



scope has resolved many of the nebulae into stars, it will yet re- 
solve all of them and thus put an end to the nebular theory which 
signifies progressive development. But an instrument keener in its 
powers of analysis than the telescope has come out against him, 
namely the spectroscope. Prof. Draper in 1846 proved that the 
spectrum of an ignited solid is always continuous, just as Fraun- 
hofer had still earlier shown that the spectrum of ignited gases 
is discontinuous, or broken by lines or bands. Of 70 nebulae 
examined by Huggins, about one-third gave discontinuous or 
gaseous spectra, and the others continuous ones, and other observ- 
ers have arrived at about the same result, thus proving the truth 
of the nebular hypothesis and showing that the divine activity is 
unceasing in its grand processes of development. 

III. Nebulous Matter. 



The idea that this nebulous or world-forming matter must nec- 
essarily be intensely hot is evidently a great mistake. When matter 
has been thus spread out in the intensely cold realms of space and 
especially with such great tenuity, and kept there for untold ages, 
it must naturally become cool excepting where chemically excited. 
But how can heavy metals and liquids be held in such a vaporous 
and etherial condition without heat, it may be asked? To this it 
may be answered that the substance which, in a sun or planet, 
constitutes a metal, is not necessarily a metal while in the nebu- 
lous condition, but exists in a negative, unformed state just as the 
oxygen and hydrogen, which compose water, may exist side by 
side without combining, in a gaseous state which is 2,000 times 
as expansive as water itself. I think it will sometime be ascer- 
tained by chemists that iron, lead, silver, gold and other supposed 
elements, are really substances which are chemically combined in 
molecules from heterogeneous atoms, but united so closely that 
no analytical power has yet been able to disintegrate them. 
That at least might help account for some of their intensity of 
cohesion and finer and coarser grades of atoms which exist in 
the same element. But why do they thus expand in open space 
without cohering as metals? Because their affinitive ethers are 
not sufficiently powerful to drive them into union. They con- 
stitute a good example of the utter helplessness of all matter when 



168 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



divorced from its ethers. But how are we to get these great 
cloud-masses converted into worlds, and especially into the great 
fiery worlds which we call suns? Can cold, nebulous, vapory 
matter turn into fire-balls? 

IV. The Sun Forming Process. 



It should be understood that all combustion is simply a 
chemical process. This chemical union may be induced by 
electricity, or mechanical force, or heat. We have seen how a 
cloud, positively charged with electricity, coming in contact with 
a cloud more feebly charged, sends its superabundant ethers into 
its neighbor with great power, causing the flash of the lightning 
and a peal of thunder. (Chapter Third, XXXVI.) We will 
now suppose that two great cloud masses of nebulous matter ap- 
proach each other. They may be millions or even billions of miles 
in diameter. One of them has become far more powerfully 
charged than the other with the electric radiations from distant 
suns. Why should one mass of nebulous matter become more 
highly charged than another? From being nearer to some cen- 
tral sun around which both are moving, and thus being able to 
receive the electricities of that sphere more powerfully. All mat- 
ter, it should be remembered, must be moving around some other 
more powerful center. This charging may have been going on for 
thousands perhaps millions of years, for nature is sublime in her 
periods of time as well as her achievements of power. When this 
charge of forces is fired into the negative world-mass, can any hu- 
man mind conceive of the almost infinite burst of power, the shock 
of which must vibrate even to far off starry worlds? These tides 
of electricity would sweep the oxygen into the hydrogen to form 
watery vapor, into the sulphur to form sulphides, into the calcium 
to form lime, into the silicon to form silica or flinty substance, into 
the carbon to form carbonic acid, into hydrogen and sulphur to 
form sulphuric acid, would drive the chlorine into the sodium to 
form common salt, would unite hydrogen and chlorine to form 
hydrochloric acid, would send the metallic atoms into union and 
start altogether a process of action which thenceforward and 
forever must have no end. These masses, and perhaps many 
other similar ones thus segregated into oxides, metals, etc., would 
become aggregated by gravitation into a single mass. The heat 



THE PLANET FORMING PROCESS. 



169 



that would be developed by these processes must simply be in- 
describable, and all things must exist in vaporous conditions. 
Let us see some of the steps of progress. The attraction of 
gravitation uniting with cohesion and chemical force, then rounds 
it out into a vast sun-globe, compared with which our own sun 
is quite a minute affair. From some cause, perhaps from a 
powerful eruption on one side, it is set into an axial whirl. But 
the great flaming, seething mass of fire is too furious in its 
chemical repulsions to settle into peaceful action, and thus vast 
explosions take place, sending their burning fragments trillions 
of miles into space. These fragments contitute a new family 
of suns, one of which is our own central sphere. I say sphere, 
for being in a fluid or plastic condition, gravitation acts equally 
in all directions from a common center, and hence it must 
be mainly globular. The original central globe, however, re- 
mains powerful enough to attract all the other suns around 
itself. The translatory motion of our own sun through space is 
said to be carrying it onward toward the constellation Hercules. 

V. The Planet Forming Process 



1. When our sun was sent out into space, its projecting pow- 
er was evidently exerted more strongly on one side of its mass 
than on the other, so that it gained a rotary motion around its 
axis once in about 25/4 days. But our sun itself in its earlier 
cruder condition, when its gaseous, electrical and chemical dis- 
turbances were terrific, was subject to eruptive action which sent 
off masses of matter into space, and which, being fluidic from the 
amount of heat, were formed by gravitation into globes or planets, 
of which our earth is one. These planets for a long time until 
they were cooled off, were simply smaller suns being self-lumin- 
ous, or incandescent from their radiant heat. A great world 
like Jupiter, equal in size to about 1300 earths, must have re- 
tained its character as a sun for a long time before cooling off, 
while a small world like Mars lost its excessive heat much 
sooner and has probably marched forward to a greater maturity 
than our own planet. A great argument to show that the planets 
must have emanated from the sun is the fact that that sphere 
has an axial motion from west to east while all the planets move 



170 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



in their orbits and mainly in their axial rotations from west to 
east, having evidently received their motions from the parent 
sphere. La Place and others admit that the planets must have 
emanated from the sun, and as far as revealed in the spectroscope 
the same elements exist in the sun as on our earth. The moons, 
however, doubtless emanated from their planets, and move in 
harmony with their axial motions. So we see that all planets 
and moons move nearly from west to east in their orbits through 
the heavens, and all worlds, as far as known, move from west to 
east on their axis. This harmony of direction in the sun, 
planets and satellites, parallels the harmony of direction in the 
atomic spirals and different grades of ethereal atoms match the 
different grades of planets. Thus the main atom is the great 
central sun (Alcyone), the ethereal atoms which revolve around 
it through the 1st spirilla are the smaller suns, those of the 2d 
spirilla are the planets, those of the 3d spirilla, the moons. Do 
not the infinite lines of gravito-ether which hold all spheres to 
their central orbs, work with the greater perfection from this 
harmony of motions? Truly nature is harmony. 

2. Thus we see that our earth and its sister planets were all 
once suns. After a vast series of ages when they became cooled 
into greater solidity, some of their gross part formed into a hard 
crust which constitutes the soil with its various rocks and min- 
erals; a finer substance, existing as steam, was condensed into wa- 
ter, and a still more exquisite condition of gases was converted 
into an atmosphere which gradually became sufficiently refined 
to promote vegetable and animal life. All their interior portions, 
however, must still remain in a molten condition. 

VI. Comets. 



All space seems to be more or less filled with floating clouds 
of nebulous matter, portions of which are often drawn to the 
earth in the form of meteors and aerolites, larger masses move 
around the sun as Comets, while still greater masses exist in far 
off space as more immediate materials for world building. Hug- 
gins ascertained by means of the spectroscope that in some dis- 
tant gaseous nebulas, hydrogen and nitrogen and some other 
material unknown on earth were to be found, and repeatedly 



COMETS 



171 



found Carbon in comets. But comets are now known to be self- 
luminons, at least when sufficiently near the sun to become 
ignited by the solar electrical and thermal forces, although when 
far removed they must naturally contract greatly in size and be- 
come dark. Why do comets thus become visible and luminous 
while so much of the other nebulous matter is never seen? Prob- 
ably because it has more hydrogen, the most intense of all sub- 
stances in its heat action, and especially quick to ignite when 
combined with affinitive substances, such as oxygen, etc. The 
aqueous vapors of the atmosphere, or of a comet or other neb- 
uous mass, must be especially quick to become incandescent 
before the impact of sun-forces or even of distant star-forces when 
the Chemical proportions are favorable. So the gaseous neb- 
ulae must exist in all grades of heat and cold, of darkness and 
luminosity, as well as of material, and it probably requires a 



0#*0$% 



^gatfia 



Fig. i;o, Comet of 16.S0 with a length of 120 million miles. 



variety of nebulas to afford the full material for a world. Comets 
are so very attenuated and misty as to come as near being an 
illuminated piece of nothing as anything we can conceive of. 
The comet of 1843 was at one time expanded so that its tail 
reached 200,000,000 miles into space. Comets move with their 
nucleus toward the sun and their tails in the opposite direction. 
The cause of this is that the nucleus being more dense becomes 
first heated, then as thermo-electricity always moves from a 
warm to a colder region, it must pass from the nucleus toward 
the colder realms of space, which must necessarily polarize the 
mass of the comet in a direction opposite to that of the sun. 
Lalande enumerates 700 comets, and Arago thinks there are as 
many as 7,000,000 in the solar system. Their orbits are exceed- 
ingly elliptical, and in every conceivable direction, so that their 
substance could not have come from the sun as did the planets. 
The comet that appeared in July, 1844, requires more than 100- 
000 years to make its journey around the sun, while some comets 
moving in the curve of an hyperbola must go off into distant 
starry systems never to return. But even these seemingly law- 



172 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 




Halley's Couiet. 



less comets are subject to law and are always 
doing obeisance to some sun around which 
they revolve, or responding to some planet 
or nebula which they may approach, ever giv- 
ing and ever receiving from all quarters. 
The comet of 1680 (fig. 150), beautiful in its 
gradations and contrasts, having a center of 
unity at its head which widens into an ex- 
quisite diversity, is not to visit us again before 
the year 2485, according to Encke. Fig. 151 
is only one of the various forms which Hal- 
ley's Comet exhibited to us. Its next ap- 
pearance will be in 1911. 



VII. Refinement of Matter. 



We have already seen that everything is on an ascending 
scale, from the crude, eruptive and fiery conditions of nascent 
world-life to the calmer conditions of cooled-off planets, and 
thence through all the geological ages to the present time. We 
know how fruits, vegetation and animal life have ever been 
reaching up into greater refinement and superiority from the lapse 
of time. Romance talks of the "good old times"; Truth speaks 
of the crude old times. What I wish to impress upon the reader 
is, that atoms and etherial forces are ever tending to greater refine- 
ment and subtilty, and that some atoms are more refined than 
others of the same element. This is a point of great importance, 
for without it the phenomena of matter and force can never be 
correctly understood. It will explain the allotropic conditions of 
the same element and many other mysteries. Thus ozone (+ O 
or O) is the finer part of oxygen, while antozone ( — O) is the 
coarser, and both combined will produce oxygen (O). Ozone is 
more electrical and potent as an oxydizer and bleacher than or- 
dinary oxygen, and gives great purity and vitalizing character to 
the air. Its atoms are probably lighter than the average ones of 
oxygen, and yet ozone of itself is heavier, probably from its strong 
electrical currents which draw its atoms into a narrow compass, 
just as sulphuric acid when put with water condenses it by its 
powerful electricity. When the sun does not shine, the ozone 



REFINEMENT OF MATTER. 



173 



seems to rise above us, as it is known to be deficent in the air 
around us, but under the electrical force of the sun it is driven 
down to the surface of the earth in much larger quantities. 

2. Again, let us take diamond and plumbago, which last is 
sometimes known as black lead or graphite. These are both 
crystallized forms of carbon, and yet there must be a decided dif- 
ference from some cause. Diamond transmits the light, but not 
ordinary electricity; plumbago is a good conductor of electricity, 
but totally excludes the light. In other words diamond is evi- 
dently of a finer grade of carbon atoms, as it transmits a finer 
substance through its spirillae. But some may say the diamond 
is crystallized differently, and hence its transparency. But glass 
and water cannot be put into any kind of connected arrangement 
without permitting some light to pass through them, while plum- 
bago is constantly opaque. Transparent atoms cannot be crys- 
tallized in any possible way so as to exclude the light in all direc- 
tions, and this should be proof that diamond and plumbago possess 
different grades of fineness. 

But through the whole atmosphere are floating particles of 
nearly if not quite all of the substances of the earth. M. Norden- 
skica has analyzed the metallic substances iron, nickel and co- 
balt found in the atmosphere at 80° north latitude. "There are," 
says he, "invisible and infinitely minute grains of cosmic oxygen 
floating in the air." M. G. Tissandier communicated to the 
French Academy of Sciences the results of his experiments 
which show that a vast number of the particles of solid substances 
are volatile in the atmosphere. The spectroscope shows that par- 
ticles of sodium exist everywhere in the air, while chemists have 
taken cognizance of carbonic acid, ammonia, nitric acid, carburet- 
ted hydrogen, aqueous vapor, and other elements as being common. 
Is not this a good argument in favor of the superior fineness and 
lightness of atoms which thus float? The sweep of ethers through 
all substances seems to carry off their lighter atoms into the air 
where very many of them continue to float. We may easily con- 
ceive that very refined iron and some other magnetic substances 
may receive slight assistance in becoming volatile from the 
strong magnetic currents of the far north, but what about, sodium 
and other elements whose ordinary atoms are much heavier than 
those of the atmosphere? If there is not a finer, lighter grade 



174 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



of sodium, how could it thus float, for the common sodium atom 
is 23 times as heavy as that of hydrogen, while the nitrogen and 
oxygen of the air are respectively only 14 and 16 times as heavy. 
To say that a light substance can float a heavier one is like say- 
ing that water can float a rock. We may safely conclude, then, 
that atoms which float in the air are generally lighter than those 
of the air itself, and that the lighter atoms, other things being 
equal, will float in higher portions of the atmosphere than the 
heavier ones; that those of nitrogen, for instance, will naturally 
float a little higher than those of oxygen, being one-eighth lighter, 
that those of carbon will float a little higher than those of nitro- 
gen, being one-seventh lighter, that the lithium atoms will float 
higher than any of these substances, being only one-half as 
heavy as those of nitrogen, while those of hydrogen will float far 
higher than any others, being seven times as light as those of 
lithium, the lightest of atoms next to hydrogen. 

4. Another important fact explained on the supposition of 
different degrees of refinement in atoms, is the exquisiteness 
of the gradation of colors. While, as we have seen, there are 
probably seven thermal and seven axial spirilla? for the fourteen 
leading colors of the spectrum, including the thermel, yet there 
are very many times this number of hues and tints progressing 
from one to the other by imperceptible degrees, thus showing 
that one line of atoms may be a little finer than the contigous 
line. For instance, we may have a line of atmospheric atoms 
with spirillse for yellow-orange, then another somewhat finer line, 
in which the same spirillae produces a very yellow-orange, or 
almost yellow, and so with other spirillse. In this way we get 
the beautiful variety of nature. 

5. A mystery which is also solved by this hypothesis, is the 
fact that iron and some other minerals have been found hurtful 
to sensitive stomachs when taken in the ordinary mineral form, 
but very bracing and useful when taken in the vegetable form, 
which goes to show that the vegetable processes cannot take up 
the heavier and grosser atoms of a mineral substance, but rather 
its finer ones which are necessarily much better adapted to so 
fine an organization as the human system. 

We are now prepared to appreciate the next very important 
point. 



THE ATMOSPHERE OF SPACE. 175 

VIII. The Atmosphere of Space. 

From the last paragraph we see that the atoms grow more 
refined and light in proportion as we rise from the earth's centre 
into the sky. Although the earth's atmosphere is not sufficient- 
ly dense to sensibly refract light over 45 or 50 miles in height, 
still its more volatile atoms and especially its hydrogen, must be 
continued on into space. Has it not occurred to our scientists, who 
admit that there is an ether pervading all space, that this ether 
must simply be the extension of hydrogen from the atmosphere of 
the different suns and worlds? Is not this the real cosmic ether, 
the bridge-work formed on the most natural plan, over which the 
sun forces, star forces, planetary forces and nebulous forces pass 
and repass throughout the infinities of space? The following 
are some of the reasons for this hypothesis: — 

1. Hydrogen is the lightest of all known atoms, consequently 
it would naturally gravitate into space higher than the other 
atoms. 

2. Hydrogen constitutes about two-thirds of the atoms of all 
water and all aqueous vapor, consequently the hydrogen atoms 
that are thrown off by all oceans, lakes, rivers and clouds must 
rise higher and higher into space in proportion as they become 
refined. 

3. Hydrogen is produced from water or aqueous conditions 
by means of heat, electricity and chemical action, all of which 
exist on the most immense scale in the sun and fixed stars, 
which by their propulsive forces in connection with planetary 
and nebulous action, would seem quite sufficient to fill all space 
with this gas in a more or less attenuated condition. 

4. The spectroscope has shown that there is a vast atmosphere 
of luminous hydrogen surrounding the sun, which, sometimes, dur- 
ing the solar cyclones, projects hundreds of thousands of miles 
into space. Is it reasonable to suppose that the hydrogen at- 
mosphere stops with that which happens to be made visible by 
the solar heat; especially when we consider the almost infinite 
fountains of hydrogen gas that are sent forth by this very heat 
itself? 

5. Hydrogen has an unequaled capacity for heat, has also a 
fine capacity for electricity, and is the most elastic and ethereal 



176 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



of all known atoms, hence it is best adapted to form the pathway 
for the ethers which convey heat, electricity, light, color and 
gravitation through interstellar space. "There is some indica- 
tion, from the identity of coronal with zodiacal light and auroral 
lines, of the existence of a very attenuated atmosphere extending 
largely throughout space." (Roscoe's Spectrum Analysis.) 

6. There being nothing then seemingly to limit the expan- 
sion of the hydrogen over space, and especially as it is eminently 
suitable to act as a series of carrier atoms, we may deem it the 
real cosmic ether. The blending of the earthly and ethereal 




Fig. 152. The Ethereal Atmospheru Space. 



atmospheres I have represented by fig. 152. As it reaches far 
into space it must become very ethereal in its nature, and yet 
must have weight. The region between the sun, and earth at 
which its refinement and lightness is greatest, must be incom- 
parably nearer the earth than the sun from the fact that the sun 
is 320,000 times as heavy as the earth, and its attractive force 
must be sufficiently great to condense this ethereal gas as fully 
at a long distance as our earth can at a short distance. "The 
luminiferous ether," says Ganot, "occupies space, and although 



THE ATMOSPHERE OF SPACE. 



177 



it presents no appreciable resistance to the motion of the denser 
bodies, it is possible that it hinders the motions of the smaller 
comets. It has been found, for example, that Encke's comet, 
whose period of revolution is about 3 V3 years, has its period 
diminished by about 0.11 of a day at each successive rotation." 
(Cours Elementaire de Physique.) When I speak of hydrogen 
as forming the atmosphere of space, I mean to say that it is 
doubtless the leading element in this atmosphere, especially in 
its more refined forms, but all other elements also are capable 
of becoming refined and volatile, they probably form some por- 
tion of the same. 

7. I have called this a static ether. This is a proper place to 
gain a clear idea of what is meant by a static or stationary ether. 
When the atmosphere is calm, it is polarized conversely by the 
sunlight, with the more positive tide of forces streaming toward 
the earth in the day time, and from the earth in the night. It 
then resembles a static ether. It does not signify that the ether 
is so stationary that it may not be swept into currents or waves 
by counterforces, and those which at times may be far swifter 
than the grosser atmospheric currents. But these do not depolar- 
ize the atoms in a way to essentially hinder the flow of lumen- 
ous ethers from the sun to the earth and other planets. 

8. The finest portion of this ether must come from the earth 
and other planets rather than from the sun. The condition of 
all suns is far more primitive and crude than that of planets, and 
must be what our earth was many millions of years ago before 
it became cooled off and commenced its refining processes.* 



*The eminent scientist Helmholtz says, "The period of time during which the 
earth has nourished organized beings, is still very short when compared to the period 
during which it was a mass of molten rock. Bishop's experiments on basalt appear 
to prove that to cool down from 1000° to 200° Centigrade, our earth must have taken 
350,000,000 years. As to the length of time that has been required by the original 
nebula to condense itself into the form of our planetary system, it entirely defies our 
imagination, and all conjectures." And yet after all these almost infinite eras of time 
through which the earth has been struggling in order to get into condition for man 
to live in comfort, Prof. Proctor says, "we find the earth gradually tending towards 
the end." Why? Because the atmosphere which formerly consisted greatly of " hy- 
drochloric acid and sulphuric acid," lost these ingredients and became mainly "car- 
bonic acid," while when vegetation commenced the carbonic acid was absorbed and 
our present atmosphere took its place. But this is a mere refining process. Is there 
anything alarming about having the atmosphere drop off its more poisonous ele- 
ments and become more pure? "It seems conceivable," he says, "that other parts of 

12 



178 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



Does this signify that sunlight is a coarse element? By no 
means for its cruder elements are strained off by the sun's outer 
atmospheres or deposited with the nebulous matter of space and 
still further refined by our own atmosphere until it becomes one 
of the most exquisite forces in nature. 

9. In fig. 153, is a representation of the way in which the 
atoms must be arranged in this cosmic ether. As will be seen, 
they are arranged conversely, the line a at the left carrying the 
thermal forces from the sun to the earth, and the electrical forces 
from the earth to the sun, while the very next line exactly re- 
verses the process, thus allowing the electrical forces to pass both 
ways and the thermal forces both ways. This is doubtless the 
usual arrangement of atoms (see fig. 138), and shows how it is 
that the sun does not become exhausted, as it is able to receive 
the ethereal forces of all kinds from all quarters of the heavens, 
including planets, comets, stars and nebulous matter at the same 
time that it is transmitting the same to all quarters in return. 
Thus is easily settled a great and troublesome difficulty which 
has ever been arrayed against Isaac Newton and others who ad- 
vocated the emission theory of light, as it scarcely seems to have 
entered the conceptions of people that the sun could receive as 
well as give. "May there not be in the heavenly regions," says La 
Place, "another fluid besides light? Its resistance and the 
diminution which its emission produces in the mass of the sun, 



the atmosphere will gradually be withdrawn by chemical processes, and that then a 
time will come when the earth will have no atmosphere." I think my readers, how- 
ever, need not worry for fear the atmosphere will fail them, unless they expect to 
live for several hundred thousand years yet. "It seem to me," continues the learned 
professor, "that the way in which man is consuming the vegetable supplies of the 
earth must have an end. When man, the inventor of so many machines which are 
using up the supplies of coal, when man insists upon using the materials of the earth 
at such a rapid rate, we begin to see our way toward an end." The Professor should 
remember that but a small part of the earth is now really cultivated; and besides this, 
statistics show that much that is cultivated is a perversion, several times more money 
and effort being spent to gain liquor, tobacco and other hurtful things than to gain 
food. The fact that coal and fuel are being used up rapidly for machinery, cooking, 
etc., should not give the least uneasiness, as any one who has looked into the fine 
forces of nature, will readily understand that far greater potencies are yet to be 
evoked from electricity, magnetism, sunlight, air, water and the finer ethers for heat- 
ing, fighting, locomotion and driving machinery than the world now dreams of. Mil- 
lerites and scientists who would thus destroy us before our time, just as we are getting 
ready to live, should remember that nature's general plan is to allow fruit and worlds 
to come to maturity before permitting the processes of destruction to commence. 



SEGMENT OF THE SUN. 



179 




Fig. 153. The Sun, Earth and the Ethereal pathway of the Solar Ethers; a, converse lines of 
atoms polarised and traversed by Solar ethers between the sun and earth; b, converse lines of 
another layer of atoms arranged obliquely; d, converse lines of still another oblique layer of 
atoms; N. North Pole; S. South pole; E. Equator; 1, 2, 3, layer of molton iron beneath the 
earth's surface; 5, North Magnetic Pole; 7, South Magnetic Pole; 2, 4, 5, currents of thermo 
electricity flowing northward; 2, 6, 7, currents of thermo electricity flowing southward. The 
dotted lines just below the earth's surface show layers of cooled iron while the magnetic curves 
issuing from them are shown by the curved dotted lines; 8, 9, 10, etc., show lines of thermo 
electricity are drawn into the earth by the magnetic currents, by means of which the magnetic 
needle is made to dip 



! 80 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



ought at length to destroy the arrangement of the planets, so that 
to maintain this, a renovation would evidently be necessary." 
(System of the World, vol. ii. p. 332.) Just how this renovation 
takes place may be seen by this atomic law. 

10. Such is the crystal pathway over which such boundless 
floods of luminous and other forces are transmitted through 
space, and such are the links on which all worlds are hung and 
by means of which the universe is held together. The tide of 
light which comes to us seems almost limitless, and yet our planet 
receives only a 2300 millionth part of the sun's power. It may 
be asked, how can light come to any given point of the earth 
from so many different directions as long as the lines of the cos- 
mic ether in each layer of atoms must naturally lie parallel to 
each other or at least approximately so? This difficulty at once 
vanishes when we consider that there must be layers of atoms 
almost infinite in number pointing in every conceivable direction; 
thus one layer has polarized lines in the direction of a, c, e, an- 
other perhaps directly under it has all its lines parallel with b, 
another still under that in the direction of d, and so on. Thou- 
sands of these minute layers can strike the eye at once, and thus 
render visible objects in every possible direction. 

11. Gravitation must be able to use these atoms and their 
ethers, as well as the atoms of much finer atmospheres which in- 
terpenetrate the cosmic ether, as pathways for its sublime move- 
ments, some conception of which we may gain when we realize 
the vortical suction of lines of atoms. 

IX. — The Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) 



Has its culmination of power about the north magnetic pole, and, 
as in the case of meteors, gives its most brilliant effects in au- 
tumn. It is seen more and more vividly in proportion as the 
observer approaches the magnetic pole. It is preceded by a 
dingy appearance of the sky in the north, sometimes spreads out 
in a luminous arch of bluish white (see fig. 96), sometimes darts 
up streamers of light, sometimes expands into luminous ribbons, 
sometimes it flickers with radiations that are called merry dancers, 
and occasionally in the far north it widens over the whole northern 
sky like a cupola of fire sustained on vari-colored pillars. This 
phase is called the Boreal Crown or Corona. When the lights are 



TERRESTRIAL forces. 



181 



bright they sometimes assume the colors of green, purple, violet 
and rose. They have been estimated to extend from five to several 
hundred miles in height. But why do they appear at the north, 
and why do similar phenomena called Aurora Australis, or 
Southern Lights, appear in the southern hemisphere around 
the south magnetic pole? In order to understand this it will be 
necessary to explain something of the earth's electrical and mag- 
netic forces, more of which will be given in the chapter on 
Chromo-Dynamics. 

X. — Terrestrial Forces. 



1. Fig. 153 will assist in understanding the earth's forces. 
It should be remembered at the start that in thermo-electricity 
(electricity generated by heat) the law is, that unimpeded elec- 
trical currents always move from warm to colder regions. For 
this reason the great tendencies of the earth's electrical currents 
must be two-fold, 1st to move from the heated earth vertically into 
the cold atmosphere above, and 2dly, to move from the equator to 
the colder regions towards the poles, the electric current moving 
northward in the northern hemisphere, and southward in the 
southern. It should be remembered also that electricity consti- 
tutes the cold principle as already abundantly shown and that 
from the law of atoms, cold attracts electricity just as heat excites 
and attracts thermism, hence the above rule. But why do not 
the electrical and magnetic forces in the northern hemisphere 
tend directly to the north pole instead of the north magnetic 
pole which is 1 1 ° farther south? Because the north magnetic pole 
is the centre of the greatest cold. Why? From the fact 
that it is located on land where the mineral action engenders the 
most intense electrical and magnetic currents, while the earth's 
north pole is evidently covered with water which is comparatively 
a poor conductor of electricity. Sir David Brewster was the first 
to prove that there are two special magnetic poles in our north- 
ern hemisphere, or two points of maximum cold in which the 
needle stands in a vertical direction, although there must be other 
points also where sufficient masses of iron exist to excite strong 
magnetic action. There are probably as many as two magnetic 
poles in the southern hemisphere also, one of which has already 
been discovered. Sir James Ross discovered one of the north 



182 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



magnetic poles in 1830. It is north of Hudson's Bay in latitude 
79° north and in longitude 96° 43' west. This is the point 
towards which the electrical currents of a considerable section 
of the earth, including North America and vastly more, are ever 
tending, and these currents account for the direction of the mag- 
netic needle which varies more and more from the true north as 
we go east or west of this meridian. This too shows why all 
sensitive and delicate persons sleep much more comfortably with 
their heads to the north, as abundantly demonstrated by Baron 
Reichenbach, for in this way the cool electrical forces move to- 
wards their heads instead of their feet. See Chromo Dynamics, 
XL 

2. In the figure, 4, 5 represents thermo-electricity as flowing 
northward in the northern hemisphere and 6, 7 as flowing south- 
ward in the southern hemisphere. The space 1, 2, 3, enclosed 
between two arcs of a circle represents the layer of molten iron 
below the crust of the earth which, being somewhat light as a 
metal, cannot be located so far towards the centre of the earth 
as the heavier metals, such as copper, lead, gold, silver, platinum, 
etc.,* Above this line nearer the surface of the earth are the 
metals which have been thrown up by volcanic action and 
cooled off. The most abundant of these is iron which being 
spread out over the whole crust of the earth I have represented 
by the dotted line, just below the surface. We have seen what 
causes the thermo-electric currents which must be strongly of 
the magneto grade of electricity as they sweep the magnetic 
needle towards the poles (i.e. the magnetic poles). But what is 
the cause of the earth's magnetism? Iron is the natural element 
of magnetism and when electrified becomes magnetic. The 
molten iron 1, 2, 3, however, cannot be magnetic, as heat des- 
troys the magnetic curves. The cooled iron nearer its surface 
then must be its generating power. But how can nature impart 
electricity to this iron? Under the head of Galvanism (Chap III, 



*I have represented the iron in the figure as being thinner in its mass at the 
equator then at the poles. All the interor metallic and heavy substances being in 
a molten condition must be thrown nearer to the surface at the equator than at the 
poles by the earth's axial motion, which at the surface there, is a thousand miles an 
hour. The abundance of volcanic action in the torrid zone, argues in the same 
direction, as the melted matter underneath forces its way more easily through the 
thin crust near the equator. 



TERRESTRIAL FORCES. 



183 



XXXIV), we have seen how different metals connected by acidula- 
ted water joined by a wire to complete the circuit, at once arouse 
electricity. It is well known too, as Faraday proved, that an alka- 
line substance combined with the water, will also excite the elec- 
tric current. Now in the earth, above and below iron, are various 
metals and substances which will generate and conduct electri- 
city, and the moisture which everywhere saturates the earth, in 
connection with such alkaline substances as lime magnesium, pot- 
assium, etc., are admirably suited to develope electrical action over 
the crust of the earth and especially in connection with the iron. 
This makes the earth then a continuous battery and sets into 
action countless magnetic curves extending all the way from the 
equator to each magnetic pole. These curves may be from inches 
to miles in length, and must grow higher and steeper as they ap- 
proach the great electrical action of the poles. I have given a 
rude representation of some of these curves in the heavy dotted 
lines of the cut. At the equator the heat is so great as to pretty 
much destroy these curves. We may now explain the mystery of 
the dip of the magnetic needle. It is well known that the needle 
points to the magnetic pole, or is arranged in what is called the 
magnetic meridian, yet if so hung as to be free to move up and 
down as well as towards the north and south, the north pole will 
dip towards the earth in the northern hemisphere and the south 
pole the same in the southern hemisphere. At the magnetic 
poles the needle stands perpendicularly to the earth, showing that 
a very steep or vertical electrical current is sweeping into the 
earth, but its inclination averages less and less until the equator 
is reached where the needle is mainly level. The dip undergoes 
some changes from year to year, owing doubtless to changes in 
temperature or contact with nebulous conditions, etc. In Lon- 
don in 1723, the dip reached an inclination of 74°+42' while in 1871 
it was only 67° 56' 3". In Peru it is 0°; in Cape of Good Hope 
34°; in Gottingen 68° 22' 52"; in Edinburgh 71° 37"; in New 
York 73° 14'; in Hudson's Bay between 89 and 90°. What is 
the cause of this? At a distance, for instance, not very far north 
of the equator the magnetic curves must rise but little above the 
earth's surface, and directed by northward currents of thermo elec- 
tricity must pass northward and enter the earth with a feeble 
slope. As this passes through the air and enters the earth, it 



1 84 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT 



must deflect some of the thermo-electric and atmospheric elec- 
tric currents with it and so carry the northward end of the needle 
somewhat downward as seen in 8, 9 etc. of fig. 153. Farther 
north where the curves become more intense and steep from the 
cold, or possibly from the great masses of underlying iron, the 
needle must dip still more, while at the magnetic poles, see 5. the 
curves must become almost perpendicular and drawing in some 
of the thermo-electric currents cause them to penetrate deeply 
into the earth until they strike the molten iron 3, and pass south- 
ward. As it approaches the equator (2) where the iron is crowd- 
ed out thin and pushed up near the surface by the heavier metals 
below under the earth's axial motion, the ascending electrical 
currents may be supposed to draw them outward into the air 
again, and so a complete circuit is formed through 2, 4, 5, 3, 2 
just as in the southern hemisphere, the currents move through 2, 
6,7,1,2. 

3. Do we not then have a key to these polar lights? Are 
not the arches which sometimes appear simply the result of 
magnetic curves sweeping through nebulous matter. Is not the 
red light which appears caused through incandescent hydrogen, 
the green light by incandescent floating particles of iron, car- 
bon, oxygen and perhaps other substances whose combined spec- 
tra are strong in the green, blue, yellow, and so on? Is not this 
incandescence a necessary result of such powerful centres of elec- 
tric and magnetic force when striking against masses of volatile 
matter? It should not be presumed that the aurora borealis ap- 
pears only at the north magnetic pole, but rather northward, the 
electricity in that direction through the northern hemisphere 
being greater than it is southward, though its culmination is at 
the pole, of course. As proofs, then, that these polar lights are 
caused through electrical and magnetic action, we have the fact 
1st, than the magnetic needle is always greatly excited at their 
occurrence, sometimes varying many degrees from its ordinary 
position; 2dly, similar phenomena have been repeatedly produced 
by electricity artificially; 3dly, their greatest power is at the 
magnetic poles; 4thly, the magnetic poles as we have seen are the 
greatest terrestrial centers of electricity and magnetism. These 
and several other reasons seem to settle the matter conclusively, 
especially when viewed in the light of atomic and chemical ac- 
tion already explained. 



THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE. 



185 



4. Why is it that the aurora borealis appears in its highest 
brilliancy in the autumn unless it be that the nebulous matter 
which is ever revolving around the earth becoming condensed by 
the change from warm to cold, falls sufficiently low about the 
north pole to receive the play of the magnetic and electric forces? 
Why is it that meteors are also most abundant in autumn, if por- 
tions of this same nebulous matter, becoming condensed in the 
same way, are not sent through our atmosphere by their increase- 
ed gravity? 

XI. The Solar Atmosphere. 

1. The heat of the sun is so immense that all of its metals 
and other substances become intensely incandescent on its sur- 
face, or exist in the form of luminous vapors for thousands of 
miles from its body. Prof. Tyndall, in harmony with the opinions 
of Mayer, Kirchhoff, etc., describes it excellently as follows: — 
"Without doubt the whole surface of the sun displays an un- 
broken ocean of fiery fluid matter. On this ocean rests an 




Fig. 154. Eclipse of l8}8 
(I.iiiis). 



Fig. 155. Eclipse of July iS, iSf- = 
(Feilitzsch). 



atmosphere of glowing gas — a flame atmosphere, or photosphere. 
But gaseous substances, when compared with solid ones, emit 
even when their temperature is very high, only a feeble and 
transparent light. Hence it is probable that the dazzling white 
light of the sun comes through the atmosphere from the more 
solid portion of the surface." 

2. "The spectroscope," says Prof. Roscoe, "is the mstru- 



186 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



merit by which the extraordinary phenomena of physics have 
been revealed, and the first step towards the extension of our 
knowledge has been the examination of the light emitted by 
those remarkable protuberances, or red flames, which, during 
a total eclipse, are seen to dart out from the surfaces of the sun 
to the enormous height of some 80,000 to 90,000 miles. * * * 
Lockyer's investigations have not only proved that these singular 
prominences consist of glowing gaseous hydrogen, but have 
revealed the existence of an atmosphere, chiefly consisting of 
incandescent hydrogen, extending all round the sun's surface. 
The prominences are only local aggregations of this local 

envelope of glowing hy- 
drogen, which extends for 
5000 miles in height, and 
has been termed the 
Chromosphere, to distin- 
guish it from the cooler 
absorbing atmosphere on 
the one hand, and the 
light giving photosphere 
on the other." During 
a total eclipse of the sun 
vast luminous projections 
called corona make their 
appearance, as seen in 
figs. 154, 155, and 156. 
These figures would seem 
to suggest opposite polar- 
izations of force on dif- 
erent sides of the sun. 
3. The movement of this luminous hydrogen, when wrought 
up into the terrific hurricanes which frequently take place in the 
sun's fiery atmosphere, is something fearful to think of. Lockyer 
discovered by his spectroscope gales which moved from 40 to 
120 miles per second, or about 3600 times as swiftly as an earthly 
hurricane, while Prof. Young, of Dartmouth College, saw a mass 
of flaming hydrogen move upward over 200,000 miles from the 
surface, 100,000 miles of which was traversed in 10 minutes, a 
velocity about 600 times as great as that of a cannon ball! And 




Fig. 156. The Bun's coronal prominences, sketched 
during the eclipse of 1S68. 



THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE. 



187 



yet some have been so absurd as to suppose the sun to be the 
abode of certain spiritual intelligences, while others have gone 
so far as to declare that even human beings dwell there, although 
the heat and fearful play of forces must be great beyond all 
conception, or measurement of earthly instruments. 

4. The metals that exist in the luminous atmosphere of the 
sun have been examined by Lockyer, Huggins, Angstrom, 
Young, etc., by means of the spectroscope, and thus far have 
been found to be 17 in number as follows: 



1. Sodium. 


5. Iron. 


9. Zinc. 


13. Hydrogen (gas). 


2. Calcium. 


6. Chromium. 


10. Strontium. 


14. Manganese. 


3. Barium. 


7. Nickel. 


11. Cadmium. 


15. Aluminum. 


4. Magnesium. 


8. Copper. 


12. Cobalt. 


16. Titanium. 




17. 


Rubidium.* 





5. The materials of the sun itself, as well as of the planets, 
must be the same as those of our own world, all having had a 
common origin as we have already seen. 

6. Andrew Steinmitz, Esq., of the Middle Temple, London, 
says: — "We can no longer consider light as merely consisting 
of infinitessimal particles, or as infinitessimal waves; we may now 
conclude that it is metallic; that sunshine consists of a metallic 
shower; the beneficent sunshine bathes us with elementary 
iron, sodium, magnesium, calcium, chromium, nickel, barium, 
copper, zinc and hydrogen." But metal which can thus float in 
sunbeams is incomparably finer than that which lies in hard 
masses in the darkness of the soil. 

7. The following are the sun's outer conditions, commencing 
with the most refulgent (See fig. 153): — 

1st. The luminous surface of the sun's body. 

3d. The Photosphere, or heavy flame-atmosphere of vaporized 
metals, as well as oxygen, hydrogen and other gases. 

3d. The Chromosphere, extending some 5000 miles beyond 
the photosphere, and consisting of the atmosphere of red incan- 
descent hydrogen, combined with finer and more ethereal ele- 
ments of metals than those of the photosphere. 



*Since writing the above, the Journal of the Franklin Institute has given Prof. 
Draper's paper, read before the American Philosophical Society on July 20, 1877, in 
which he announces the discovery of oxygen, and probably of nitrogen and other 
elements, in the solar atmosphere, by means of photography, their spectra being 
designated by bright instead of dark lines, as in the Fraunhofer scale. 



188 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



4th. The Obscure Hydrogen Atmosphere still farther outward 
than the Chromosphere. This is doubtless more or less incan- 
descent, and yet without a sufficiency of gross matter to be 
visible to us. 

5th. The Cosmic Ether or more ethereal hydrogen, which 
becomes finer and finer as it extends outward into space to form 
the pathway of the solar and other fluid ethers. 

XII. Facul^e and Spots on the Sun. 



1. Sir William Herschel supposed the body of the sun to be 
a dark mass surrounded by a luminous atmosphere, through the 
openings of which at times the dark surface would appear. Kirch- 
hoff showed the incorrectness of this theory, as the interior of 
the sun must be white hot, and concluded that these spots were 
clouds floating in the solar atmosphere. We have seen that there 
are tremendous commotions and tornadoes in the atmosphere of 
the sun, and we may well suppose that the body of the sun itself 
must be subject to great volcanic eruptions and perturbations. 
What are called faculce, or bright spots, seem to be caused by 
some volcanic action, as the spectroscope reveals an upward 
movement of "incandescent, vapors of sodium, iron, magnesium, 
barium," etc., attended with great luminosity. Near these bright 
spots, or closely connected with them, are the dark spots, some- 
times called macula, and these are generally seen descending. 
Is it not evident that these masses of partially opaque matter are 
the clouds of substance thrown up for some time in continuous 
luminous columns which we call faculse, and that these clouds, by 
reaching the upper atmosphere, become cooled off and cones- 
quently dark? Is not the fact that they float along the sun's 
disc with a gradually descending motion proof that they have 
become condensed by the cold, and so are carried downward by 
their own gravity? Lockyer describes a cloud of incandescent 
magnesium that he saw floating high above a prominence, and 
the whole phenomena of these faculse and maculae seem easy of 
explanation by inductions which we may draw from the revela- 
tions of the spectroscope. 

2. When viewed with a telescope the sun is observed to be 
mottled over its whole surface with small dots or pores which 
when carefully watched are seen to be in a constant state of 
change. These are probably smaller masses of vaporous matter 



FACULSE AND SPOTS ON THE SUN. 



189 




Fig. \-,t- Comparative sizes of the Sun and Planets after Girillemin, with a view of some of 
the spots and mottled appearance of sun. 



which have risen upward and become cooled and darkened, and 
which then by their increased density sink again to become 
heated and rarified before going through the same process. 



190 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 

XIII. Solar Statistics. 



Some of the following statistics are given according to Prof. 
Young, the well known astronomer of Dartmouth College, and 
others are in harmony with the figures of general astronomical 
science. The diameter of the sun 860,000 miles; size 1,280,000 
times that of the earth; average density, one-fourth that of the 
earth; Weight over 2,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (2 oc- 
tillions) of tons, or nearly 750 times as great as that of all the 
combined planets and asteroids; mean distance from the earth 
about 92,250,000 miles; distance on Jan. 1st, 90,750,000 miles, or 
3,000,000 miles nearer than in summer; the weight of any sub- 
stance at the sun's surface is 27V2 times as great as it would be 
on the earth. The sun revolves around its axis in 25V3 days, and 
moves through space, according to Struve's estimate, with all its 
family of worlds, about 412,000 miles per day, but in reality prob- 
ably far more rapidly, judging especially from some similar orbs 
in our system. The number of worlds so far discovered include 
8 as ordinary planets, 22 moons and 106 asteroids, a very minute 
class of worlds probably of a fragmentary nature, and revolving 
between Mars and Jupiter. So our sun, with ts family, must be 
a pretty large and heavy pet for Alcyone to carry through space, 
and yet quite diminutive compared with many of its starry mates. 
Prof. Proctor asserts that Sirius, sometimes called the Dog Star, 
is 5,000 times the size of our sun.* 

XIV. Sun Power. 

1. If the sun is thus able to vaporize the coarse and heavy 
metals and hurl them thousands of miles into space, how much more 
easily may it be supposed to propel the exquisitely fine and elastic 
ethers through untold millions of miles to our earth and to distant 
stars, especially when aided by the vortical suctions of the cosmic 
ethers. But many persons think of the sun's rays as having all 
the power which they awaken, in themselves, aside from the 
objects with which they come in contact. It is a well known 
fact that these rays have almost no sensible heat in passing through 

*Prof. Hall of the Washington Observatory, by the aid of the great telescope, 
has discovered 2 minute Moons of Mars, which I have included in the estimate, 
and as new asteroids seem to be discovered every year, the table must from time to 
time receive some modification. 



SUN POWER. 



191 



our atmosphere, but owe their great effect to their impact upon, and 
chemical affinity with, the elements of our earth. If they strike 
the earth vertically and for some time continuously as in the 
torrid zone, the earth becomes greatly heated, and by convection 
and somewhat by radiation, the atmosphere becomes heated 
thereby. If they strike the earth obliquely, as in the frigid zones, 
only a small number of rays comparatively reach the soil and the 
chemical action is too feeble to produce much heat. If they 
strike the summit of a high mountain, even in the torrid zone, 
they are unable to impart much sensible heat, 1st because the 
great mass of atmospheric strata which are heated by convection 
are much below this, thus leaving the summit far up in the 
colder electrical strata; 2dly, the form of the mountain receives 
most of the rays obliquely, and 3dly, the summit being above 
most of the clouds, there is nothing to shut in the reflected rays 
and hence they are lost in space. 

2. General Pleasonton gives extensive space in his work on 
"Blue and Sun-Lights," to the advocacy of the strange fancy 
that the sun is not the source of heat to the earth, because he 
discovers that the heat is not perceptible in coming through the 
atmosphere, that high mountains are cold, even in warm regions, 
etc. But on the same principle, neither is the sun the source 
of light, for as will be shown in the next paragraph, without the 
aid of solid particles in our atmosphere, it might beam on us a 
thousand years and we should still be in total darkness. 

3. But here as usual we must combine the duality of action 
and reaction, of fluid and static elements, before we can get the 
beautiful effects of nature. Even Tyndall in the following sun- 
burst of eloquence concerning the sun, has seemingly, for the 
time being, forgotten this principle: — "He rears the whole vege- 
table world and through it the animal; the lilies of the field are 
his workmanship, the verdure of the meadows and the cattle 
upon a thousand hills. He forms the muscle, he urges the 
blood, he builds the brain. His fleetness is in the lion's foot; 
he springs in the panther, he soars in the eagle, he slides in the 
snake. He builds the forest and hews it down, the power which 
raised the tree and which wields the axe being one and the same. 
The sun digs the ore from our mines, he rolls the iron, he rivets 
the plates, he boils the water, he draws the train. He not only 



192 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



grows the cotton but he spins the fibre and weaves the web. 
There is not a hammer raised, a wheel turned, or a shuttle thrown, 
that is not raised and turned and thrown by the sun. His energy 
is poured freely into space, but our world is a halting place 
where this energy is conditioned.* * The sun comes to us as heat, 
he quits us as heat, and between his entrance and departure, the 
multiform powers of our globe appear." I would not unnecessarily 
criticise the words of this masterly exponent of experimental 
science, but it seems to me that the foregoing will tend to mis- 
lead, as it evidently gives the sun a greater share in all the 
matters named, than the earth, which is untrue. The sun is simply 
the positive principle and the earth the negative, neither of which 
could do any of these things without the other. We have seen 
that without the earth's co-operation we could get no sensible 
heat or light from the sun. We can gain powerful solar ethers 
however, with which the terrestrial elements may unite to pro- 
duce the effects of heat and light. 

4. Following the same style of reasoning as the above the 
distinguished physiologist Dr. Carpenter says that "Spirit is the 
sole and single source of power." And yet not a thought, or 
feeling, or aspiration or inspiration can ever come to us in this 
life, aside from a physical brain and body as the negative prince- 
pie, in connection with which all spiritual action must take place, 
while in the next life the "spiritual body," of which St. Paul 
speaks, may constitute the finer negative principle there, in con- 
nection with which the spirit must act. (See Chap. Second, 
XIV — XVIII.) It would be correct to say that spirit is the 
positive principle of power, or the sun is the positive principle of 
power, and would not mislead, for then we should understand 
that there must be some negative principle without which no 
action could take place. I dwell so much on these dual correla- 
tions of things from the fact that they are so widely misappre- 
hended. When Tyndall says "the sun comes to us as heat, 
he quits us as heat," the expression is a little careless, as the solar 
ethers come to us partly as heat and partly as cold or electricity, 
although the electrical rays probably arouse a greater heat after 
they get here by means of chemical affinity, than do the thermal 
rays themselves. 



THE PRODUCTION OF LIGHT. 



193 



XV. The Production of Light. 



1. After traveling through this long pathway of principles 
and facts, I think we have the way prepared, at last, for quite a 
complete apprehension of the method by which light is produced. 

2. How does the sun produce the effect of light upon the earth? 
It has been shown by experiment, that the solar ethers hurled 
through our atmosphere, are not able of themselves to produce a 
grade of light sufficiently compact for our vision to take cogniz- 
ance of. The following from William Spottiswoode, F. R. S. 
is in point: — "What produces the effect of light from all parts 
of a clear sky? The sky is pure space, with no contents save a 
few miles of atmosphere of the earth, and beyond that, the impal- 
pable ether, supposed to pervade all space and to transmit light 
from the furthest limits of the stellar universe. The ether is, 
however, certainly inoperative in the diffusion of light now under 
consideration. But a very simple experiment will suffice to show 
that such a diffusion, or, as it has been better called, a scattering 
of light, is due to the presence of small particles in the air. If 
a beam from an electric lamp or from the sun be allowed to pass 
through a room, its track becomes visible by its reflection from 
the motes of floating bodies, in fact by the dust in the air. But 
if the air be cleared of dust by burning it with a spirit lamp placed 
underneath, the beam disappears from the parts so cleared, and 
the space becomes dark. If, therefore, the air were absolutely 
pure, and devoid of matter foreign to it, the azure of the sky 
would no longer be seen, and the heavens would appear black; 
the illumination of objects would be strong and glaring on one 
side, and on the other their shadows would be deep and unrelieved 
by the diffused light to which we are accustomed. Now beside 
the dust there are always minute particles of water floating in 
the atmosphere. These vary in size from the great rain drops 
which fall to earth on a sultry day, through intermediate forms 
of mist and of fine fleecy cloud, to almost invisible minuteness. 
It is these particles, whether of water or other matter it is perhaps 
difficult to say, which scatter the solar rays and suffuse the heavens 
with light. And it is a remarkable fact established by Prof. 
Tyndall, while operating with minute traces of gaseous vapors, 
that while coarser particles scatter rays of every color — in other 
words scatter white light — finer particles scatter fewer rays from 

13 



194 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



the red end of the spectrum, while the finest scatter only those 
from the blue end. And in accordance with this law, clouds are 
white, clear sky is blue." (Polarization of Light, p. 82). 

3. Tyndall, Briicke, and other scientists give accounts of 
experiments in which different particles of floating matter tend 
to produce different color effects, and are of the opinion that the 
bacteria or infinitessimal insects that exist so abundantly in the 
atmosphere, especially in that which is warm, add very materially 
to the illuminating effect. This is doubtless true, as these ani- 
malcules are endowed with the special activities that belong to 
life. Tyndall and others show that the finer particles of matter 
tend to induce the colors of the violet end of the spectrum, while 
the coarser induce those of the red end. This is doubtless correct 
as we have already seen, so far as it applies to the ethers which 
constitute the material portion of colors. Prof. Lommel and most 
other scientists admit that ordinary coal gas, oil-lamps, etc., owe 
their principal luminosity to ignited solid particles of carbon. 
But what are the solid particles of the atmosphere which are thus 
kindled into light as the solar ethers sweep through them. To 
answer this we must look somewhat into the 

XVI. Constitution of the Atmosphere. 



20.61 

77-95 

.04 

1.40 

Traces. 



1. The usual composition of the atmosphere, as given by 
chemists, is as follows: — 

Oxygen (slightly magnetic) number of per cent 

Nitrogen (diamagnetic) 

Carbonic Acid (CO t ) a chemical combination 

Aqueous vapor (H a O) 

Nitric acid (N,0 5 ) " " ) 

Ammonia (NH 3 ) " " | 

Carburetted Hydrogen (CH 4 ) " " ) 

2. But we have seen (VII, 3) that nearly, if not quite every 
substance of the earth is floating in a refined form through the 
atmosphere, as shown by Tissandier, Nordenskica, and by deduc- 
tions from the general laws of matter. We see by the above 
that while oxygen and nitrogen are the ruling elements of the 
atmosphere, carbon, as in the carbonic acid, and hydrogen as in 
the vapor, and ammonia and marsh gas or carburetted hydrogen 
are also ingredients. Hydrogen being the champion heat atom 



CONSTITUTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE. 



195 



of the world, must be the enkindler of flame and a great promoter 
of incandescence and luminosity in the contiguous atoms. So- 
dium is also revealed by the spectroscope as an ubiquitous 
element of the air. "There is not a speck of dust, or mote in 
the sunbeam," says Prof. Roscoe, "which does not contain chloride 
of sodium (salt). Sodium is a prevailing element in the atmos- 
phere, we are constantly bathing in portions of this elementary 
substance together with the air which we inhale. Two thirds 
of the earth's surface is covered with salt water, and the fine 
spray which is being carried up into the air evaporates, leaving 
the minute specks of salt which we see dancing in the sun." 
This sodium among other elements has a grand mission to fill 
for when ignited, constantly gives out yellow light, the central 
principle of luminosity, by which the universe is revealed. Under 
the head of Chromo-Dynamics, definite facts will be given to 
show that all objects throw off their volatile elements into the 
atmosphere. So we have the oxygen as a prominent principle, 
giving off when ignited, as shown by the spectroscope the blue, 
red, violet, yellow, indigo, green, etc., and most abundant of all 
the nitrogen, which gives more or less of all the colors, and other 
gases. 

3. But fine ignited gases are not sufficient except when highly 
compressed as in chemical combinations, to give out light for 
practical purposes, and consequently it is necessary to have solid 
particles or chemical compounds including carbonic acid, sodium, 
chloride, etc., to help in the process of lighting the world. These 
particles when struck by the solar rays, or by artificial light, 
become ignited and constitute diminutive fire-balls which may 
be called luminelles (little lights). These luminelles may consist 
of hollow globules of vapor, molecules of carbonic acid, or perhaps 
larger masses consisting of several molecules of different solid 
substances, or the bacteria before spoken of. 

4. Frankland has endeavored to prove that there is no glowing 
solid matter necessary for the production of light, simply be- 
cause he can place gases under a pressure of ten to twenty at- 
mospheres, and cause a light which one can read by. Of course 
a large number of atoms or fiery particles in a given space would 
be more luminous than a small number. But ordinary light is pro- 
duced under no such compression. He says the light of coal 



196 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



gas or candles is not produced by solid particles of carbon, but 
"by the ignition of highly condensed gaseous hydrocarbons." 
He may call them gaseous if he pleases, but these gases must 
have countless luminelles, as will be shown by millions of black 
particles which gather on a brass or a silver knob held in the 
flame for a few moments. The luminelles which float in the 
atmosphere at an ordinary heat and pressure must be much more 
minute and refined than these carbon luminelles of the flame, for 
they are ignited or cooled off by the solar ethers instantaneously, 
and their heat is usually so soft as to give no painful impression 
to the eye or to the skin as it falls upon us. But just how are 
luminelles set on fire so as to afford us light and color of various 
kinds? Before considering this we must learn 

XVII. How Color Effects are Produced. 



1. We have already seen in Chapter Third, how different 
colors are formed by different sized spirillse in connection with 
the different grades of ethers which pass through these spirillse. 
But what causes gold to appear yellow, or coal black, or snow 
white, for instance? Gold is yellow because it has a spirilla of the 
right grade to repel or reflect the yellow-forming ether while it 
has other spirillse which receive the other color ethers more or 
less within themselves and thus hide them. If all of the spir- 
illse had such an affinity for the other color-ethers, and their 
atoms could become polarized in such a way that these ethers 
could be transmitted entirely through them, it would be trans- 
parent like the air or nearly like clear glass. If its spirillse 
should briskly repel all of the color-ethers into our eyes it would 
give us the effect of white; if they affinitize with them suffi- 
ciently to draw them all within its surface, the effect would be 
black; if they should absorb a part of each color-ether and reflect 
a part, the effect would be normal gray; if a majority of each 
color-ether is reflected, light gray would result, and if a majority 
absorbed, dark gray would appear. If the red and part of the other 
colors should be reflected it would cause red-gray, and the same 
principle applies to the other grays. If nearly the whole of the 
red or the blue should be transmitted, while the other colors were 
absorbed, reflected, or slightly transmitted, we should have the 



HOW color effects are produced. 



197 



effect of red-glass, or blue-glass, or any other colored glass 
according to which color predominates. 

2. Let us see, then, how rays of luminous ether can produce 
the effect of light. Take the yellow ray, for instance, the center 
of luminosity. Sodium, magnesium, iron, and other substances, 
when under the terrific heat at or near the burning surface of the 
sun have a tremendous repulsive action upon all yellow-forming 
ethers including fine particles of their own substance, and project 
them into space. Before getting entirely away from the solar 
atmospheres, however, the coarser part of these ethers is strained 
off while the finer part proceeds through space and strikes our 
atmosphere. According to the principles of chemical affinity 
already explained (Chapter Third, XXXVII, 10), the atoms of 
both nitrogen and oxygen must have an especial affinity for the 
principal yellow-forming ethers, as they are strong in violet, and 
thus become ignited as they pass through, aided in this ignition 
by proximate particles of hydrogen, which are so quick to take 
fire, and which constitute an ingredient of vapor. So far the 
globules of vapor are the principal sources of light, but that is not 
sufficient. All luminelles of materials like themselves, such as 
sodium, magnesium, etc., must be repelled at their touch, ignited 
by their impact against them, and many of them driven on to 
the earth before their power. Violet-colored luminelles having a 
chemical affinity for them will transmit them freely and become 
incandescent thereby, and luminelles of various colors will be 
met and penetrated in the same way, for, as Isaac Newton has 
shown, all styles of matter, however opaque or however colored, 
become more or less transparent to light, in case they are in very 
minute masses. The same principle holds true with reference 
to the other color-forming ethers, the violet ethers sweeping with 
special ease through luminelles of sodium, magnesium, etc., in 
which yellow is active, the blue ethers sweeping with especial 
ease through the hydrogen of vapor luminelles, in which the 
red principle in the spectrum is active, as well as through many 
other substances, such as carbon, lithium, nitrogen, etc., and so 
on with all the other colors, each of which drives before it cer- 
tain ethereal atoms like itself in a common tide to the earth, 
and each does its part in setting the whole atmosphere on fire 
and thus filling the world with light. 



198 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



XVIII. Shadow is an Entity. 



1. Shadow is supposed to be the absence of light, just as cold 
is supposed to be the absence of heat, and just as black was for- 
merly, and is sometimes yet called the absence of color. We 
have seen in Chapter Third, that cold is as distinct a law of 
motion as heat, and we have seen also that, although black is 
caused by the absorption of all the color ethers, it is caused prac- 
tically, as seen in the union of pigments, by the combination of 
all colors, only in a different proportion from that required to 
form white. 

2. We shall find that there are no nihilities in the universe, 
no vacuums; even space and time being the measurement of ex- 
tension and of duration in the abstract, while considered con- 
cretely, space is filled with ethers, nebulae, comets, suns and 
worlds, and time is the everlasting succession of events. 

3. Again there is no such thing as absolute silence or absolute 
rest in the known universe, for all that these terms can signify 
when philosophically considered, is that the infinity of vibrations, 
pulsations, waves, and movements which are in ceaseless opera- 
tion everywhere, have simply subsided sufficiently not to affect 
human sensation, possessing too great a degree of fineness or 
coarseness to be perceived. 

4. Another of these negative conditions is shadow, which if 
simply darkened or cooled off luminelles, already described. These 
luminelles or atmospheric particles, when struck by luminous 
ethers from the sun, or from artificial light, immediately become 
ignited and luminous, but when a screen is interposed to shut off 
these rays, there is not sufficient action among the particles to 
keep them incandescent, and a darker appearance which we call 
shadow is the result. In the day time this shadow is but feeble, 
as reflected light from all quarters keeps them more or less 
luminous. In the night, however, when the reflected light is 
small, the luminelles become much more cooled off, and cones- 
quently the shadows are much deeper. When a very brilliant 
light is used, like the calcium or magnesium, the shadow seems 
darker by contrast with the light. The black luminelles, such as 
those of carbon, are perhaps a more decided principle of shadow 
than the lighter colored ones when they are but slightly kindled 
into action. Under the head of Chromo Chemistry (XX., 21), I 



THE MOON. 



199 



shall show how these darker luminelles can be photographed 
upon chemically prepared paper as well as luminelles and ethers 
of different colors. 

XIX. The Moon. 



1. Our satellite is known by astronomers to be what is called 
a dead world, from having cooled off too much to sustain an at- 
mosphere or other necessary conditions for human life, and yet 
it is an important source of light. Although it has nothing to 
live for within itself, it kindly holds up its burnished shield to 
the sun, and reflects all the luminous rays it possibly can upon 
our world, thus giving us many a night of soft and subdued bril- 
liance. Its size is about 49 times less than its parent earth, and 
its mean distance from us about 240,000 miles, or more exactly, 
as determined by Prof. Adams, 238,793 miles. It moves through 
its elliptical orbit around the earth from west to east about thir- 
teen times every year, and is so one-sided as to hold the same 
face ever towards the earth, having some special reason for not 
showing its other side. Judging by analogies it must have been 
cooled off, refined and inhabited by intelligent beings, vast ages 
before such a process could take place on our larger earth, possi- 
bly before our world left its crude sun-condition. Does it make 
us sad to think how the moon's people must have suffered with 
cold during the ages in which it was cooling? It need not, for 
nature, working ever on the law of kindness, easily adapts man 
for the changes necessary to a planet, until the interior of the 
planet itself becomes cooled to a certain extent, when in an in- 
stant, the whole is exploded and nobody is hurt. Nobody is hurt, 
simply because life is taken too quickly for any sensation to be 
produced, and the planet ceases forever to be the home of im- 
mortal beings. That the moon is an exploded or fragmentary 
orb, some fully believe, and it may be profitable to spend a 
moment in considering how a world naturally comes to its end. 

2. We have seen (X. 2 of this Chapter,) that there must be 
a large layer of molten iron, at some distance below the surface 
of a planet, that above this must be a still lighter mass of min- 
erals and earths which are molten and form the matter for vol- 
canoes, while above this still, is the cooled off crust, including 
large masses of cool iron, which constitute the basis of magnetic 



200 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



action for the whole planet. We, of course, do not know how thick 
the layer of molten iron must have been in the moon, but being 
the most abundant of metals we are probably safe in putting it 
at 100 miles, the whole distance from the surface of the moon to 
its centre being 1080 miles. What would be the effect now if this 
metal, which in its crude state is carburetted and brittle, should 
cool off and crystallize into a solid condition more rapidly on one 
side than on the other? What is the effect when cold and heat 
are brought unequally upon glass, but to burst it into pieces? 
My opinion is that the lower portion of this iron layer must cool 
off faster than the upper as the powerful magnetism of the earth's 
crust must generate an immense amount of heat over the whole 
outer portion of the earth by arousing the chemical affinities of 
all surrounding elements. This would make the interior part 
of the layer expand faster than the exterior, for iron is one of the 
metals that expand as they cool off and crystallize. The rupture 
of such a vast mass of iron in the moon, must have been incon- 
ceivable in its tremendous power, throwing portions of its globe 
into space to revolve as minute asteriods around the larger por- 
tion that may be left or possibly directly around the earth itself. 

3. And now the reader may ask, is this the destiny of all 
worlds? Have you not told us that the progress of the universe 
is upward rather than, thus downward into ruin? Yes, forever 
upward, for what is thus seemingly a work of ruin takes place 
only after a world has accomplished its highest purpose under ex- 
isting conditions, and is merely a process of changing its elements 
into that which is finer and better. Thus the moon, under the 
impact of sunbeams, and under the play of its own chemical and 
ethereal forces, is becoming more refined, eliminating its best 
elements into space, and wafting them, either directly to some other 
planet or to some distant nebulous mass where it shall eventually 
be crystallized and aggregated into a more beautiful world. 

4. We may see then why it is that the moon always presents 
the same side to the earth. One side of its mass and its interior 
molten part being blown away, it must have a heavier and a 
lighter side. The earth's gravitation must hold its round and 
heavier side unchangably toward itself otherwise why does it 
not revolve on its axis and show its various sides, as is done in 
all other known worlds? I have not seen any attempt on the 



THE MOON. 



201 



part of astronomers to explain this phenomenon, but the above 
explanation, including its method of destruction, seems to me en- 
tirely rational. If the igneous central portion had been ejected into 
space, gravitation would at once draw the oceans into this 
centre and all things having become frigid, no clouds, or water, 
or atmosphere could ever more make their appearance upon the 
surface of the disabled world, which condition is found to be 
verified by astronomers. 

5. Fig. 158 gives a condensed view of the full moon as seen 




Fig 158. The Ful! moon. 



Fig 1 59. The Crescent* 



through a telescope and fig. 159, of the crescent and what is 
called the earth-shine which is the dimmer portion that appears 
on account of the light reflected from the earth. Before the first 
quarter, when the half moon appears, this earth shine generally 
becomes invisible until the moon becomes small again. 

6. Eclipses of the Sun and Moon and Phases of the Moon may 
be illustrated by fig. 160. In the first place notice that the 
greater size of the sun causes the earth and moon to throw 
diminishing shadows in the form of a cone some distance into 
space, the darker central portion of which constitutes what is 
called the umbra, the lighter portion the penumbra. Generally the 
moon in passing around the earth does not throw its shadow 
upon the earth or get into the earth's shadow, but sometimes it 
comes so exactly between the sun and earth, as in the position 
between 11 and 6, that it hides the solar orb and throws a dark 
shadow on the earth at 12, thus producing a total eclipse of the 
sun. At other times it comes into the range of the earth's 
shadow at 9, and we call it an eclipse of the moon. In most 
cases, however, when the moon gets around on the side of 



102 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



the earth opposite the sun, as at 9, it does not enter the 
earth's shadow and shows its sun-lit side to persons standing at 
3 or 4 as a full moon. In most cases also it does not hide the sun 
cause an eclipse when it reaches the point between 11 and 6, 
but having its shady side next to us it becomes itself invisible. 

When it reaches 11 it be- 
gins to appear as a very new 
moon, at 7 we call it a 
quarter moon, at 1 a half 
moon and say it has reached 
its first quarter, at 8, it 
shows about three fourths 
of its size, at 9 it becomes 
a full moon, at 10 a three- 
quarter moon, at 2 a half- 
moon and has reached its 
last quarter, at 5, a quarter 
moon, at 6 it begins to fade 
out. The moon is some- 
times said to be a crescent 
at 7 and 5, and is called 
gibbous at 8 and 10. 

7. The Asteroids which 
are generally considered 
by astronomers to be frag- 
ments of worlds, are doubt- 
less portions of small planets 
which have cooled off and 
exploded in the same way 
as our moon. 




Eclipses and Phases of the 



XX. The Planets and Fixed Stars, 



1. Though adding greatly to the cheerfulness of our nights, 
still all combined give but a feeble light as compared with that 
of our sun. The fixed stars are self-luminous and shine with 
a twinkling light. The planets shine with a steady and reflected 
light. Venus, sometimes the morning and sometimes the eve- 
ning star, is the brightest of the planets to us, and Jupiter next. 



combustion. 



1(Y\ 



Sirius, the brightest of the fixed stars, gives us, as signified 
by the photometer, 20,000,000,000 times less light than the sun. 

2. The Milky Way under the revelations of the telescope, is 
presumed to consist of several millions of fixed stars, each of 
which is a vast solar system and one of which is our own solar 
system. But telescopes of great power reveal thousands of such 
clusters of stars, each of which is a Milky Way. Verily the 
mightiest imagination of man, can reach but a finger's length into 
the infinities of this universe ! Looking at such a fact with a view 
of our present littleness, it is due cause for humility on our part. 
On the other hand, we may be exultant, for our souls kindled 
with the deific spark, must of themselves be among the grandest 
of all infinities, having capacities for mounting ever upward and 
onward through this very universe ! 

Fig. 161, will give William Herschel's 
earlier conception of the Milky Way or Galaxy. 
Assuming that the stars are about equally dis- 
tributed, he concluded that the great mass of 
stars which appear in certain portions of the 
sky and which we call the Milky Way, result 
from viewing the cluster longitudinally instead 
of laterally. Thus if we stand at S which re- 
presents the position of the solar system in the 
Milky Way, and look in the direction of A or B 
or C, the stars must present a more dense 
appearance than they would if viewed in the 
directions of E, D or F. Later in life, however, 
he began to believe that the greater number of 
stars which appeared in certain directions may 
have resulted more or less from their being 
placed more closely together in certain direc- 
tions than in others. Astronomers assert that 
all the stars in the whole heavens which appear 
to the naked eye belong to the Milky Way. 




Fig. 161, 
The Milky Way, 



XXI. Combustion 



Is intense chemical action attended with heat and generally 
with light, although physiologists sometimes speak of processes 
of combustion brought about by oxygen, etc., in connection with 



20! 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



animal life, when of course no light is evolved. It can never be 
produced without combining some kind of electrical atoms like 
oxygen, chlorine, sulphur, etc., with some kind of thermal or alka- 
line atoms, such as hydrogen, carbon, potassium, magnesium, cal- 
cium, etc. Oxygen has sometimes been called the supporter of 
combustion, but it would be quite powerless without some affini- 
tive elements to draw out its action. Prof. Draper has well said 
that "no substance is, in itself, a supporter of combustion, nor is 
anyone intrinsically a combustible body. If a jet of hydrogen 
will burn in an atmosphere of oxygen, so also will a jet of oxygen 
burn in an atmosphere of hydrogen gas." Thus we see again 
this ubiquitous law of duality as the ever recurring principle of 
all force. 

XXII. Flame. 



1. Flame always requires a gaseous combination of affinitive 
elements, and a thoroughly luminous flame must have an abun- 
dance of luminelles. The most practical of all substances, out 
of which luminelles may be formed, is carbon, 1st, because it exists 
abundantly in wood, forms nearly the whole of coal, much of oil, 
and a fair amount of illuminating gas, and 2dly, it is one of the 
most infusible of all substances, and consequently its particles 
retain their solid condition longest without becoming disinter- 
grated. The constituents of ordinary flame, then, are hydrogen 
as the thermal, inflammable element, oxygen as an electrical 
substance to bring this hydrogen into full action, and carbon, 
which is also vitalized by the oxygen and whose particles are of 
the right size to constitute luminelles. These luminelles are 
eliminated from the solid mass by the aid of the combined oxygen 
and hydrogen, and being larger than any particles connected with 
these two gases, produce a far greater illuminating power. 
These elements constitute a hydrocarbon, or a compound of cor- 
bonic acid gas (C0 2 ) and hydrogen. "Is not flame a vapor, 
fume or exhalation," says Isaac Newton, "heated red-hot, that is, 
so hot as to shine?" A lighted lamp or candle is a kind of a gas 
factory, as a flame cannot be kindled until more or less of gas 
has been generated, and whenever a flame sways about it is 
simply the movement of gases whose luminelles have been made 
red-hot or yellow-hot by the rush of chemical forces. I say 



FLAME 



20 i 



yellow-hot, but if the action becomes sufficiently intense, so that 
the heat shall be great, they will become white-hot, or nearly so, 
as in the case of a calcium light. Thus the flame of a candle, 
as compared with that of the hotter gas, seems yellow, with some 
reddish tint, and the gas, as compared with the calcium light, 
presents the same appearance, while the sun light is still whiter 
than the calcium light. In the ordinary illuminating or coal gas, 
the hydrogen, carbon and other substances are already manufac- 
tured into gas, and hence the ease with which a brilliant flame 
is produced. 

2. An ordinary flame of a candle, lamp or gas, consists of three 
layers, as shown in fig. 162; a blue electrical flame at the bottom 
where the oxygen of the air sweeps up from below, and acting 
first upon the excitable hydrogen of the oil or gas, ignites it, and 
acting also upon the carbon of the same, converts it 
into carbonic acid, which with its newly liberated 
particles forms the dark centre b. Almost in a 
twinkling these dark particles become radiant with 
heat as the inrushing oxygen makes more and more 
intense the action of the hydrogen and the contig- 
uous carbon. This carbon which at first is converted 
into carbonic oxide (CO), on receiving a larger 
share of oxygen, assumes the more intense form of 
carbonic acid (C0 2 ), and becoming ignited and 
volatile with heat, spreads out into the luminous 
portion c. The very thin, almost invisible, bluish 
envelope e, e, is caused by the inward rush of 
the oxygen as it seeks its affinitive uprising hydro- 
gen. This may be seen best by viewing a flame in 

its narrow direction. If the upper and more luminous part of 
the flame should be hidden by the hand or some other object, 
the exquisite blue, merging into indigo and violet, may be seen 
very distinctly. The same will appear in the flames made by 
burning wood, coal, paper, matches, and other objects, where the 
flame joins the lower part of these objects, as no elimination 
of luminelles can take place without the electrical flow. 

3. In the case of magnesium light, particles of magnesia (MgO) 
constitute the luminelles, in the calcium light, particles of lime 
(CaO), in burning strontium, particles of strontia (SrO), whose 




2 06 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



luminelles are red, in burning sodium, particles of Soda (Na 2 0) 
whose luminelles are yellow-orange, and so with other substances, 
as will be shown in the next chapter. As I have said before, how- 
ever, carbon is by far the most common basis of luminelles for prac- 
tical illuminating purposes. 

4. Why do the luminelles of a flame when brought into contact 
with a person cause so much more pain than the usual atmos- 
pheric luminelles as ignited by the sunlight? Because they are 
coarser, far more condensed, and emit a ruder grade of heat. 
This will also explain why the luminelles of an ordinary flame or 
torch remain dark in the center for a moment, while those of the 
atmosphere are kindled without any appreciable length of time, 
as the larger ones require more time to become ignited than the 
smaller ones. Nature has kindly spread out through the atmos- 
phere, those exquisite particles which may convey a suitable 
amount of light to us without burning either the eye or the skin. 

XXIII. Smoke. 

When a flame, as that of a lamp, is not supplied with a suf- 
ficient draft of oxygen to ignite all of its luminelles, and decom- 
pose them to a certain extent, they are carried up into the air in a 
dark condition which we call smoke. This smoke includes a 
certain amount of carbonic acid which is poisonous when in- 
haled, or carbonic oxide which is still more poisonous. Smoke 
consuming arrangements have been devised, but when they can 
be made so simple, cheap and effective as to be universally adopt- 
ed, the great black cities where bituminous coal is used, such as 
London, Birmingham, Glasgow, and Pittsburg, will become com- 
paratively clean and beautiful, will utilize much fuel and become 
more healthful. 

XXIV. Non-Luminous Flames. 



A jet of burning hydrogen, though very hot, is barely vis- 
ible in the day-time. Alcohol emits but little light while burn- 
ing. The intense heat of the oxyhydrogen blow-pipe causes a 
blue flame which is but feebly visible. These and some other 
very intensely hot flames, such as that of Bunsen's burner which 
combines air with gas, etc., give but a feeble light, and that gen- 



KEROSENE OR COAL OIL. 



207 



erally of a bluish electrical character, thus showing a strong 
chemical action. We have already seen that these non-lumin- 
ous flames come from a lack of luminelles or of some solid sub- 
stance which may become incandescent. Solid matter becomes 
luminous in the day-time at a heat of 900° or 1000° F., but gases 
become only feebly visible at 2000°. 

XXV. Coal-Gas. 

The ordinary illuminating gas is made from bituminous coal, 
although gas of still higher illuminating power may also be made 
from oil, fat or resin. The most abundant ingredient of gas is 
light carburetted hydrogen (marsh gas), although a more highly 
illuminating part from its having twice as many carbon luminelles, 
is the heavy carburetted hydrogen (olefiant gas). The leading in- 
gredients of coal gas are as follows, together with their specific 
gravity (weight as compared with air): — 

Specific Gravity. 

Light carburetted hydrogen (CH 4 ) .552 

Olefiant gas, or heavy carburetted hydrogen (C 2 H 4 ) .987 

Sulphuretted hydrogen (H 2 S) . 1 192 

Carbonic oxide (CO) .96 

Nitrogen .9713 

Besides these, there is a small amount of bisulphide of car- 
bon, and some combustible hydrocarbons. It is highly important 
that it should be well purified of ammonia, sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and other deleterious ingredients. 

XXVI. Kerosene or Coal Oil. 



In its crude form this is called Petroleum or Rock Oil, and 
has become a vast source of home illumination. It is composed 
almost wholly of hydrogen and carbon. It is very important that 
it should have its benzine and other volatile elements so eliminated 
from it that it shall not be too light and combustible, as too many 
lives have been lost from the careless use of the cheaper and more 
impure oils. Kerosene oils ought to be able to endure from 130° 
to 150° of heat without combustion. An intelligent gentleman, 
skilled in its use, says that some of the worst explosions are caused 
by turning the light down low and letting it burn thus, by which 
means the metals around the burner become especially heated, 



208 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



and through them the oil below is converted partially into gas 
which makes it doubly inflammable. With care, however, there 
should almost never be any danger from the use of this admirable 
and steady-burning kerosene flame whose illuminating power 
has been estimated at 7 times that of an ordinary candle, just as 
an average gas light is equal to 20 candles. The purest oil has 
almost the transparency of water, is almost odorless, is the least 
inflammable of all, and, when supplied with a shade, especially 
one which has some blue tint, is highly protective to the eyes and 
is well adapted for study, writing or sewing. 

XXVII. The Oxyhydrogen Blow-Pipe 

Consists of two gasometers, the one with oxygen, the other 
with hydrogen gas, which are brought in separate tubes and made 
to meet at the extremity where the two gases are joined in a single 
stream and lighted. The heat thus produced is the greatest 
known to man, with the exception of that which is developed 
through the agency of electricity, and in it metals will burn like 
wood or wax, iron sending off its brilliant luminelles, or scintil- 
lations; copper, its green luminelles, and other metals their own 
special color of flame. Wood or coal burn easily by the addition 
of mere oxygen, because they have hydrogen as well as carbon; 
but metals lacking the hydrogen in themselves will burn with a 
flame only when both hydrogen and oxygen are added, their own 
particles answering as luminelles. The electrical flame uses the 
hydrogen and oxygen in the vapor of the atmosphere in connec- 
tion with the metals. The temperature of the oxyhydrogen 
flame, as shown by Deville and Bunsen, is from 4500° to 6000° F. 

XXVIII. Calcium Light, or Lime Light. 



When the feebly luminous flame of the oxyhydrogen blow- 
pipe is directed upon a cylinder of lime, which is oxygen and cal- 
cium combined, a most dazzling light is produced unequaled by 
any artificial flame excepting that developed by electricity. This 
is caused slightly by the luminelles of lime, but mainly by the 
intensely incandescent lime itself. Huggins discovered particles 
of lime in the spectrum of lime light. It is sometimes called the 
Drummond light, from the inventor. Magnesium light is made 
on the same principle, and is more permanent, as the magnesium 



ELECTRIC LIGHT. 



209 



does not waste away as does the lime. Coal gas is sometimes 
used in the place of the blow-pipe, and is generally sufficient for 
illustrating spectrum analysis before a popular audience. 

XXIX. Electric Light. 




1. If a current of galvanic electricity be allowed to pass 
between points of charcoal which are attached to the two poles 
and held near each other, an intensity of light will be generated 
which will be almost unsafe to look upon, together with a heat 
that no scale at present known to man is capable of measuring. 
Faraday ascertained beyond dispute that electric sparks, flames, 
etc., consist of particles of the metal or charcoal which form the 
electrodes of the battery and the medium through which it passes, 
while the spectroscope clearly reveals as the component parts of 
the electric flame, the substance of the electrodes themselves, 
together with the hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sodium of the 
atmosphere. We thus have luminelles from the electrodes and 
also from the atmosphere to aid in both the 

heat and light, while the currents of electricity, 
sweeping with inconceivable velocity, eliminate 
more or less of charcoal or other atoms, and 
driving them especially from the positive to- 
wards the negative pole, and somewhat from the r>g- ^ 3 . 
negative to the positive pole, which poles are kept at a brief dis- 
tance apart, kindle the atmosphere into a flame that will imme- 
diately melt away and vaporize solid metals, which may be placed 
in it. The electrodes are first placed near each other and then 
drawn apart a short distance, when the light will assume magnetic 
curves called the Voltaic arc, as in figs. 163, 164. Carbon, espe- 
cially of the coke variety, is the best material for the points of 
the electrodes, 1st, because it is less apt to melt than metals, and, 
2dly, its diverse lines of polarization do not allow the electricity 
to pass off too rapidly, but hold it until its tension is powerful, so 
that when it bursts over to the opposite pole from + to — it 
makes the more intense flame, and 3dly, a rough black substance 
is favorable for radiating light and heat. 

2. When the current usually called positive, which, as we 
have seen, is the chemico electricity (Chap. Third, XXXIV), 
flows downward as in the cut, the flame is more intense, and if 

14 



210 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



the two carbon points are arranged horizontally with the positive 
pole to the east or the north, thus throwing the current westward, 
or southward, it is also more intense. The explanation of this 
has not been given, so far as I have seen, and yet it is very simple 
when we learn about the dynamic forces of the earth, and the 
law of atoms. We have seen that chemico electricity developes 
more heat than other grades from its atomic law of movement, its 
spirilla being more external and consequently more curved than 
the other axial spirillse. I shall show under the head of Chromo- 
Dynamics, that the thermal currents of the earth pass downward 
towards the center of the earth, also towards the west following 
the track of the sun, as well as from the poles toward the equator, 
while the cold electrical currents pass in just the opposite direc- 
tions. If any one thinks that heat passes upward because a 
flame or a current of heated air passes thus, he should remember 
that this comes from convection, or that law of gravity which 
attracts heavy fluids towards the earth's center and crowds the 
heated and rarified fluids upward. The blue electrical portion of 
flames is at the lowest portion, not at the highest part, as would 
be the case if electricity passes downward. When this chemico- 
electricity, then, which is attended with more heat than the 
other kinds, moves downward or westward, or southward, it har- 
monizes with the thermal currents which are moving in the same 
direction, and thus becomes more intense than if going counter 
to them. The length of the luminous arch when the positive 
current moves westward, is said to be about one-fourth greater 
than when it moves eastward, or as 20.8 to 16.5. Despretz, with 
a powerful battery and with the positive current moving down- 
ward, obtained an arc of electrical light 7.8 inches long. 

3. Duboscq's Electric lamp gives a most brilliant effect, and is 
sometimes used for taking photographs in place of the sun. Wm. 
Browning's electric lamp, of London, is considered still better 
and cheaper. 

4. M. Lambotte has invented and applied to practical use on 
some of the railroads of France, his method of lighting the sta- 
tions by electricity. Some light-houses are also illuminated by 
electricity. 

5. Magneto Electric-Machines are found to be more conven- 
ient and effective for purposes of illumination than the mere 



ELECTRIC LIGHT. 



211 



galvanic batteries. "Despretz has calculated that the light 
emitted by 92 of Bunsen's elements, arranged in two series of 
46 each, is equal to that of 1144 candles, and is to the light of 
the sun as 1 to 2Vr, and the light emitted by 250 elements in a 
grand experiment made by Profs. Cooke and Rogers, in the cu- 
pola of the State House, Boston, was calculated to be equal to that 
of 10,000 candles." Describing Wild's magneto-electric machine, 
Prof. Pynchon says: — "When an electric lamp furnished with 
rods of gas-carbon half an inch square, was placed at the top of 
a lofty building, an arc of flame several inches in length was 
projected and the light evolved from it was sufficient to cast the 
shadows of the street lamps, a quarter of a mile distant upon the 
neighboring walls. When viewed from that distance, the 
rays proceeding from the reflector have all the rich effulgence 
of the sunshine. With the reflector removed from the lamp the 
bare light is estimated to have an intensity of 4000 wax candles. 
A piece of ordinary sensitive paper, like that used for photo- 
graphic printing, exposed to the action of the light for 20 
seconds, at the distance of two feet from the reflector, was 
darkened to the same degree as a piece of the same sheet of 
paper when exposed for the period of one minute to the direct 
rays of the sun at noon on a clear day in March. In the month of 
June from a comparison of sunlight with the electric light 
armed with the reflector, by means of the shadows thrown by 
both, from the same object, the electric light seemed to possess 
three or four times the power of sunlight. That the electric in- 
tensity was somewhat in this proportion was evident from the 
powerful scorching action of the electric light upon the face, and 
the ease with which paper could be set on fire with a burning 
glass when introduced into its rays. The extraordinary calorific 
and illuminating powers of the ten-inch machine, are the more 
remarkable when we consider that they have their origin in six 
small permanent magnets weighing only one pound each, and 
capable of sustaining collectively only 60 pounds. It has been 
calculated that with a 100-ton magnet, having an armature of 32 
inches in diameter and driven by a 1000 horse power steam-en- 
gine, light enough would be produced if the lamp were placed 
on the top of a high tower, to illuminate London by night more 
brightly than the sunlight does by day. Twelve machines of 



212 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



the ordinary size would illuminate Broadway from the Battery 
to 14th Street, at much less expense than gas. * * * Wilde's 
machine has been greatly simplified and improved by throwing 
aside the permanent magnets and making use of the electro- 
magnet alone." (Chemical Forces.) Mr. Ladd, of London, has 
introduced this, and still further improvements. 

5. The Electric Candle. 



1. This must rank among the remarkable inventions of the 
day and will constitute a stepping stone to the still better invent- 
tion of an electric light which, as I have no doubt, will yet be de- 
veloped by a large permanent magnet, aided perhaps by ma- 
chinery which shall be able to separate and bring the combus- 
tible elements of the atmosphere into range of its electricity. 
The following are accounts of the Electric Candle as cut from 
popular journals: — 

2. "It has remained for a Russian — M. Paul Jablochkoff, 
who was formerly in the Russian military service — to demonstrate 
in practice the feasibility of subdividing the electric current. 
He has worked out his result in the form of an electric candle, 
which governs the production of the electric light and supersedes 
the ordinary clockwork arrangement. By it he has, moreover, 
demonstrated the possibility of obtaining several lights from a 
single source of electricity. The first practical trial of this sys- 
tem was made at the Magasin du Louvre, and the experiments 
were attended with perfect success. The Marengo Hall was 
the apartment lighted, and six electric candles were sufficient to 
shed around a very bright light, which was softened by being 
transmitted through opal glass globes. Some idea of the com- 
parative value of gas and the electric light under notice may be 
formed when we state that the Marengo Hall is ordinarily illu- 
minated by means of one hundred argand gas-burners of the 
largest size. The electric candle, as originally designed by M. 
Jablochkoff, consisted of what may be termed a double wick and 
a surrounding material. The wick consisted of two carbon 
points, about four inches long, embedded parallel to each other 
in an insulating substance, by which, also, they were separated 
from each other. This material, which was consumed as well 
as the double wick, was composed of several ingredients, forming 



THE ELECTRIC CANDLE. 



213 



a combination known only to the inventor. Each of the carbon 
points terminated at the bottom in a small metal tube, into 
which the conducting wires were led. With these candles a series 
of experiments was some time since carried out by a War Office 
Committee of Royal Engineers at Chatham, England. It was 
then demonstrated as one result that the system gave fifty per 
cent greater power of light than had ever before been obtained 
from any electric fluid. The next development of the electric 
candle by M. Jablochkoff was to denude it of its outer casting, 
leaving merely the double wick with a strip of the insulation 
compound between the carbon points, which terminated at the 
bottom in metallic tubes, as before. It was with the electric 
candle in this form that the hall at the Magasin du Louvre was 
illuminated, as previously stated. In either case only one elec- 
tric machine is needed to produce a number of lights. The pos- 
itive and negative wires are led from the machine, and branch 
wires are simply conducted from them at the necessary points 
to the candles. In this way M. Jablochkoff succeeded in getting 
as many as eight candles to burn at the circuit of a single ma- 
chine of the ordinary kind, with alternating currents." 

3. M. Jablochkoff ' s electric candle is spoken of in foreign 
journals as a successful endeavor to utilize the electric light. It 
was originally constructed on the principle of inclosing the car- 
bon electrodes in a material which will consume slowly and thus 
regulate their burning, the carbon "points" serving as the wick 
to the candle. The outside material is believed to consist 
largely of kaolin. As many as 50 simultaneous lights are said 
to have been obtained by means of this invention from one elec- 
tro-magnetic machine. Latterly M. Jablochkoff is reported as 
having dispensed with the carbon points altogether, using only 
the kaolin preparation for the electrodes. The invention has 
been described by M. Dumas before the French Academy of 
Sciences, and arrangements are in progress in England to light 
one of the East and West India Company's docks by the new 
system. If the electric candle meets the expectations that have 
been formed of it, the reign of the gas companies is nearing a 
conclusion." 

4. "In the Parisian Experiments the kaolin bar ignited by 
induction spark was 8 centimetres long, and fully equal to 8 gas 



214 



THE SOURCES OF LIGHT. 



burners. At the same time three electric candles were oper- 
ated, each equaling about 40 gas burners." (Nature.) 

5. At the French Railway Station where the electric candle 
is adopted, a large lantern clouded with zinc white is used to en- 
close the lamp and soften the intensity of its light. 

6. In Experiments of St. Petersburg, "the most economical 
machine tried was that of Altenek, which with a galvanized car- 
bon of 10 mm. diameter gave a maximum of 20,275 and a mean 
of 14,039 candles. The light was sufficient to make objects 
visible for military purposes at a distance of 3080 yards," or 
nearly two miles. (Nature.) If we consider 4000 candles equal 
to sunlight, the maximum light of Altenek's machine must be 
5 times that of the sun. This would not signify that any possi- 
ble light obtainable by man would absolutely compare with that 
of the sun, but that the electric light near by, can be made five 
times greater than sunlight which comes more than 92,000,000 
miles. But the ideal lighting and heating methods, I think, 
must be made in connection with a permanent magnet, by means 
of which all fuel and all expense of batteries will be done away 
with, and our cold, dark world will be made into a far more mag- 
nificent habitation for man by means of methods which would 
involve no expense excepting the magnet with its attachments, 
and the simple trouble of starting it. 

XXX. Heat of Various Combustibles. 



Hydrogen, though producing but a feeble luminosity of flame, 
emits the greatest heat of any known combustible. The follow- 
ing table gives the amount of heat produced by various substances 
when they burn in air, the unit being the amount of heat neces- 
sary to raise a weight of water equal to that of the combusti- 
ble, 1°:— 

Hydrogen flame in air produces 34.462 units of heat 
Light Carburetted Hydrogen " 13-063 

Illuminating Gas " 11.858 

Spermaceti " 10.342 " " 

Turpentine " 10.662 

Alcohol " 7.184 

Wood Charcoal " 8.080 " " 

Coke " 8.047 " « 



SPONTANEOUS combustion. 



215 



Thus the hydrogen flame is three times as hot as that of illu- 
minating gas, and more than four times as hot as that of char- 
coal or alcohol. 

XXXI. Spontaneous Combustion. 



Many substances having a powerful chemical affinity for each 
other, rush together with such violence as to kindle into flame. 
Potassium, when thrown upon water, causes a beautiful violet 
flame from its seizing the oxygen and tearing it away from the 
hydrogen, thus causing ignition of the hydrogen and the sur- 
rounding atoms. A stream of water may be set on fire by putting 
some pieces of potassium into a bottle of ether and pouring it 
over the stream. During the Crimean war, Mr. Mcintosh pro- 
posed to destroy the shipping and harbor of Sebastopol by firing 
bomb shells filled with ether and containing pieces of potassium, 
but the British authorities feared its danger to themselves. Po- 
tassium, tin, pulverized copper, antimony, etc., take fire if put 
into chlorine gas. Phosphorus takes fire in the air and must be 
kept under water. Many substances burn in nitrogen trioxide, 
more familiarly known as nitrous oxide (N 2 3 ). The terrific ex- 
plosions that are sometimes caused by the rude handling of 
nitro-glycerine are well known, and for safety it is often kept under 
water. The phosphorus of matches, sometimes under too much 
of a jar or friction, sets houses on fire. Bromine is similar to 
Chlorine in causing combustion when united with certain me- 
tals. Gunpowder, and even buildings and ships are sometimes 
set on fire by calcium monoxide (lime, CaO) when water is thrown 
upon it. Sunlight falling upon a bottle of hydrochloric acid 
(HCl) immediately dashes the glass into powder from the affinitive 
action of its electrical rays with the thermal hydrogen within. 



216 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



CHAPTER FIFTH. 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



1. Character of Spectrum Analysis. 




1. When solids are heated until they become incandescent, 
they impart a brilliant light, some with one color as a pre- 
dominant principle, and some with another: thus sodium gives a 
bright yellow-orange light, strontium and lithium, red; copper, 
green; arsenic, lilac; mercury, a pale blue, etc. These, however, 
are not the only colors which are emitted by these metals, but 
simply the most striking. As the potency of all substances may 
be manifested by their colors, would it not be admirable if some 
arrangement could be devised by which we could ascertain the 
exact reflective and refractive character of these colors, with 
their separate hues and tints? This can be done completely by 

letting a thin volume of their light, 
when thus heated or converted into 
a luminous vapor, pass through a 
triangular piece of glass or other 
transparent substance called a prism. 
(See Chapter on Chromo-Philosophy.) The lines of light strik- 
ing diagonally on this glass (fig. 165) are jolted apart, the colors 
being thrown (refracted) farther and farther to one side in 
proportion as they are fine and elastic. Thus the blue is re- 
fracted much farther than the red, the violet than the blue, and 
the trans-violet still farther. When the strontium light comes 
to be sifted through the prism, we see that it has not only red 
light, but some orange, yellow and blue, and we can see just how 
fine a grade of red it is, and just the grade of the other colors, by 
its position in the spectrum. As compared with potassium, 
we would see that its red is finer than the same color in that 
substance, being farther toward the yellow; as compared with 
caesium, its blue would be slightly coarser, being nearer the red 
end. But there is a more exact way of arriving at the position 
of these colors, for the spectrum of incandescent solids and 



CHARACTER OF SPECTRUM ANALYSIS. 



217 



liquids is in continuous masses of color, and not in lines which 
manifest the exact grade of potency and fineness. By getting a 
heat sufficient to convert these solids into luminous vapor or 
flame, we shall find their spectra appearing just as do the gases 
when made luminous, in bright lines of color on a comparatively 
dark ground, or sometimes in bands. For this purpose the 
electric light is best from its great intensity, although a Bunsen's 
burner or the blow-pipe may be used in some cases. A continuous 
spectrum is such as may result from an incandescent solid or 
liquid in which all the colors prevail, while in Plate I., the spec- 
trum of the sun may be seen somewhat broken by dark Fraun- 
hofer lines, the star Sirius with somewhat different lines, 
vaporized sodium with its one double line of intensely bright 
yellow orange, located at the point in the spectrum which is 
designated as D; the oxygen with its red, yellow, but especially 
blue and indigo, and so on with the other elements of hydrogen, 
nitrogen, and carbon. Why it is that some of the spectra have 
bright and others dark lines will be explained hereafter (See 
Chromo-Philosophy, III.). 

2. The spectrum of colors is divided off into fine degrees of 
measurement, and also by Fraunhofer, into letters of the alphabet, 
each of which always signifies some exact position; thus A, 
Plate I., is a line in the dark red near the outermost verge of the 
visible spectrum, and constitutes one of the color effects of 
potassium and no other substance; B is a dim line in the finer 
grade of red, and belongs also to potassium; C in the still finer 
red, or rather very red orange, F in the blue-green, G in the 
indigo, and H in the dark violet, are the four especial and bright 
manifestations of Hydrogen; D is the intensely bright yellow, 
or really yellow-orange, which is always the sign of sodium, and 
so on. The visible spectrum does not appear with much dis- 
tinctness excepting from the letters A to H, or H 2 , although the 
rays of solar light are named to the end of the alphabet and 
extend very much farther still. Is it not evident now that when- 
ever the flame of a substance burned gives the bright yellow 
line at D, sodium must be present? And whenever the very 
bright red line at C, or the line at F, or G, or H, or all of them 
appear, does it not show beyond all guess work, that hydrogen 
is present? And so with all the other elements which have 



218 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



their exact lines in the spectrum caused by exact reflective 
characteristics of their atoms. The reader must see by this 
time that this method of chemical analysis must be incomparably 
more exact than any other. As a proof of its delicacy, take the 
fact that the 200,000,000th part of a grain of soda can be detected 
by its means, or the 6,000,000th part of a grain of lithium, or the 
1,000,000th of a grain of strontium, or the 1,000,000th of a grain 
of lime! But incomparably smaller amounts still are really suffi- 
cient to distinguish each element. And yet a grain when 
measured out in water is only one drop! Does not the study of 
colors, then, open up a science to man, magnificent in its revela- 
tions of the minute, and minute in its revelations of the mag- 
nificent, taking the sun and stars to pieces on the one hand, and 
piercing far down towards the realm of atoms on the other? But 
not only does it reveal the potencies of matter, but ascends to 
the still grander empire of the soul, as we shall see hereafter in 
Chromo-Mentalism. 

II. The Spectroscope. 



1. In order to reduce these spectra of different substances to 
absolute system, with scales of measurement so that by com- 
parison the lines of the different substances can be determined, 
an instrument called the Spectroscope (fig. 166), has been invented. 




[h-rt:f..>C"]"ic 



The figure represents one of the best forms of the instrument 
as made by Steinheil of Munich. P, is a prism fixed upon the 
central iron stand. A, is a tube with a lens in the end near the 
prism, while the other extremity has a fine vertical slit for the 



METALS DISCOVERED BY THE SPECTROSCOPE. 



219 



admission of light. The width of this slit is regulated by the 
screw e. The stand E supports a Bunsen's burner, or sometimes 
a common gas burner in the flame of which the substance to be 
analyzed is held by a sliding rod which moves up and down on 
the stand s. This burner is placed opposite the upper half of 
the slit and sends its light directly down the tube to the prism 
P. On the other side of the slit is placed a small prism, the ob- 
ject of which is to reflect some other light, such as the artificial 
flame on the stand D, or the light of the sun through the lower 
half of the slit, which is also carried to the prism P. This brings 
the two spectra into the field at once, one being placed above the 
other so that any desired comparison can be made. Suppose, 
for instance, we wish to know if there is any sodium or lithium 
in a certain substance; by testing it side by side in one burner 
with that which is known to be sodium or lithium in the other, 
we can at once see whether the lines correspond, or differ. The 
light having been refracted by the prism P, is received and magni- 
fied by the telescope B, as it passes on to the eye. The tele- 
scope is capable of horizontal movement so as to take in every 
part of the spectrum formed by the prism. Another arrange- 
ment for facilitating the comparison of spectra is the tube C 
which contains a magnifying lens at the end nearest the prism, 
while at the other end it has a millimetre scale formed by trans- 
parent lines on an opaque ground, a reflection of which is thrown 
into the telescope from the surface of the prism. For this pur- 
pose, of course, a light must be placed at the outer end of the 
tube C. This illuminated scale is thus seen between the two 
superimposed spectra and the position of all lines can thus be 
accurately determined. 

2. A greater number of prisms are sometimes used to dis- 
perse the light more widely, but a more intense light will thus be 
needed to penetrate them with equal clearness. When in use, 
the instrument is covered with a black cloth to exclude the stray 
light 

III. Metals Discovered by the Spectroscope. 



The German chemist Bunsen discovered by means of the 
spectroscope, the new metal called coesium, meaning bluish gray, 
and another metal rubidium, from rubidus, dark red. He evap- 



220 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



orated 40 tons of the mineral waters of Durckheim and Baden 
and thus obtained 105 grains of chloride of Caesium. After- 
wards the eminent English chemist, Prof. Crookes, discovered thal- 
lium, while the two German chemists Reich and Richter discov- 
ered indium. Thallium from OaXXoq means a budding twig, from, 
allusion to the brilliant green line of its spectrum. The metal 
Davyum, called so from Sir Humphrey Davy, has lately been 
discovered by Serge Kern in the same way. It is a platinoid 
metal 

IV. The Spectrum. 

As already described, when the light of the sun or of white 
flame is passed through a prism, it is divided off into an oblong 
series of lines constituting its spectrum. This extends from the 
red to the violet and sends invisible rays of force far beyond 
each of these points, the coarser trans-red rays being at the 






— u L> (_ i> .-j 

Trans. Red fl « X C> > 






> M PQ i= 



► > a 



J ---n^Vjn^ 



AaBO -D 


7b f a v t. m ar 


o 














III 


1 


1 




I 


II 


1 




^1 






A 






^s^ 



















Heat, I Light Electricity. 

Fig, 167. The Solar Bpectnim. 



heat end of the spectrum and the trans-violet rays being at the 
cold end. Fig. 167 is copied mainly from the work on Spectrum 
Analysis by Prof. Henry E. Roscoe, F.R.S., with some of my 
own explanations attached. It will be seen that he has placed 
the culmination of heat considerably beyond the red, in fact just 
about where we might expect the thermo-ethers to come just be- 
low thermel on the atom. Prof. Robert Hunt represents it much 



THE SPECTRUM. 



221 



the same and has discovered several regions of heat in the trans- 
red which seem like islands, distinct and by themselves. This 
has been considered mysterious, but according to the preceding 
law of atomic spirals which places them in clusters, it loses its 
principle aspect of mystery. 

4. The Luminosity of the spectrum culminating in the yellow, 
diminishes rapidly on each side of it. Fraunhofer found by 
careful measurement, that if the greatest intensity of light as it 
exists in the yellow were expressed by 1000, orange would be 
640; medium red, 94; the outer red, 32; green, 480; blue, 170; 
indigo, 31; violet, 6. According to Vierordt, the comparative 
luminosity of colors may be represented as follows: Dark red, 
800; red, 4930; orange-red (very red-orange,) 27730; orange, 
69850; yellow, 78910; green, 30330; cyanogen blue, 11000; 
blue, 4930; ultra marine blue, 906; violet, 359; dark violet, 
from 131 to 9. This estimate makes the medium red and blue 
equally luminous. On any estimate the thermal colors are much 
more luminous than the electrical, taken as a whole. 

5. The Electricity of the spectrum, formerly improperly called 
their actinism or chemical force, has been traced out by Mr. 
Stokes, by careful experiments with the very sensitive substances, 
hydrogen and chlorine placed in water, and the culminating point 
which is given in fig. 167 is in the violet-indigo, or about where 
the indigo merges into the violet. Other substances, however, 
will evoke the greatest electricity to the right or left of this. 
Mr. Stokes made observations on the solar spectrum from A to 
W, and found that what he called chemical force in connection 
with his hydrochloric acid, dwindled down to almost nothing 
between Eb and F, where the blue-green commences on the one 
side, and at S, far in the trans-violet, on the other side. Does 
this signify that the real potency of the solar rays diminishes as 
they become finer in the trans-violet, contrary to the principle 
stated in Chapter First, XV.? No; it simply signifies that the 
invisible rays soon become too fine to act directly on coarser 
elements, or to be measured by ordinary instruments. Another 
point proper to be considered here, is, that this prominence, 
representing actinism as some have termed it, but which is more 
properly the realm of electricity, extends somewhat, though with 
highly diminished power, into the invisible rays which must con- 



222 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



stitute the thermal portion of the next octave of colors. Can the 
second grade of red, situated in the trans-violet, act with a power 
somewhat similar to electricity? Doubtless it can, as seems very 
clear from the nature of atoms. Electricity has a penetrating 
power, because of its narrow, pointed and swift streams of force. 
May not a fine thermal spiral become nearly as penetrating as 
the coarser grade of axial spirals which are the principle of elec- 
tricity? It must be so. For proofs that the various hues of 
blue-green, blue, indigo and violet, are grades of electricity, see 
Chapter Third, XXIX. In the strictest sense of the word, of 
course, the immediate trans-violet rays are not electrical, but 
rather a higher grade of thermism, a grade so fine as to convey 
but a feeble, if any, impression of heat to the outward senses. 
That these higher grades of heat and cold can be felt by certain 
persons, when in a specially sensitive condition, will be shown in 
the chapter on Chromo-Dynamics. As a proof of the increasing 
amount of heat as we go from the electrical to the lower ther- 
mal colors, I will quote the following statistics given by Sir H. 
Englefield, as ascertained from experiment: — 

The thermometer rose in the different rays as follows: 
In the blue rays in 3 minutes from 55 to 56°, or i° 
In the green rays in 3 " " 54° to 58°, or 4 

In the yellow rays in 3 " " 5 6° to 62 °, or 6° 

In the full red in 2l " " 56° to 72°, or 16° 

In the edge of red in 2* " " S&° to 73%°, or 15P 

Below the red in 2J " " 6i° to yg°, or 1S . 

This shows that there was 18 times as much heat effect pro- 
duced from the trans-red ray in 2V2 minutes as from the blue ray 
in 3 minutes. The violet ray, of course, has still less heat than 
the blue. 

V. Laws of Color and Phenomena of Spectrum Analysis. 



1. Notwithstanding the marvelous achievements in spectro- 
scopy by our scientists, the real potency of colors and some of the 
most important lessons of spectrum analysis do not as yet seem 
to be apprehended. Aided by the law of atoms, we shall see if 
we cannot understand some of the mysteries of this subject be- 
fore we get through with this, and the next chapter. Prof. Bal- 
four Stewart has deduced some very correct rules about the 



LAWS OF COLOR, ETC. 



223 



radiation and absorption of light and heat. One of his principle 
rules, however, is the following, which is generally true of chro- 
matic but untrue of achromatic colors: "Bodies when cold absorb 
the same kind of rays that they reflect when heated: Heat a piece 
of green or blue glass, which absorbs red rays, and its light when 
viewed in the dark will be found to be particularly red, being the 
kind of light which it absorbs when cold." This law is correct 
as applied to most chromatic substances, but how will it apply to 
white, black, or gray substances? The substance sodium reflects 
yellow when heated, but absorbs no color at all when cold, being 
white; in the same way potassium, lithium, barium, magnesium, 
zinc, tin, bismuth, silver, antimony, nickel, platinum and various 
other elements reflect, when heated, every variety of color, and 
when cold absorb none, being white. Again, the black sub- 
stance carbon absorbs all the colors when cold, but does not 
reflect them all when heated. The learned Professor seems to 
see a discrepancy in his argument and aims to mend it as fol- 
lows: — "Make a spectrum of the electric light after the manner 
already described and hold burning sodium between the electric 
lamp and the slit; it will be found to produce a comparatively 
dark band in the spectrum. Next, stop the electric discharge 
while the sodium is left still burning; the same band will now 
appear luminous, that is to say, the sodium, which being compara- 
tively cold when compared to the temperature of the electric 
light, stops one of the rays, gives out, when heated, this very ray 
on its own account. All these experiments tend to show, as a 
matter of fact, that bodies when cold or comparatively so, absorb 
the same rays which they give out when heated." In the above 
Prof. Stewart has fallen into the error of all scientists of the day 
so far as I know, that the intermediate sodium flame (or any 
other flame) "absorbs the same color which it emits." For 
absorbs the word reflects should be used, as a yellow flame or 
anything else which is yellow, can only be so by repelling instead 
of absorbing the yellow principle and the hotter it is, the more 
powerful is the repulsion. But I shall aim to make this principle 
clear under the head of Chromo Philosophy. We must reach 
the basic principles of force before correct laws can be evolved. 

2. Prof. Roscoe says: "Can we find out any relation between 
the spectra of the members of some well-known family, as of the 



221 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



alkaline metals, potassium, sodium, caesium and rubidium? Some 
questions as these naturally occur to every one. At present, 
however, this subject is in such an undeveloped state that the 
speculations are useless, because they are premature and the 
data are insufficient; but, doubtless, a time will come when these 
matters will be fully explained, and a future Newton will place on 
record a mathematical theory of the bright lines of the spectrum 
as a striking monument of the achievements of exact science." 
I think Prof. Roscoe is wrong in saying that "speculations on 
these subjects are useless," for it can be conclusively shown 
that the alkaline and other electro -positive metals belong to the 
thermal colors of the spectrum, that the more electrical substances, 
usually known as electro-negatives have great power in the 
electrical colors of the spectrum, etc., and that many other laws 
can be arrived at. 

3. Spectrum analysis and the knowledge of color-potencies 
if crystallized into a science, would become among the most won- 
derful studies of the day. During these thousands of years all 
substances have been proclaiming their leading qualities to man 
by means of their colors, and it is now quite time that he should 
open his eyes and see what they are. Spectroscopy, for all its 
remarkable revelations, is still young, and many of its facts have 
been thrown up pell-mell, like piles of stones, beautiful stones it 
may be, but yet unsystematized. I shall now make the attempt 
to arrange these stones into an edifice, and fondly wait for some 
future scientist to make this edifice far more complete- 

VI. The Spectrum of an Element. 



1 . Exhibits the colors which that element repels or reflects when 
under chemical combination, or other intense action, for a spectrum 
can be taken only when a substance is made luminous with heat, 
as in combustion, which is a process of chemical action, or by in- 
candescence. Thus sodium being yellow in the spectrum, must 
ever, when combined chemically, repel the yellow principle of its 
own grade. 

2. The ordinary color of an element when cold or isolated, 
or mixed unchemically with another element shows the feeble 
grade of repulsion which occurs in that state thus sodium be- 



CHEMICAL REPULSIONS AND AFFINITIES. 



225 



ing white in its cold or uncombined condition, repels all col- 
ors, though far more feebly than it repels the yellow when made 
luminous with heat, and if pulverized and mixed with the yellow 
of sulphur, the particles of each substance would be unchanged 
in color. 

3. The Potency of a Substance, as determined by its colors, is 
quite different in its cold unchemical state from that which is ex- 
habited in its spectrum, or when chemically combined: thus, the re- 
pulsion of gold, in its ordinary cool state, is in the yellow prince- 
pie, while in its heated state its strongest repulsions are for the 
yellow, yellow-green and orange, and potassium in its ordinary 
state, being white, repels all colors, while under great heat, its 
leading repulsion is for the red. 

VII. Chemical Repulsions and Affinities. 



While the Chemical repulsions of a substance may be deter- 
mined by the colors of its spectrum, Chemical Affinities may be de- 
termined by the same colors in harmony with the law already given 
(Chap. Third, XXXVII, 10). Thus the spectrum of sodium be- 
ing the D grade of yellow-orange, it must affinitize most strong- 
ly with some substance which has a prominent spectrum in the 
violet-indigo, although it must have a sufficient affinity for all the 
other colors which do not appear in its spectrum to absorb them 
and hide them from view. Again, the spectrum of silver shows 
that its greatest repulsions are for the yellow, yellow-green, and 
blue-green, consequently its greatest affinities must be for the 
violet, dark violet, and thermal, which facts, in connection with 
others that will be given hereafter, will explain why photographic 
paper, saturated with silver nitrate, is so sure to draw violet- 
grays and dark elements to itself when exposed to the sunlight. 
One more example may be given as a striking confirmation of 
this law of chemical affinity. Hydrogen gas, though exhibiting 
several colors in the spectrum, has a flaming red or very red- 
orange as its ruling color, which swallows up all the others as 
seen in its flame. It is admitted by scientists that the blue of 
the sky comes from the vapor of the atmosphere, of which, two 
atoms of hydrogen to every one of oxygen, are the constituents. 
But according to the principles of chemical affinity already ex- 
plained, hydrogen must form the encasing atom and consequent- 

15 



226 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



ly must give color to the vapor, while the colors of the oxygen 
are invisible, its color being encased in the hydrogen. Why 
then is not the sky red, in harmony with the spectrum of hydro- 
gen? Because the red elements of the sunlight, striking the hy 
drogen of the vapor, must necessarily be repelled by it, before 
they reach us (VI) while only the affinitive color of the red, 
namely the blue, can be transmitted to our eyes. (See XX of 
this chapter). 

VIII. White or Light-Gray Elements. 



Substances which in their ordinary cold or uncombined state 
have a predominance of white or light gray, partake most of the 
electrical condition, while those which under the same circumstances 
are black or dark gray have the thermal condition in excess. The 
reason of this is that the thermal colors which constitute a great 
share of the luminous or white principle will not allow the warm 
rays to enter, and thus white or light-colored substances, though 
possessing the greatest heat repulsions are, within themselves, 
really in a cold or electrical condition. By the same reasoning it 
is easy to show that while in black or dark gray substances, the 
electrical colors and perhaps also the trans-violet and trans-red 
are nominally the most active, yet their ordinary condition is more 
charged with heat than with cold. This principle, which is of 
great importance, and will more clearly appear in the paragraphs 
following, is founded on the law already shown that when ther- 
mal colors are repellent so as to become visible, their corresponding 
electrical colors are generally absorptive and consequently invisible, 
and vice versa. Thus when orange is visible in the spectrum 
the corresponding indigo will usually be invisible, and when violet 
is visible, the corresponding yellow will be invisible, etc. Experi- 
ments show that when a very small portion of some electrical col- 
or, especially blue, or blue-green, is combined with the thermal 
colors, white is the result, while the thermal colors alone includ- 
ing the yellow-green, will make a good approximate white. Again 
when the electrical and dark elements appear, the more luminous 
elements are apt to be absorbed and to become invisible. For 
this reason blue glass will absorb more heat and grow warmer to 
the touch than yellow glass, although blue is a cold color, a black 
substance will absorb still more, and a white one is the coldest of 



THE SPECTRA OF WHITE COLORS. 



227 



all. Snow, scraped ice, frozen carbonic acid, etc., are good ex- 
amples of the whiteness which often accompanies an electrical 
condition, although in many substances their whiteness does 
not manifest the grade of electricity which gives an especial 
sensation of coldness. Carbon, in its ordinary condition, is a 
good representative of black substances, being the leading ele- 
ment from which artificial light and heat are evolved. 

IX. The Spectra of White Colors. 



1. Elements which are white or approximately white, have a 
preponderance of thermal colors in their spectra and their potencies 
are those of heat rather than cold in all chemical combinations. 
This will be at once evident on looking at the spectra of alkaline 
metals which, in their ordinary condition, are white and silvery. 
These metals are potassium (bluish white,) sodium, lithium, 
barium, strontium, (light gray), calcium (yellowish white), mag- 
nesium, rubidium and caesium. The same is also true of the 
other white metals such as platinum, palladium, &c. To show 
that these principles are founded on facts and also to afford an 
inside view of the potencies of the various elements as revealed 
by the spectroscope, I have elaborated and condensed the fol- 
lowing tables from the experiments of such spectroscopists as 
Kirchhoff, Bunsen, Huggins, Angstrom, Thalen, Plucker, Mas- 
cart, Lockyer, and especially from "Watt's Index of Spectra," a 
work which combines the results of all the principal experimen- 
talists and which would be quite valuable had it been explained 
with a little more lucidity. Some authors seem to be afraid to 
make their points clear, for fear they will be considered unlearned. 

2. It may be well here to remark that spectroscopists have 
doubtless made some mistakes in using extreme heat for the alka- 
line and other metals in which thermism rules, as it should be re- 
membered that thermal colors require less heat to develope their 
activities than those which are electrical. It should be remembered 
too that it is no proper index of the chemical potency of gases, for 
instance, to put them under great pressure and then send the 
most intense electrical spark through them, for it is evident from 
the law of atoms that if we cause the color-spirilla? to vibrate 
violently with extraordinary heat, all colors will be reflected (re- 
pelled) by them and hence we shall have a continuous spectrum 



228 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



as is the case with incandescent liquids and solids. Below I 
have enclosed some of the colors in parentheses which do not 
appear in case of a moderate heat. 

3. I have represented colors of feeble intensity by the common 
Roman type, those of moderate intensity by Italics, those of con- 
siderable intensity by small caps, those of great intensity by 
LARGE CAPS, and those of the greatest number of intense 
lines by exclamation points (!). I will give their symbols, one of 
their more common or important compounds, and their weight 
(specific gravity), as compared with water, with the letters sp. gr. 

X. Spectra of the Alkaline Metals. 

Color when cold and uncombined, white. Thermal 
colors predominate in their spectra. 



Thermal Colors. 



Electrical Colors. 



Potassium (K, Kalium), (Potassa, K a O) * 

RED! (YELLOW). 

Sodium, (Natrium, Na. ( ) (Soda, Na,0). 

(Orange,) YELLOW-ORANGE! (Yellow- 
Green). 

Lithium (Li.), (Lithium hydrate Li HO). 

RED! Yelloiv-Orattge, Yellow-Green. 

Barium (Ba.), (Barvta, BaO). 

Red, RED-ORANGE, YELLOW, YELLOW- 
GREEN ! 

Strontium (Sr.), {Stronlia, SrO). 

RED, RED-ORANGE ! YELLOW.YELLOW- 
GREEN. 

Calcium (Ca.), (Lime, or Calcium monoxide, 
CaO). 

RED-ORANGE ! ORANGE,YELLOW, YEL- 
LOW-GREEN. 

Magnesium (Mg. Magnesia, MgO). 

YELLOW-GREEN I 

Rubidium, (Rb). 

RED-ORANGE t yellow-green. 

Caesium. (Cs). 

Red, ORANGE ! YELLOW-GREEN. 



Sp. gr. 0.865. 

(Blut Green,) Violet. 

Sp. gr. 0,973. 
(Blue-Green). 

Sp. gr. 0.594. 
(BLUE). 

Sp. gr. 1.5. 

(BLUE, VIOLET). 

Sp, gr. 2. 54. 

BLUE (INDIGO, VIOLET). 

Sp. gr. 1.578. 

(IND.-BLUE), VIOLET-INDI- 
GO, (DARK-VIOLET). 

Sp. gr. I-75' 

Blue. 

Resembles Potassium. 

Violet-Indigo. 

Resembles Potassium. 

Blue. 



*Potassium was formerly called the most electro-positive of elements by electricians, 
which is but another name for thermal. It has since been found that Caesium is the 
most electro-positive, then rubidium, then potassium, then sodium, etc. 



SPECTRA OF OTHER WHITE METALS. 229 

XL Spectra of other White or Light-Colored Metals. 



General Predominance of Thermal Colors. 



Thermal Colors. 



Electrical Colors. 



Aluminum, (Ah) (Alumina, ALp,). 
ORANGE, YELLOW t YELLOW-GREEN. 
Cadmium, (Cd.) (Cadmium Oxide, CdO). 
Red, RED-ORANGE, YELLOW ! YELLOW- 
GREEN. 
Silver, (Ag.) (Silver-Nitrate, AgNO a ). 
YELLOW! YELLOW-GREEN. 
Palladium, (Pd.) (Palladium monoxide, PdO). 
YELLOW 1 YELLOW-GREEN. 
Thallium, (Tl) (Thallium Monoxide, T1„0) 
Ydlom, YELLOW-GREEN 1 
Platinum. (Pt.) (Platimc chloride, Pt C) 4 ). 
YELLOW I yellow-green. 
Uranium (U) Uranic Oxide, U a O r 
Yellow-Orange, YELLOW I Yelltnv Green. 
Bismuth (Bi) (Bismuth Pentoxide, Bi a O ; ). 
AW, Orange.YELLOW, YELLOW-GREEN ! 

Zinc. (Zn.) (Zinc Sulphate, Zn SOJ. 

RED ORANGE, YEL.-ORANGE I YELLOW. 

Nickel (ni.) (Nickel Monoxide, NiO). 

Orange, YELLOW-ORANGE, Vellm/, YEL- 
LOW-GREEN ! 

Antimony, (Stibium, Sb) (Antimony trioxide, 
Sb a 3 ). 

Jied, YELLOW-ORANGE I YELLOW, Yel- 
low-Green. 

Mercury (Hg, Hydrargyrum) Sp. gr. 13.6. 

ORANGE, YELLOW ! 

Tungsten. (Wolfram, W.) (Tungsten triox- 
ide, WOJ. 

YELLOW ! YELLOW GREEN. 

Arsenic (As.) (Arsenic Acid, As 3 5 ). 

ORANGE, YELLOW I Yellow Green. 

Tellurium (Te) (Telluric Acid, Te0 4 JLJ. 

RED-ORANGE, YELLOW-ORANGE, YEL- 
LOW! YELLOW-GREEN. 

Molybdenum (Mo) (Molybdenum monoxide, 

MoO). 
YELLOW-ORANGE, YELLOW! 

Tin, (Stannum, Sn.) (Tin Monoxide, SnO). 

Red. RED-ORANGE, YELLOW! Yellow- 

Grten, 



Sp. gr. 2.56 to 2.67. 
BLUE. Dark Violet, 
Sp. gr. 8.7. 
BLUE. 

Sp. gr. 10.5. 
(Blue-Green). 
Sp. gr. 11 A 
Blut, Indigo. 

Resembles Lead in its properties. 
Blue. 

Sp. gr. 21.15 t0 2 '-S- 

Indigo-Blue. 

Sp. gr. 18.4. 

INDIGO-BLUE, INDIGO. 

Sp. gr. 9.9. 

Blue-Green, BLUE, Indigo. 

Sp.gr. 6. 86 to 7.1. 
BLUE-GREEN! BLUE. 

Sp. gr. 8.8. 

BLUE GREEN, BLUE. 

Sp. gr. 6.8. 

BLUE, INDIGO. 

[Hg.CLJ. 
(Mercurous chloride, (Calomelj 
INDIGO, Violet. 
Sp. gr. 17.6. 

BLUE-GREEN, Indigo. 
Sp.gr. 5.8S. 
Indigo — Blue, 
Sp.gr. 6.1 1. 

Blue, Violet 

Sp. gr. 8.63- 

Blue, Indigo. 

Sp. gr. 7.39. 

Blue-Green, BLUE. 



230 



chromo-chemistry. 
Spectra of White Elements Continued. 



Thermal Colors, 



Electrical Colors. 



Vanadium, (V.) (Vanadium dioxide V 3 a ). 
ORANGE ! YELLOW-ORANGE, YELLOW, 

Yellow- Green. 
Iridium and Ruthenium (Ir. and Ru.). 
Orange, Yellow. 

Rhodium (Rh.) (Rhodium monoxide, RhO). 
Spectra too faint to measure. Rhodic salts are 
Davyum, A platinoid metal, Sp. gr. 9.385. 
Red, Orange, Yellow, Yellow-Green. 



Slut-Green, B!ue t INDIGO, VieUt. 

Sp. gr. of Ir. 21.15, of Ru. 11.4 

Specific Gravity 10.6 to 11. 
generally rose colored. (Fowites.) 
Discovered, June 1877, °y Kern. 
Blue, Indigo, Violet. 



XII. Spectra of Black or Dark Elements. 

These, though normally in a thermal condition as has been 
shown, present, when combined in their spectra, either a predom- 
inance of thermal colors, from their belonging to the trans-violet 
grade of black in the spectrum, or of electrical colors, from belonging 
to the trans-red black, or a supply of both thermal and electrical 
colors from comprising both grades of black. Their most common 
potency is that of heat. 



Thermal Colors. 


Electrical Colors. 


Carbon (C.) (Carbonic Acid or Carbon dioxide 


Sp. gr. of charcoal, 1 .7 ; Diamond, 


CO.). 


3-5- 


YELLOW-ORANGE! (Yellow and Yellow- 


(Blue-Green, Indigo, and Violet- 


Green bands strongest). 


Indigo bands feeble.) 


Iodine (I. Blue-black.) (Iodic acid, I.Oj.H^O). 


Sp. gr. 4.946 


ORANGE, YELLOW-ORANGE.YELLOW ! ! 


Blue-Green, Blue. 


YELLOW-GREEN. 




Silicon, (Si) (Silica or Silex SiOJ Sometimes 


Sp. gr. of Silica, 3.66. Colorless 


dark brown, sometimes colorless. The fol- 


rock-crystals, quartz, flint, 


lowing is the Spectrum of Silicon Chloride 


agate, chalcedony, are nearly 


(SiCL). 


pure silica. 


RED-ORANGE; Yellow-Orange and Yellow- 


(Violet-Indigo bands). 


Green- Bands. 




Osmium, Os.) (Black Powder. Berzelius). 


Heaviest of Metals, Sp. gr. 21,3 




■ to 22.477. 


Orange, Yellow. 


Indigo-Blue ! Violet-Indigo. 


Tantalum Ta.) A black Powder . > 
Niobium or Columbium (N.) Do. ) 


Spectra o£ these two metals too 


feeble to be measured. 


Glucinum (grayish black Powder). 




Only 2 lines of the spectrum ascertained. 


Blue, Indigo-Blue. 



2. In the above spectrum of Carbon, the thermal colors are 
quite predominant; another spectrum of the same makes, the 



SPECTRA OF GRAY ELEMENTS. 



231 



electrical colors abundant. Iodine presents a blue electrical 
black, and so gives a powerful thermal spectrum according to the 
principles of chemical affinity, and yet the fact that it boils at 
347°F. with a beautiful violet vapor shows that it is capable of 
exciting electrical action. Its power to burn is well known. 
Silicon-chloride doubtless presents a partly correct idea of the 
spectrum of silicon itself, which is the encasing atom, although a 
portion of the yellow and yellow-green must come from the 
chlorine, from its plurality of atoms. 

3. It is quite evident that black substances are very apt to 
develope some style of heat, from their thermism, as for instance 
carbon, which developes the heat of flame and incandescence, 
iodine, black cantharis, etc., which develope the kind of heat that 
burns into the flesh, and black pepper, black mustard, black hele- 
bore, cloves, etc., which cause a burning sensation to the taste. 
Of course the red principle is a still more direct and positive 
manifestation of heat, as in the redness of burning coals, the red- 
ness of cayenne pepper (capsicum), etc. The grades of heat 
which appeal to the taste, etc., are too fine to be measured by the 
thermometer. It will be seen hereafter that transparent sub- 
stances being strong in both thermal and electrical forces, may 
develope heat and cold and all other styles of power. 

XIII. Spectra of Elements with Gray and Neutral 

Colors. 



Elements possessing a more medium and less positive class of 
tints, such as iron with its iron-gray, lead with its bluish-gray, 
etc., generally have both the thermal and electrical colors developed 
in the spectrum. The lead-like element Indium is a rare metal, 
and its spectrum as given below may be considered as imperfect, 
judging by all analogies. In arranging my different groups, I 
may at times commit some slight errors, as it has been imprac- 
ticable to have all the elements by me for comparison, and I 
have necessarily had to depend upon our chemistries in part for 
the description of their colors, which I find is not always en- 
tirely accurate. 



232 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



Thermal Colors. 



Iron,.(Ferrum, Fe.) (Ferrous oxide, FeOj. 
RED-ORANGE, ORANGE, YEL- 
LOW!!! YELLOW-GREEN! 

Lead, (Plumbum, Pb.} Sp. gr. 11.45. 

RED, Yellew-Orange, YELLOW ! YEL- 
LOW-GREEN ! 

Erbium and Yttrium (Eb. & Y.). 

ORANGE, YELLOW-ORANGE, YEL- 
LOW I YELLOW-GREEN- 

Indium, {In.) Lead Gray Color, 

(0nly3lines o£ the spectrum ascertained.) 

Zirconium, (Zr.) (Steel gray, etc.). 

ORANGE ! Yellow, Yellow-Green. 

Cerium, (Ce.) (Cerous Oxide, CeO). 

YELLOW, YELLOW-GREEN. 

Lanthanum, (La.) Has colorless salts. 

Yellow, YELLOW-GREEN. 

Didymium, (Di.) Has rose-colored salts. 
Yellow, Yellow-Green, 

Chromium, (Cr.) Dark-Gray. Sp, gr. 

6.8r. 
Yellow, YELLOW-GREEN! 
Manganese, (Mn.) (Manganese dioxide 

MnOJ. 
YELLOW-ORANGE, Yellow. 

Cobalt, (Co.) Red-gray. Sp. gr. 8.54. 
Orange, Yellow Orange, Yellow, 

Yellow-Green. 
Thorium, or Thorinum (Th.) Sp.gr. 7.9. 

Yellow. t 



Electrical Colors. 



Sp. Gr. 7.79. 
BLUE -GREEN, INDIGO-BLUE, 

INDIGO, VIOLET - INDIGO ! ! 

VIOLET. . 
(Lead Monoxide, or Litharge PbO). 
INDIGO, VIOLET-INDIGO, Viola. 

In dark-gray powders. 
BLUE-GREEN, Blue, INDIGO, Vro- 

LET. 

Marks paper like lead. 

BLUE, VIOLET. 

(Zirconia, ZrO, Sp. gr. 4.35 to 4.9). 

BLUE ! Indigo, Violet. 

(Cerium sulphate, CeSOJ. 

BLUE, INDIGO-BLUE 1 INDIGO. 

(Lanthanum Monoxide, LaO). 
BLUE-GREEN, BLUE ! VIOLET- 
INDIGO. 
(Didymium hydrate, DiH = 0,). 
BLUE-GREEN, BLUE, VIOLET- 



or Chrome Yellow, 



INDIGO. 
(Lead chromate, 

Cr0 4 Pb). 
Blue, INDIGO! 

Sp. gr. 7.13 to 8. 



BLUE-GREEN, BLUE ! Indigo-Blue, 

VIOLET-INDIGO, Violet. 
(Cobalt monoxide, CoO). 
BLUE-GREEN! BLUE, Violet-Indigo. 

(Thorium oxide, or Thorina, ThO) 
Blue-Green, INDIGO I 



XIV. Spectra of Elements with Positive Colors. 



Certain elements in their normal condition exhibit positive or 
chromatic colors. These colors belong to the thermal group, there 
being no positive electrical colors among the elements. These ele- 
ments include gold (yellow), copper (red orange), Selenium (red- 
dish brown), Sulphur (pale yellow), chlorine (greenish-yellow, or 
very yellow-green), titanium, (reddish), and bromine (a red liquid). 



SPECTRA OF ELEMENTS WITH POSITIVE COLORS. 



233 



When submitted to chemical or heat action as exhibited in the 
spectrum, they change their potencies according to the following 
laws: 

1. Their principal change is towards the finer end of the 
spectrum, including a grade of thermal colors finer than their 
own and more or less of the electrical colors, on the law of 
calorescence already explained. (Chapter Third, XXXIII.) 

2. The most rapid change towards the finer electrical colors, 
and the greatest chemical power occurs in the case of the ele- 
ments which approach to lightness and tenuity, according to the 
law explained in Chapter First, XV, as may be seen by examin- 
ing the spectra of sulphur, chlorine and bromine, as well as by 
investigating their chemical potencies elsewhere. 

3. The slowest change towards the electrical forces occurs in 
the heaviest metals of the group, gold being the heaviest and 
most feebly electrical, and copper next. 

The spectra of these elements are as follows: — 



Thermal Colors. 



Gold (Aurum, Au.) (Auric chloride, 
AuCL,). 

Orange, Yellow-Orange, YELLOW! 
YELLOW-GREEN. 

Copper (Cuprum, Cu.) Sp. gr. 8.96 

Red-O range, YELLOW, YELLOW- 
GREEN I 

Selenium, (Se.) Sp. gr. 4.3 

Red-Orange, Orange, YELLOW, YEL- 
LOW-GREEN ! (with orange and 
yellow-bands. ) 

Sulphur, (S) (Sulphuric acid S0 4 H„). 

Red-Orange, ORANGE, YELLOW!! 
YELLOW-GREEN I 

Bromine (Br.) (Bromic acid, BrO s H). 

Red, ORANGE, YELLOW I YELLOW- 
GREEN. 

Chlorine. (CI.) Sp. gr. *-47 

Okange. YELLOW I YELLOW. 
GREEN. 

Titanium, (Ti.) (Titanic Chloride.TlCL,). 

ORANGE, YELLOW -ORANGE! 
YELLOW !! YELLOW-GREEN I ! ! 



Electrical Colors. 



Sp- gr. 193 to '9-S- 

Blue, Indigo-Blue. 

(Copper Monoxide, CuO black). 
Blue-Green, Blue, Indigo, 

(Selenic Acid, Se0 4 H,). 

BLUE-GREEN! BLUE! (with Indigo- 
Blue, Indigo, and Violet-Indigo 
bands). 

Sp. gr. of roll sulphur, 1.98. 

BLUE-GREEN, BLUE 1 1 INDIGO- 
BLUE! INDIGO, VIOLET-IN- 
DIGO, (various bands). 

Sp. gr. 2.976. 

BLUE-GREEN, BLUE ! Violet-Indigo. 

(Hydrochloric acid, HC1). 

BLUE-GREEN I BLUE, INDIGO, 
Violet-Indigo. 

Sp. gr. of Titanic Chloride, 1.76. 

BLUE-GREEN, BLUE ! ! INDIGO- 
BLUE I! INDIGO, VIOLET-IN- 
DIGO, 



234 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



XV. Spectra of Transparent Substances. 

As Transparent Substances affinitize with and transmit the 
different grades of color, both thermal and electrical, * they present 
nearly equal amounts of both thermal and electrical colors in their 
spectra, the electrical power on the whole preponderating. This 
may be explained as follows: — While in their ordinary cool con- 
dition their spirillse attract into themselves all the color ethers, 
and pass them through, with some equality of power. When 
these same spirillse become agitated by heat or by chemical 
action, their motions are sufficiently violent and repulsive to re- 
flect a considerable part of the same color ethers which they be- 
fore received, and this intensity and quantity of reflected colors 
is great in proportion as the action is great. The following 
table gives the spectra of the three powerful gaseous elements 
of Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen, which are absolutely trans- 
parent so as to be invisible, as well as the solid element of 
Phosphorus which, in its pure state, is colorless and translu- 
cent: — 



Thermal Colors. 



Oxygen (O) (Water, OH,) the 
most abundant of earthly ele- 
ments, just as hydrogen must 
predominate in space. 

Red, Red-Orange, Orange, 
YELLOW, YEL.-GREEN. 

Hydrogen, (H) 14 j^ times as 
light as air. 

RED, or very RED-ORANGE 1 

Nitrogen. (N) (Nitric Acid, 
N,O s ). 

Red, Red-Orange, YELLOW- 
ORANGE, YELLOW 1 
YELLOW-GREEN. 

Phosphorus (P) (Phosphoric 
acid, PO t H 3 ). 

Red-Orange, YEL-ORANGE, 
YELLOW t YELLOW- 
GREEN. 



Electrical Colors. 



Sp. gr. (compared with air) 1.1057. Combines 
with all elements excepting Fluorine and is 
the most electrical of all- 

BLUE, INDIGO-BLUE! INDIGO, VIO- 
LET-INDIGO, Violet. 
The most volatile and thermal element. 

BLUE-GREEN, INDIGO, DARK VIOLET. 
Sp. gr. compared with Air, .9713. 

BLUE-GREEN, BLUE! (Blue bands) IN- 
DIGO-BLUE! (Violet-Indigo and Violet 
bands). 

Sp. gr. 1.77 to 2.14. 

BLUE ! (Bands in Blue, Indigo-Blue and Violet- 
Indigo). 



*The reader may ask how can a substance exhibit both the thermal and elec- 
trical colors simultaneously? It is not probable that the same line of atoms receives 
an equal charge of thermal and electrical ethers simultaneously. Let us take for 



TRANSPARENT FLUIDS. 



235 



XVI. The most Powerful Substances 

Are those which are transparent, from the fact of their com- 
bining both the thermal and electrical potencies. The following 
bodies, which are transparent, are adduced in proof: 

1 . Water is the most powerful single solvent in nature. 

2. The most powerful acids such as the Sulphuric (oil of 
vitriol), nitric, acetic, hydrochloric (muriatic), hydrocyanic 
(prussic), etc. 

3. The Alcohols and Drug-ethers including chloroform, etc. 

4. The most powerful Gases such as oxygen, hydrogen, etc. 

5. The Invisible potencies that permeate everything such as 
gravito ether, electro-ether, psychic ethers, etc. 

XVII. Transparent Fluids, 

Though abounding in both electrical and thermal potencies, have, 
as a general rule, a preponderance of the electrical character. 
This comes from the fact that transparent substances are such 
as can be polarized in various directions by the light, and in order 
to allow of this polarization the axial or electrical principle of 
the atoms must be active. Faraday has shown that oxygen stands 
at the head of the electro-negative bodies, and electro-negative as 
we have already seen is but another name of that which, in 
chemical combination, is really electrical. Nitrogen and Hydro- 
gen are also ranked as electro-negative, although the latter is 
placed next to the electro-positive and has its highest intensity 
in the thermal part. The electrical character of these gases may 
also be seen in the spectra of transparent substances, although 
hydrogen has a single red line of greater intensity than those of 
its electrical colors, which is a manifestation of its thermal power. 



instance, the atomic lines of the cosmic ether upon which the sunlight comes to the 
earth and in which as we have seen the lines are arranged conversely. The ethers 
for red, yellow, etc., sweep thermally through one line of atoms, while those for blue, 
violet, etc., sweep axially through the contiguous lines and both of these come side 
by side toward the earth in the day-time, but move with a more positive power from 
the earth at night. At night, however, they do not move with sufficient force to ignite 
the luminelles of the atmosphere, and consequently we have a condition of shadow. 
If the earth's efflux forces are not powerful even at night, they must be still less 
powerful in the day-time, for the solar currents moving in the opposite direction must 
more or less impede and draw into themselves the currents from the earth. 



236 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



In fact the spectroscope, aided by the principles which we have 
already seen to be true, will reveal the electrical or thermal poten- 
cies of substances better than the galvanic battery, as it shows 
just the grade of electricity or thermism. Thus oxygen has its 
leading potency, in that grade of electricity which develops the 
blue, especially the indigo-blue principle, while potassium has its 
leading potency in that grade of thermism which developes the 
A grade of red. It will be found in reviewing the foregoing 
groups of spectra of the elements, that the great general divisions 
harmonize with the arrangement which electricians have adopted, 
although the tests of color enable us to arrive more exactly and 
minutely at the true character and place of each element. I 
will quote the two groups of elements as arranged by electricians. 

2. Electro Negative Elements, in which the atoms are 
especially powerful in the axial or electrical principle com- 
mencing with the strongest: — 

Oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen, chlorine, iodine, fluorinz, phosphorus, 
selenium, arsenic, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, boron, car- 
bon, antimony, tellurium, columbium, titanium, silicon, osmium, 
hydrogen. 

3. Electro Positive Elements in which the atoms are on 
the average more wide-mouthed, more especially fitted for en- 
casing others, less electrical and more thermal, commencing 
with the strongest: — 

Caesium, rubidium, potassium, sodium, lithium, barittm, stron- 
tium, calcium, magnesium, glucinum, yttrium, aluminum, zir- 
conium, manganese, zinc, cadmium, iron, nickel, cobalt, cerium, lead, 
tin, bismuth, uranium, copper, silver, mercury, palladium, plati- 
num, rhodium, iridium, gold. 

4. There is occasionally a little discrepancy between the 
estimates made in connection with the galvanic battery and 
those in connection with the spectroscope, but I have generally 
found the spectroscope, even with its present imperfections, the 
more correct. Thus iodine is ranked among the electro-negatives 
by the electricians, and yet in its spectrum the thermal colors 
predominate, especially the yellow. Which is correct? Looking 
in the U. S. Dispensatory, (Wood and Bache,) Iodine is de- 
scribed as having "a hot taste," and as being "excitant of the 
vital actions, a diuretic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue," etc., all of 



TRANSPARENT FLUIDS. 



237 



which terms belong to the expansive character of thermal sub- 
stances as opposed to the electrical, as will be abundantly shown 
hereafter. 

5. The electrical character of the transparent substance 
water, has been fully shown by Faraday, although it can be so 
heated as to have thermism predominate. The two qualities, 
however, have almost an even balance, and this is not much of a 
point in favor of our position. 

6. The transparency of the powerful acids has been men- 
tioned. Are acids electrical or thermal as their leading charac- 
teristic? While acids have a certain amount of the thermal 
principle, as in the hydrogen which is, to a considerable extent 
thermal, and is an almost universal ingredient in them, or in the 
carbon in which thermism also is a somewhat characteristic, they 
always have the electrical principle, as in the oxygen, etc., 
more fully developed, especially if they have a distinctive acid 
character. They pucker the mouth, contract the skin, act as an 
astringent to the bowels, are cooling, quench thirst, etc., all of 
which show their electrical character. "Tannic acid is the chief 
principle of vegetable astringents." Acetic acid, tartaric acid, 
citric acid, etc., are by medical men called "refrigerants." I 
quote the following sentences from the U.S. Dispensatory con- 
cerning the more powerful acids, which are transparent. 

"Acids have a strong electro-negative energy." (p. 801.) 
"Sulphuric acid is refrigerant and astringent." 
"Nitric acid (diluted) is good in febrile diseases." 
"Hydrochloric acid is colorless and refrigerant." 
"Phosphoric acid is tonic and refrigerant." 

7. That acids may at times, by uniting with certain alkaline 
or thermal substances of the stomach or bowels, produce heat or 
a laxative effect is very true, but it is on the same principle that 
heat may be produced by a dash of cold water, in case the system 
has a sufficient amount of internal heat to react. 

8. The electrical nature of transparent acids may be deter- 
mined by chemical analysis; thus sulphuric acid as may be seen 
by its formula (H 2 S0 4 ) contains 2 volumes of hydrogen which 
is highly thermal, to 1 volume of sulphur and 4 volumes of 
oxygen, both of which last have an electrical predominance, 
although the sulphur is powerfully thermal also. By weight the 



238 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



electrical predominance in sulphuric acid seems more marked, 
for if we call the weight of the hydrogen 2, that of the sulphur 
will be 32, that of the oxygen 64. In nitric acid (HN0 3 ) the 
hydrogen weighs 1 part, the nitrogen 14, and the oxygen 48; in 
hydrochloric acid (HCL) the hydrogen weighs 1 part, and the 
cholorine in which electricity predominates weighs 35.5; in 
phosphoric acid, (H 3 P0 4 ) the hydrogen weighs 3 parts, the 
phosphorus 31, the oxgen 64. 

9. Alcohol (C 2 H 6 0) has evidently a preponderance of the 
thermal or fiery element from its amount of carbon, and espe- 
cially of hydrogen, although it has a goodly amount of electricity 
also. Hence it is called "a powerful diffusible stimulant," from 
its burning qualities. Chloroform (CHC1 3 ), from its amount of 
chlorine, has an electrical predominance and hence, from its cool- 
ing nature is pronounced "a sedative narcotic," (U.S. Disp'y). 
Ether (the common ethylic or sulphuric, C 4 H 10 O) is still more 
thermal than alcohol, from its increased amount of carbon and 
hydrogen, and is described as being "much more rapid in its 
effects than alcohol," and "very inflammable." 

10. Thus, although such transparent substances as hydrogen, 
alcohol and common ether have a predominance of thermism, 
the fact that oxygen, nitrogen, water, atmosphere, chloroform, and 
the powerful acids which are transparent, have a predominance 
of electricity, clearly proves our proposition with regard to the 
general electrical character of transparent fluids. 

XVIII. Transparent Solids. 



These are such as have been polorized and crystallized by 
electrical forces of such power as to make them, as a genera 
rule, exceedingly hard, as in the case of diamonds, glass, rock 
crystal, the purer kinds of flint, etc. Congealed water, in its 
softer and opaque form is seen in the snow; when harder and 
more intensely polarized as in ice, it becomes transparent. The 
finer color-electricities, such as sweep so freely through trans- 
parent substances, cause greater hardness than coarser grades 
of electricity which are weaker, and which penetrate opaque 
substance. An example of this may be seen in the finer and 
coarser grades of carbon as exemplified in the diamond and 
plumbago. 



CHROMATIC REPULSION. 



239 



XIX. Chromatic Repulsion. 



All substances while under chemical influence repel contiguous 
substances which have the same grade of color, and tend to 
stimulate them into greater activity. 
This is a principle of great and far reaching importance, and 

I invite the attention of the reader to the following proofs: — 

1. Dr. Newberry exhibited before the Liberal Club of New 
York a plant which was grown under the ordinary white light of 
the sun. This was interspersed over its leaves with red and 
green colors. Another plant of the same kind, grown under red 
glass exhibited a far greater predominance of the red principle 
in its leaves, while a plant grown under blue glass exhibited 
leaves of blue-green. 

2. I have concentrated upon chemically sensitive paper red, 
blue, violet-gray, orange-gray, etc., by means of red glass, blue 
glass, etc., aided by a lens. Why does the red glass produce a 
red impression, the blue glass a blue one, etc.? Because the red 
glass, for instance, transmits the red rays, and reflects or absorbs 
much of the other rays. These red rays drive before them and 
concentrate upon the paper the red luminelles of the atmos- 
phere with which they come in contact, and must do so from the 
fact that an object cannot be red at all, excepting as it repels (re- 
flects) the red elements. The same is the case with the blue 
and other colors. This law will apply also to the foregoing 
principle concerning vegetable growth. 

Since writing the foregoing I have perused the most valua- 
ble work by Robert Hunt, F. R. S., entitled "Researches on 
Light in its Chemical Relations," and find therein recorded sev- 
eral examples which prove the foregoing principle, some of which 
I will quote: — "It was noticed by Daguerre, that a red house 
gave a reddish image on his iodised silver plate in the camera 
obscura, and Mr. Fox Talbot observed that the red of a colored 
print was copied of a red color on paper spread with chloride of 
silver." "A paper prepared by washing with muriate of barites 
and nitrate of silver, allowed to darken whilst wet in the sun- 
shine to a chocolate color, was placed under a frame containing 
a red, a yellow, a green, and a blue glass. After a week's expos- 
ure to diffused light, it became red under the red glass, a dirty 



240 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



yellow under the yellow glass, a dark green under the green, and 
a light olive (blue-gray) under the blue" (p. 338). Seebeck also 
copied various colors on chloride of silver, Hunt copied colored 
maps, drawings, etc., and Niepce de St. Victor developed the 
yellow, red, blue, etc., by putting upon the plates the yellow, red, 
and blue elements to be intensified and copied by the same ele- 
ments of the sunshine. These colored sun pictures were named 
by the last, heliochromes. 

3. It will be fully shown hereafter that the red light and 
various other red objects stimulate the arterial blood which is of 
itself red, that yellow light and the yellow principle of various 
substances, although some red and orange also are active, stim- 
ulate the action of the nerves in which the yellow principle is 
predominant, being composed of sulphur, phosphorus, carbon, 
oxygen, hydrogen, potassa, nitrogen, etc.; that the blue light in- 
creases the blue principle of the body and renders it more elec- 
trical, etc. I will mention here as corroborative of my point a 
few drugs, with their established potencies, as given by Dr. 
Hartshorne's Conspectus of Medical Sciences, and the U. S. 
Dispensatory, and leave the fuller explanation for the Chapter 
on Chromo Therapeutics: — 

4. Arterial Stimulants: in which the red predominates as in 
red pepper (capsicum), ammonia (NH 3 ), in which the vivid 
red of the spectrum of hydrogen and the feebler red of nitrogen 
are active; alcohol (C 2 H 6 0), in which hydrogen rules, also 
blood-root (sanguinaria), pink-root (spigelia), red-cedar (juniperus 
virginiana), in which hydrogen rules; several oxides of iron in 
all of which red is pre-dominant, etc. 

5. Nervous and Cerebral Stimulants consist of the fine ex- 
pansive and repulsive principle of yellow as the leading principle 
which sometimes acts strongly upon the brain, as in opium (a 
yellow powder), Chloral hydrate (C 2 HCl3,OH 2 0) in which the 
yellow principle is especially strong in the spectrum of carbon 
and chlorine, and even in the oxygen, etc.; also upon the nerves 
of the stomach, expanding the ingesta and developing a reflex 
action of the nerve fluids in emetics such as lobelina (a yellowish 
liquid), the sulphates of zinc and copper, the spectra of which 
are prominently yellow, etc.; also upon the nerves of the gall 
bladder, expelling the bile (yellow) in such a cholagogue as 



CHROMATIC REPULSION. 



241 



podophyllum (mandrake), which is yellow, etc.; also in direct 
laxatives and purgatives which have an expansive and repulsive 
action not only upon the foeces, much of which are yellow, but 
upon the nerves of the visceral membranes, and include such 
substances as castor oil (yellowish), rhubarb (yellowish brown), 
sulphur (yellow), colocynth (both flowers and fruit yellow), aloes 
(greenish yellow), while in such mineral and saline cathartics as 
magnesia, magnesium sulphate (epsom salts), sodium sulphate 
(glauber salts), sodium phosphate, etc., the yellow color is decid- 
edly predominant in the spectrum. The leading difference be- 
tween emetics and purgatives is, that the former have more red 
and also act so rapidly on muscles as well as nerves, as to produce 
their repulsive motions mainly before leaving the stomach, 
while the latter do not get into full operation generally until they 
reach the bowels and some, aloes for instance, act mainly on the 
lower bowel (rectum). One reason why emetics act more 
rapidly and violently than purgatives, seems to be that they very 
generally combine more of the heating effect upon the blood, of 
the red or orange principle, with the nerve stimulating yellow 
principle, as in ipecacuanha, which has a red principle in it, 
sanguinaria (blood root), whose sap is orange colored and whose 
powder is brownish red, tartar emetic (tartrate of antimony and 
potassa KSbC4H 4 07,H 2 0), in which the red principle of potas- 
sium and hydrogen, as well as the yellow or orange principle of 
the antimony, carbon, potassium, etc., are prominent in the spec- 
trum, etc. The combination of the red principle with the yellow, 
reaching as it does the blood and muscular tissue as well as the 
nerves, causes generally an especially griping and drastic effect, 
both in emetics and purgatives as in gamboge (red-orange and 
yellow), black hellebore (rose colored flowers, yellowish white 
root), croton oil (pale yellow and reddish brown), etc. 

6. Stimulating substances which have an affinity for the 
nerves of the kidneys, known as diuretics, have yellow as their 
leading principle, although the red or orange is also a very 
strong principle especially in the more powerful diuretics, as in 
tartar-emetic (yellow, red and orange), dandelion (yellow flowers, 
brown root), copaiba (juice "yellowish red"), Indian hemp (yel- 
lowish brown root), potassium carbonate (red and yellow spec- 
trum), etc. 

16 



212 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



7. But the list of nerve stimulants could be extended almost 
indefinitely, including Emmenagogues, Escharotics (Caustics), Ru- 
befaciants, Diaphoretics, etc., all of which have the yellow prince- 
pie prominent, although these four last named, having more or 
less to do with exciting and warming the blood, frequently unite 
a large amount of the red and orange elements with the yellow. 

8. The method by which the blue and other electrical colors 
stimulate their own cold principle and subdue the heat, will be 
seen in the next chapter. 

9. It is proper to state here that Dr. Edward Newberry, of 
New York, as early as 1831, declared that yellow stimulates ner- 
vous action, pink, the nutritive system, etc., and that the color of 
walls, carpets, window-shades, etc., should be adapted to delicate 
and unbalanced persons. I am not aware, however, that, either 
he or any other writer has stated the law by which these effects 
are produced. 

10. Why is the yellowish acid called aquia regia (N0 5 + 
HC1) the only one which can dissolve gold and platinum? Why 
cannot the powerful acids which are not yellow in their predom- 
inating color accomplish the same result? Is it not because 
the yellow is repellant of the yellow, which color is thoroughly 
predominant in the spectra of these two metals? Chemists state 
also, that nitric acid, in its more diluted and yellow condition, is 
much more corrosive of many metals and of the human skin, 
than the more concentrated and transparent nitric acid. This 
shows the nerve stimulating power of the yellow. 

1 1 . Melloni affirms that all bodies have a chemical coloration. 
"If we paint a board of the seven prismatic colors or take, 
which is still better, seven pieces of cloth, of the same colors as 
the rays, and receive the spectrum upon them, we shall find, 
when all the rays fall upon their own color, that the color of each 
is considerably exalted. If we receive the spectral image upon 
a red ground, all the rays will suffer diminution in intensity, ex- 
cept the red, which will be increased. If on the contrary it is 
received upon a blue ground, the blue ray will become more 
intense, whereas all the others will, in different degrees, be 
diminished." 

12. One proof that colors stimulate and intensify other colors 
is the fact that substances which are hidden from the sun's rays 



CHROMATIC ATTRACTION. 



243 



grow dim and neutral in their color principles, as is the case 
with soil, or with objects far down in the sea where the light 
cannot penetrate. "Prof. Forbes and Mr. Couch have both of 
them remarked that the vegetables and animals near the surface 
of the sea are brilliantly colored, but that they gradually lose their 
brightness as they descend, until the animals of the lowest zone 
are found to be nearly colorless. Hence we see the dependence 
of marine animal and vegetable life upon the solar influences to 
as great an extent as over the surface of the dry land." (Hunt). 
Prof. Forbes made experiments by which he found but a very 
few testacea existed as low as 200 fathoms, while at about 300 
fathoms it was considered that animal life was extinct, the dark- 
ness being too great. Vegetable life ceases at 50 fathoms. 

13. Having ascertained the therapeutics of color repulsions 
as connected with the cruder elements of drugs, we may adopt 
the same potencies in a finer, safer and more penetrating form, in 
the elements of sunlight, straining the light through red glass 
for warming the arterial blood, through yellow glass for animating 
the nerves, through purple glass for animating the venous blood, 
etc. But this will be explained more fully in the next chapter. 

XX. Chromatic Attraction. 



All substances under full chemical action tend to attract, or 
combine in harmonious union, those elements whose colors form a 
chemical affinity with their own, or at least tinder a chemical ac- 
tion which is less complete, to unite their thermal principles with 
the electrical principles of substances in proximity to them, or vice 
versa. 

1 . The rationale of this law which reveals a multitude of mys- 
teries and sheds important light upon all styles of force, has al- 
ready been given in the Third Chapter, which should be perused 
in order to the best understanding of the following. It should 
be remembered from the conception of atoms there explained, 
that the thermel and blue-green constitute a chemical affinity, as 
also do the red and blue, the red-orange and indigo-blue, the 
orange and indigo, the yellow-orange and violet-indigo, the yellow 
and violet, and the yellow-green and dark violet. I will enume- 
rate a few facts in proof of the above law. 

2. Water. One of the most perfect chemical combinations in 



244 



CHROMO— CHEMISTRY. 



nature is seen in water. It is composed of hydrogen, whose rul- 
ing spectrum is red and warm, and of oxygen, whose ruling spec- 
trum is blue and electrical. So great is their affinity that they 
are swept together about 2000 times as close as when in their gas- 
eous condition. Having this beautiful union of contrasting ele- 
ments, it readily combines with alkalies and other thermal ele- 
ments by virtue of its oxygen, and with acids and other electrical 
elements by virtue of its hydrogen, being thus the most univer- 
sal of solvents. 

3. The Sky, as we have already seen, presents its blue ap- 
pearance by virtue of its aqueous vapor, which is only an expand- 
ed form of water. But why is the sky blue as long as hydrogen 
must be the coloring principle, being the encasing atom which 
in this case must cover up and hide the color effects of oxygen? 
By what pleasing law has nature caused this hydrogen to give us 
our celestial and soothing blue instead of sending us its own 
flaming red which, if permanently distributed over the whole sky, 
would drive us blind and crazy with its exciting character? By 
the law of chemical affinity. The reason why hydrogen flames 
are red and its spectrum is so strong in the red, is that it is re- 
pellant of the red elements and consequently must, according to 
our law, be attractive of its affinitive color, the blue. The sky, 
unlike most objects, does not get its color from reflection, but 
from transmission, the hydrogen attracting its affinitive blue more 
strongly than any other color, and passing it on from the sun to 
our eyes, meantime repelling the red elements towards the sun. 
Even on the side of the sky opposite the sun, we receive the blue 
portion of the reflected light. To get at the color of the sky 
more definitely, it should be an indigo-blue much diluted with 
white light to correspond with the so called red of the hydrogen, 
which is really a red-orange, and such we shall find to be the 
case when we look carefully. A traveller informs me that the 
Italian sky, so famous for its purity has a very perceptible indigo 
cast. 

4. The Ocean transmits its blue to our eyes on the same 
principle as does the sky, from the affinitive action of the 
hydrogen, meantime receiving a certain greenish tinge from the 
mineral elements with which its water is charged, thus making its 
general color in deep water, blue-green. 



CHROMATIC ATTRACTION. 



245 



5. Oxygen, whose predominant potency is in the blue and 
indigo-blue, has its most powerful affinities for elements whose 
spectrum has great intensity in the red, and red-orange, such 
as potassium, hydrogen, lithium, strontium, iron, zinc, etc. So 
powerful is its affinity for the red elements of the atmosphere 
that when it predominates decidedly in any compound, it has 
a great tendency to impart a red or orange hue to it. Thus 
while ferrous oxide (FeO) is pale green, ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ), 
which has half as much again oxygen, is crimson; chromium 
monoxide (CrO), is pale blue, chromium trioxide (Cr0 3 ) with 
three times as much oxygen, is red; manganese monoxide (MnO) 
is light green, red manganese oxide (Mn 3 4 ) is reddish brown, 
etc. Other highly electrical elements, in which blue is a ruling 
color, tend towards the red when very strong, thus sulphur tetra- 
chloride (SC1 4 ) is red-brown, and all acids which abound in 
the blue principle are tested by their facility in converting blue 
litmus into a red color. The influence of the oxygen in the 
lungs as it transforms the purple venous blood into the red arte- 
rial blood is well known and verifies our rule. 

6. Potassium and other alkaline elements, in which the red of 
the spectrum is predominant, tend towards the blue in combina- 
tions in which they rule, thus while K 2 is white, K 4 is bluish 
gray; ammonia (NH 3 ), combined with red litmus, turns it blue, 
and the alkalies generally, having their potencies in or near the 
red end of the spectrum, convert the same litmus into blue or 
indigo. 

7. Count Rumford wetted pieces of ribbon and parcels of 
magnesia with a solution of gold, in which, of course, the yellow 
predominates. Those that were exposed to the strong sunlight 
assumed a violet hue in a few hours, while those preserved in 
darkness remained unchanged. This shows the tendency of the 
yellow, under chemical action, to affinitize with the violet. 

8. The invisible thermel ray may be made visible by cobalt 
blue, which is nearly its affinitive color. By looking at the spec- 
trum of cobalt, it will be seen that blue-green is its strongest 
color. "Sir John Herschel has shown us that by looking at the 
spectrum with a cobalt-blue glass, we perceive a ray, called by 
him 'extreme red,' of a crimson color, below the ordinary red ray 
of the spectrum. Again, throwing the spectrum on paper stained 



246 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



yellow by turmeric, a ray of high refrangibility beyond the violet 
becomes visible, which ray is of a peculiar neutral color, and has 
been called the lavender (or violet gray) ray." (Hunt.) Thus, the 
fact that the yellow principle developes the invisible trans-violet 
best, while the blue-green developes the affinitive thermel better 
than other colors that have been tried, is a decided argument in 
favor of the red, having an affinitive attraction for the blue, and 
the violet, an affinity for the yellow. The sulphate of quinine, in 
which the yellow principle is powerful, and a green variety of 
fluor spar, etc., with more or less of yellow, are also used to ren- 
der the trans-violet visible, but are able to present to the eye only 
the blue part of this color, the red being of so etherial a nature as 
seemingly to escape ordinary vision. A greenish yellow glass, 
colored by uranium oxide, is also used for the same purpose, as 
well as a tincture of horse chestnut, etc. 

9. The Germination of Plants which has so long been a mys- 
tery, is another example of the action of color affinities. In the 
first place the germinating seed must be placed in the soil, away 
from the light, as it has been repeatedly shown by Prof. Hunt 
and others, that the luminous and thermal rays tend to destroy 
germination. As early as 1801, Victor Michellotti of Turin, 
stated, that "light, or that which comes from the sun" has a 
decided action on those germs which are exposed to it, that this 
action is prejudicial to them, causing total extinction of their life, 
if very intense. By understanding the law of atoms the cause of 
this seems to be apparent. The seeds or other germs of plants, 
are composed of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and perhaps nitrogen 
as their leading element. When the yellow rays strike the seed 
the same rays of the carbon and nitrogen repel them. When the 
red rays strike it, the red principle of the hydrogen and nitrogen 
repel them. In this way the leading constituents of the seed, 
when exposed to the luminous rays, have their repulsive energies 
aroused which throw off rather than receive the affinitive parti- 
cles that tend to increase their mass and thus constitute growth. 
Besides this, these heat rays evaporate the moisture that sur- 
rounds the seed and gives a scorching effect. When the seed is 
placed in the soil, the luminous and thermal rays cannot reach it, 
1st, because the soil, abounding as it does in thermal elements, 
repels them, and adly, the thermal rays are less penetrating 



CHROMATIC ATTRACTION. 



247 



than the electrical.* Prof. Hunt says, "Light prevents the ger- 
mination of seeds. Actinism (influence of blue, indigo, violet 
and trans-violet) quickens germination." How does actinism thus 
quicken it? The blue rays being able to penetrate the soil, are 
attracted by the red principle of the hydrogen of the seed and 
become more or less incorporated with it, while the violet rays, 
drawn on by the affinity of the yellow principle of the carbon, be- 
come incorporated with that element. But how can the carbonic 
acid of the air be driven into contact with the seed and be made 
to give up its carbon to form the new germ? In the first place 
we must remember that the seed absorbs hydrogen and oxygen 
in an aqueous form from the soil. Thus we have molecules of 
hydrogen and oxygen in the seed, and molecules of carbon and 
oxygen in the carbonic gas which the sunlight drives against the 
seed. The carbon, with its strong yellow and orange principle, 
has a powerful affinity for hydrogen with its strong indigo and 
violet principle, and breaking up its combination with oxygen, 
seizes certain atoms of hydrogen away from their atoms of ox- 
ygen, and thus we have oxygen freed on both sides, while the 
solidifying element of the carbon is added to the new germ. 
Some of the atoms of oxygen in the seed, thus set free, unite 
doubtless with atoms of carbon in a way to constitute carbonic 
gas and also become a part of the new germ. But how does the 
sunlight thus drive these molecules of carbonic acid into the 
plant? How are they to be propelled by the electrical rays such 
as blue or indigo or violet, whereas the yellow is its most natural 
principle of repulsion? The following seems to be the answer 
to this seeming enigma: the carbon of the air assumes the com- 
pact form of carbonic acid which exists in molecules of 2 atoms 
of oxygen to 1 of carbon, hence the blue principle of the latter is 
thus presented in abundance, acting upon which the same grade 
of blue in the sunlight repels it into the soil, where, reaching the 
new germ-plant, the carbon and hydrogen, from their powerful 
affinity for each other rush into union. 

We may see by the above why it is that vegetable growth 
contains finer elements than minerals, the former receiving much 
of its substance from the sunlight and atmosphere, which we 



*"It parait done que la lumiere retarde la germination, et c'est pour prevenir ce 
retardement, que les graines semees doivent etre couvertes de terre." Sennebier. 



248 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



have already seen (Chap. Fourth, VII.) consist of finer grades of 
matter than the grosser earthy substances. That the carbon 
of plants and the coloring matter of leaves, etc., come from the 
sunlight and air is generally admitted by naturalists. Prof. 
Fownes, in his chemistry, says that the "carbon dioxide (car- 
bonic acid) of the atmosphere is to supply to plants their carbon, 
these latter having the power, by the aid of their green leaves, of 
decomposing carbon dioxide, retaining the carbon and expelling 
the oxygen. The presence of light is essential to this effect, but 
of the manner in which it is produced we are yet ignorant." (p. 
167.) 

10. Chlorophyl, or the green coloring matter of plants, about 
which so much discussion has taken place, seems to find its ex- 
planation principally in the last paragraph (9). It is a waxy 
substance composed of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon combined 
in foliage much on the principle just described. If the reader 
will think a moment he will see that the result of this combination, 
under ordinary circumstances, must be green, for the oxygen, if 
not furnished in large quantities, must show its blue according to 
the principle of metachromism to be explained (XXII), and, the 
carbon its yellow, which combined of course make green. The red 
principle of hydrogen is covered up usually by the carbon, though 
in some plants it appears. Leaves grown under red glass will 
assume a red or reddish brown cast and will doubtless have an 
excess of hydrogen, or else an excess of oxygen whose affinitive 
action intensifies the red of hydrogen (see XXII, 4). Leaves 
that are detached or made lifeless by frost, cannot seemingly 
maintain the activity of their electric currents sufficiently to hold 
all their elements in close union, some of their hydrogen evi- 
dently escapes, leaving the carbon in the ascendency as signified 
by the yellow leaf, and sometimes the oxygen in predominance 
as signified by the reddish or red brown cast. In the daytime 
the growth and brilliancy of color of the leaves are greatly pro- 
moted, as the thermal colors unite with the electrical in propel- 
ling the carbonic acid against the foliage, in which the affinitive 
hydrogen seizes the carbon away from its associated oxygen, 
which latter is thus, in part, set free. Thus beautifully do nature's 
affinities and repulsions work to supply the great breathing world 
of human and animal life with the vitalizing oxygen, at the very 



CHROMATIC ATTRACTION. 



2. 19 



same time that it withdraws the noxious carbonic acid gas, or 
rather decomposes and then recomposes it in more delightful 
forms and colors. At night these processes, to a great extent, 
cease, although the upward movement of the earth's electricities 
which predominate at that time must carry some small portion 
of the carbonic acid of the atmosphere into the leaves. 

1 1 . The wood and bark of trees come principally from the 
same combination of hydro-carbons which are absorbed affini- 
tively from the propulsive power of the sunbeams, although the 
oxygen and hydrogen of the juices and saps, together with certain 
elements which they hold in solution, are absorbed from the soil by 
the roots. The oxygen and carbon predominate over the hydrogen 
in the lignin (C 18 H 30 O 15 ), and other woody fibres, hence the 
lack of the blue coloring principle. The bark is composed very 
much of the same materials as the interior portion, but seems of 
too coarse a grade to be driven inside of the wood by the sun- 
light, or to form so complete a chemical combination as the in- 
terior ligneous part. The proof of this is 1st, that the bark is 
amorphous and a non-conductor of heat and electricity; 2dly, the 
carbon of the bark often appears in a dark or almost black state 
characteristic of this substance when not combined chemically, 
while the carbon of the interior is so chemically active as to as- 
sume more or less of its characteristic yellow, being polarized 
longitudinally and otherwise. This beautiful arrangement of 
porous and amorphous bark, protects the inner life of the tree 
or plant by shutting out the external cold and shutting in the 
internal warmth. Tyndall found that wood conducts heat lon- 
gitudinally from 3 to 5 times more powerfully than does the 
bark from the inner side outward. 

12. "Decandolle succeeded in producing the green color of 
leaves by the strong light of lamps, which we know give out a 
much larger quantity of yellow rays than any others: cones- 
quently it was inferred that light was necessary to the produc- 
tion of chlorophyl. Dr. Daubeny, however, obtained no result 
from the action of incandescent lime, which emits a much purer 
white light, producing also chemical effects in a marked manner." 
(Hunt.) Here we have a striking proof of the truth of the fore- 
going principles which easily explain the seeming anomaly. We 
may deduce the following points therefrom: 1st, it is not simply 



250 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



the yellow principle which helps form the green of chlorophyl, but 
a special grade of yellow; for the light of lime (calcium) itself 
has a brilliant grade of yellow as will be seen by the spectrum, 
and yet it cannot manufacture chlorophyl; 2dly, as the light of 
the lamp gets its yellow color from carbon and is successful in 
forming the green of foliage, it shows at once that this element 
gives the grade of yellow which constitutes a part of this green, 
for carbon yellow can be repelled only by carbon yellow, accord- 
ing to the law already stated (XIX,) so we see at once how the 
carbon flames of the lamp can repel the molecules of carbonic 
acid into the foliage, just as the carbon grade of solar ethers can 
do the same thing, only much more powerfully; 3dly, the car- 
bon grade of yellow-orange, yellow, and yellow-green must form 
a more direct affinity with the hydrogen grade of indigo and 
violet, than the yellow of calcium or other elements, otherwise 
these other elements would seize upon the hydrogen of the leaves 
more powerfully than carbon itself and thus crowd it out. 

13. Flowers require great activity of the red or extreme ther- 
mal principle on the one hand, and of the blue or electrical prin- 
ciple on the other, before they or their reproductive principle 
can be produced. The red principle comes more directly, doubt- 
less from the warm hydrogen as acted upon by an abundance of 
the rubific oxygen on the law of metachromism (XXII). "The 
heat radiations corresponding with the extreme red rays of the 
spectrum," says Professor Hunt, "facilitate the flowering of 
plants, and the perfecting of their reproductive principle," (in 
forming seeds, etc.). Priestley, Scheele and Ingenhousz have 
shown also that flowers consume more oxygen than any other 
portion of the plant." Saussure has shown that "flowers will not 
be developed without oxygen; that so far from giving out oxygen 
when exposed to sunshine in larger quantities, as leaves do, they 
consume even more oxygen than before." 

14. Why do many flowers incline towards the sun? Hunt 
ascertained by means of experiments through different colored 
glass that yellow rays cause flowers to turn toward them while 
red rays repel them in the opposite direction. May not this be 
accounted for on the law of chemical affinity, the violet principle 
of the hydrogen especially attracting the yellow principle of car- 
bon that sweeps along in the solar rays, while the red principle 



CHROMATIC ATTRACTION. 



251 



of hydrogen, being its most active element, would be repelled 
by a similar red principle? 

15. The harmonic contrasts of flowers in nature are brought 
about by the law of chromo-chemical affinity, as already stated. 
The affinities of red and blue, however, are less harmonic than 
those of red and green. Has nature made such a blunder as to 
establish a chemical affinity between two colors which are more 
or less discordant to the eye? Does not the blue principle of 
oxygen, it may be asked, ever tend to combine with the red prin- 
ciple of hydrogen, potassium, etc.? Yes, but not in such a way 
as to make discord to the eye; thus oxygen and hydrogen are 
combined in such a way as to form the beautiful transparent sub- 
stance water, or the white substance of potassa, etc. When the 
three elements of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon are combined, as 
they are in a vast number of substances, including leaves, flow- 
ers, woods, etc., nature uses very cunning devices to bring about 
harmony of color. Thus in the realm of flowers we have seen 
that the red or hydrogen principle is very marked. Does nature 
make the blunder of letting the blue element of oxygen rule 
among the leaves and thus create a discord with a majority of 
flowers? No, the carbon is brought in with its yellow principle 
and the foliage is thus converted into a beautiful green, the har- 
monic contrast of red. Various plants are made to combine red 
and green on their leaves, many flowers such as pansies, violets, 
heliotropes, primroses, gladiolus recurvus, etc., have yellow 
centers and violet leaves, or yellow-green centers and red violet 
leaves. The belladonna purpureus has a violet stem and light 
violet and yellow petals, the painted tritonia has a violet stem 
and yellow flowers, the rosy habranthus has rose-colored petals 
with green center, the babiana angustifolia has brilliant blue 
graded off into pink, the spiked speedwell has indigo-blue petals 
and yellow-orange anthers, while almost all flowers present some 
element of affinitive harmony, although a large number are 
dressed in white, a color which harmonizes with all other colors 
and contains a variety of potencies. 

16. The Laws of Vision afford a fine confirmation of affinitive 
attraction in colors, as Chevereul, Sir David Brewster and others 
have shown, that when a vivid color is looked upon awhile, and 
then the eye closed, the contrast of this color will appear. It 



252 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



will be shown in the chapter on Vision, that there are multitudes 
of nervous filaments connected with the optic nerve, through 
which the various colors are attracted, on the law of chemical 
affinity, a red filament, for instance, receiving its affinitive blue 
color of the sunlight, a filament with a violet potency receiving 
the yellow, etc. This is in harmony with all laws of color com- 
bination, and will at once explain chromatic phenomena about 
which very absurd theories have been formed. In the following 
account of a careful experiment given by Sir David Brewster, 
almost the exact color affinities are presented, which have already 
been given in the foregoing matter, the law being that when an 
orange color is seen with an open eye, it is because it has been 
received through the nerve filaments that have the indigo poten- 
cy, which being thrown into rapid vibration thereby, will be apt 
to convey the impression of indigo upon the sensorium when the 
eye is closed, and so with the other colors: — 

"I took advantage of a fine summer's day when the sun was 
near the meridian, and formed upon a white ground, a brilliant 
image of his disc by the concave speculum of a reflecting tele- 
scope. Tying up my right eye, I viewed this luminous disc with 
my left eye through a tube, and when the retina was highly ex- 
cited, I turned my left eye to a white ground and observed the 
following spectra by alternately opening and shutting it: — 



Spectra with left eye open. 
Pink surrounded with green. 
Orange mixed with pink (red- 
orange). 
Yellowish-Brown. 
Yellow. 
Pure red. 
Orange. 



Spectra with left eye shut. 
Green. 

Blue (Indigo-blue). 
Bluish Pink (red-violet). 
Pinkish-blue (violet). 
Sky blue. 
Indigo. 



In the above a slight error results in the first line, from the fact 
that two colors stand together. Pink is virtually red, mixed with 
a little white, but below, where he viewed the pure red alone, he 
gives sky blue as the subjective color-effect when the eye was 
closed. The subjective color for yellow he calls "pinkish blue," 
which is but another name for violet — that for "orange mixed 



CHROMATIC ATTRACTION. 



253 



with pink," which is another way of describing red-orange, he 
finds to be "blue," but as he has called that for pure red, blue, 
this evidently must be a different shade of that color, and so I 
have considered it indigo-blue in harmony with my affinitive 
scale. The words in parentheses are my own. 

17. Inflammatory conditions of the human system and an excess 
of arterial blood come from too great a predominance of the red 
or heat principle, and according to the law of chemical attraction, 
those substances which contain a goodly share of the blue will 
tend to blend in affinitive cooling and harmonious action with 
such conditions. Some of the cooling or anti-inflammatory sub- 
stances are as follows: 

Aconite, "flowers dark violet-blue" — "lessens the pulse." 
Flax-seed (Linum) — "flowers blue, seeds brown externally, 

internally yellowish white — emollient and demulcent." 
Prussian Blue — "A tonic and febrifuge." 
Sage (Salvia), "blue flowers," "soothing in fever," etc. 
Dilute Sulphuric Acid. The blue of its oxygen and sulphur 

predominant. "Tonic and refrigerant." 

18. Nervines, Anodynes, etc. Inasmuch as nervous excitement 
is aroused by the yellow principle aided by the orange and red, 
so the opposite principle for soothing the nerves must come from 
its affinitive violet principle, aided by the indigo and blue. Some 
examples are as follows: — 

Digitalis purpurea (Foxglove) — "has purple flowers, green 
powders — is narcotic and sedative." 

Belladonna, "purplish stems, violet colored juices, reddish 
brown root" — "is powerfully narcotic, diuretic," etc. 

Potassium bromide, has certain soothing effects from the blue 
and violet indigo of bromine, and the violet of potassium — has 
also some irritating effects from the red of potassium. 

Aconite, "violet-blue flowers," "nervous sedative and anodyne." 

19. Astringents. We have seen that laxatives, purgatives 
and emetics have a predominance of the yellow principle, and, 
especially when drastic and exciting, a certain amount of the 
orange and red; in other words they appeal to the nerves and 
tissues in a repellant and expansive way, and consequently, must 
be thermal in their nature. It is quite evident, then, that the 
affinitive principles of violet, indigo and blue must have the 



2>! 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



balancing, soothing and cooling electrical properties to offset this 
effect. To prove that such is the case, as ascertained by medical 
practice, I quote a few drugs, asking the reader, however, to 
remember that the blue and violet atoms are sometimes so covered 
up by the encasing red and yellow atoms that a few substances, 
especially those which are red, or dark red, or yellowish, or reddish 
brown, may, contrary to their external appearance, be predom- 
inantly electrical, as is the case with tannic acid, kino, etc.: — 

Geranium. "Flowers violet, root umber brown, internally 
reddish gray," "a powerful astringent." 

Lead (blue gray) with its salts, strong in indigo, or violet in- 
digo: "Sedative and astringent." 

Acids, in which oxygen figures with its powerful blue, indigo- 
blue and violet-indigo potencies. 

Galls, (galla). The best are externally of "a dark bluish or 
lead color," "internally whitish or brownish — with powder of 
yellowish gray." "Astringent." 

Pure Tannic Acid (C27H22O17), is a very light bluish yellow. 
"The chief principle of vegetable astringents." It may seem 
singular that tannin apparently departs from the more common 
rule, by being strong in thermal qualities, but when we remember 
that oxygen is the most intensely electrical of all elements when 
in combination, that hydrogen is also powerful in the blue- 
green, indigo and violet, and carbon itself has a considerable 
eletrical potency, we may more readily understand this seeming 
anomaly. Besides this the electrical potency of a substance it- 
self becomes much more active by union with a fair amount of 
thermism as shown from the nature of atoms. 

Alum, (A1K(S0 4 ) 2 ) bluish and translucent. "Astringent," 
"allays nausea and vomiting" in small doses. 

Kino — "dark red color" — "astringent." 

Logwood — has "blue-black variety of tannin" — "astringent." 

There are conditions of the system in which the electrical 
colors themselves act with heating, or laxative, or emetic power, 
but this power does not reside in the electricity itself, but in the 
thermal elements within, which are stimulated to new action 
thereby. 

20. Affinitive sunlight. Having ascertained the affinitive 
character of the colors in the coarser drug elements, we may be 



CHROMATIC ATTRACTION. 



255 



assured, from the infinite unity of nature's laws, that the same 
principles rule in the material of sunlight, for as we have already 
seen, the different colors of the sunlight result from actual ma- 
terials, as well as from vibrations. When a human system has 
a predominance of nervous and vascular excitement, sunlight 
strained through violet, or blue, or indigo colored glass, has a re- 
markable affinity for such conditions, and brings about harmony 
and health in the suffering patient, as will be seen in cases of 
neuralgia, nervous irritation and inflammatory diseases, which will 
be enumerated in the chapter on Chromo-Therapeutics. Dr. 
Ponza, Director of the Lunatic Asylum at Alessandria, in Pied- 
mont, cured madmen by placing them a short time in a blue or 
violet room, the glass and walls being of the same color. Madmen 
generally have the yellow principle over-active in their excited 
nerves and the red principle too violent in their heated blood, hence 
the philosophy of employing the affinitive blue and violet for bal- 
ancing conditions. One of the doctor's patients "affected with 
morbid taciturnity, became gay and affable after three hours stay 
in a red chamber; another, a maniac who refused all food, asked 
for some breakfast after having stayed twenty-four hours in the 
same red chamber." This is another verification of our prince- 
pie, and tends to show that harmony cannot be brought about until 
nature's affinities are satisfied. A despondent, atonic condition, 
is very apt to result from an excess of venous blood, in which 
the blue principle predominates, hence the importance of red 
light in such cases. These different colored rays may be passed 
down upon a person through red, blue, violet or other colored 
glass, according to the condition of the system. Violet rays 
would be unequaled as a nervine if they could be obtained pure, 
but as this color is too exquisite for any known materials to im- 
part exactly, some shades of blue glass, as will be explained in 
the next chapter, will transmit both violet and blue. 

21. Photography. Photographic paper, which is coated with 
silver nitrate, reveals the affinitive action of sunlight upon this 
sensitive salt of silver. What are the colors which, under chem- 
ical action, should be attracted from the sunlight into silver? 
We see by the spectrum of silver that the yellow is the ruling 
color and yellow-green is also very active. The affinities of 
these would be violet and dark violet, reaching somewhat into 



256 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



the shadowy trans-violet. Prof. Robert Hunt has shown the strong 
chemical action of silver upon the dark trans-violet section of 
the spectrum. Does not this show at once why it is that when 
silvered paper is exposed to the sunlight it immediately receives 
a coating of dark violet-gray, attracting not only the violet ele- 
ments but the dark rays above the violet? When a sufficient 
quantity of these violet and sombre rays are thus deposited, it 
becomes dark, and finally almost black. As long ago as 1801, 
Ritter found that "the chloride of silver darkened rapidly be- 
yond the violet extremity of the prismatic spectrum; in the 
violet ray it was less darkened, still less in the blue; below which 
ray the power of darkening diminished rapidly." (Hunt.) Some 
facts showing that Shadow is an entity are given in Chap. Fourth, 
XVIII. 

22. Homeopathy. Truth demands, in connection with this 
principle, that I should say a word in favor of Homeopathy, and 
also a word in criticism of its fundamental principle as explain- 
ed by its followers. Hahnemann seems to have "built wiser 
than he knew," in the practical applications of the exquisite 
forces of nature, as the process of triturating a drug and bring- 
ing its atoms abundantly into collision with the subtile elements 
of the atmosphere, enables it, by chemical affinity, to attract to 
itself a grade of potencies far finer and more penetrating than 
those connected with the drug in the crude form. (See Chap. 
First, XV, and Chap. Fourth, VII, 3.) And yet in his theory 
of similia similibus curantur he goes counter to one great law of 
nature which is, that all free interaction of molecules of various 
kinds, develops more or less of chemical union, and chemical 
union is never a combination of similars, but always of dissim- 
ilars. If, then, the drug by being triturated attracts a contrast- 
ing element, a red principle in the drug for instance attracting a 
blue element from the atmosphere, which becomes more and 
more potent by being well triturated, how can it be said that 
this blue element has the same kind of potency with the orig- 
inal red drug, and will develop a similar disease or similar thera- 
peutical effect? Let us take a case in actual practice. We 
wish to cure a certain man whose face is flushed with the red 
heat principle, his system is inflammatory generally, and his 
arterial blood over active and on fire. Now to attempt to cure 



CHROMATIC ATTRACTION. 



257 



such a case by applying the red drug direct would be like 
adding fire to fire, for we have already learned how completely 
every color tends to stimulate and increase its own grade of 
color. Here then comes the advantage of trituration which at- 
tracts the delightful and cooling blue principle as the bal- 
ancing element, and our patient finds relief, so that disease 
is cured not on the similia similibus plan, but rather on the 
law of similia dissimilibus. This is really a philosophical 
method of reaching a true law of cure, for disease is generally a 
one sided condition of things that requires the other side as an 
affinitive principle to secure the harmonious equilibrium which 
means health, and if we find a drug which in its crude state will 
produce a disease similar to one that a patient may have, we 
find one which, when diluted and well triturated, will act on the 
opposite principle and tend to balance and destroy it. Homeo- 
pathy, then, in reality, employs the principle of similars only as a 
starting point to arrive at the principle of dissimilars. By the 
term dissimilars I do not mean contraries, but rather contrasts, 
complements, chemical affinities. (See Chap. First, XXIX, etc.) 

A case like the following may seem to justify the Homeo- 
pathic principle. An invalid of quite a different type from the 
one whose example I have already given, is to be treated. He is 
pale, emaciated and cold, especially in his extremities, and is 
overstocked with the blue instead of the red principle, having blue 
veins, blue eyelids, and bluish finger-nails, and being especially 
deficient in oxygen, a great leading rubific element. This con- 
dition is more common with women than with men, especially 
as their blood is more poorly oxydized from their in-door life, 
and being deficient in oxygen cannot well attract the affinitive 
red of the hydrogen. Our patient, we will say, has a cold, dor- 
mant system generally, but the gastric membrane happens to be 
too hot and consequently is inflamed. What shall be done for 
him? Our other patient could have endured the blue light over 
the whole body, or cold baths or a cool wet compress over his 
gastric membrane, but this one has no heat to spare, and should 
be treated on quite another plan. He might receive advantage 
from the blue glass over the stomach, where the heat is, but not 
elsewhere, unless it be the head. Cold water should not be used 
even over the inflamed locality, for his system is already nearly 

17 



258 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



paralyzed with the cold principle. A hot compress or fomentation 
would evidently be suitable, for then the thermal meeting the 
thermal would repel heat to other parts of the system, on the 
principle that "similars repel." Is this, then, on the homeo- 
pathic principle? Apparently so for it is meeting heat with heat. 
With a little closer examination, however, we find that the 
reason heat is better, is because the system generally is cold, 
and we are really meeting cold with heat, to do which the most 
effectually, the limbs and extremities should also be warmed 
with red light, red flannels, or with the friction of a warm 
hand, or at times with water as hot as can be endured for the 
feet, ending off with a brief dash of cold water. "But ah!" 
says the objector, "you advocate some cold water for a cold 
after all, and must come over to the similia similibus plan at 
last." Let us see again. The brief cold dash or sprinkle suc- 
ceeds the longer hot bath on two accounts; 1st, in order to 
close the pores by means of the contracting principle of 
cold, and thus shut the heat in, and 2dly, to produce a heat 
re-action by appealing to the interior thermal principle with 
the electricity of cold water, with the understanding however, 
that if the patient is so very cold and lifeless as not to be able 
to get up this re-action it must be used very sparingly or not 
at all. Thus we see that all nature in action tends towards 
this ubiquitous law of chemical affinity which is of supreme 
importance as being the balance wheel of the universe, for with- 
out it there would be nothing to prevent the forces of nature from 
rushing to the most violent extremes and working universal 
ruin. Homeopathy, then, deals with similars only so far as will 
enable it to find a drug around which to collect a dissimilar 
principle through trituration and chemical affinity with the fine 
elements of the atmosphere as a balancing principle by which it 
may bring about harmony to diseased human systems. Consid- 
ered in this light, it has much that is philosophical and beautiful, 
but considered in the light in which its followers are quite apt 
to represent it, it would be baneful in its effects.* These re- 



*Hahneman states as confirmatory of the Homeopathic principle that "burns 
are cured by approaching the fire, frozen limbs by the application of snow or very cold 
water; inflammations and contusions by distilled spirits," etc. This is plausible, but 
simply shows that heat repels heat as in the using of heat rays to soothe a burn, or 
alcohol to check an inflammation, and those who have studied the working of atoms 



THE MATERIAL OF SUNLIGHT. 



259 



marks are not made for the sake of criticising homeopathy, but 
to show its advocates that they really practice on a grander prin- 
ciple than they claim for themselves. 

XXI. The Material of Sunlight. 

1. We have already seen from abundant facts and deductions 
that the different colors of sunlight consist not only of fine solar 
ethers of different grades, but of the vibrations of atmospheric 
and other atoms through which they pass. Having learned then 
that the solar ethers are substances subject to chemical repul- 
sions and attractions equally with all other substances, capable of 
being collected on chemically prepared paper or plate, and con- 
sisting of several fine grades of heat and several fine grades of 
electricity, with the superiority over other kinds of heat and 
electricity of being of the right fineness to ignite the atmospheric 
luminelles, and thus give us the all revealing power of light, it is 
proper now that we should take this light to pieces and see what 
it is made of. This, strange as it may seem, is possible to do, 
after having acquired the philosophy of the solar forces, aided by 
the revelations of the spectroscope, for each one of the Fraun- 
hofer lines displayed by the spectroscope signifies the presence 
of some particular element. Thus the D grade of yellow-orange, 
more commonly called yellow, signifies the presence of sodium, as 
no element in the whole world, except sodium, is able to give the 
double sodium line called D. The C grade of red-orange, corn- 
will see that the reactive law of heat brings a certain amount of cold after the heat 
rays are removed, from starting the axial spirals into action. On the same principle 
snow is sometimes used momentarily for frozen hands. Being electrical, it attracts the 
affinitive thermal elements within and draws thus the finer life heat to the surface, 
which is more potent thin the cruder heat of fire. Hahneman's central principle, 
as stated by himself, is the following: "In order to cure gently, quickly, unfailingly 
and permanently, select for every case of disease a medicine, capable of calling forth by 
itself an affection similar (otioiov na&oq) to that which it is intended to cure." 
This is correct as we have seen when the drugs are triturated and made to attract their 
contrasting affinitive elements, but otherwise false. A man's hand having become 
frozen by having it in ice water 15 minutes, he would literally follow Hahneman by 
holding it in snow 15 minutes, as that works in a similar way. A man's mouth has be- 
come blistered by a spoonful of boiling mush; on this principle he should imme- 
diately take a spoonful of boiling syrup, as it will produce a similar disease. Hahneman 
would have demurred, and did demur, at such applications of his theory, but are they 
not logically correct? Nevertheless he was a grand thinker and contributed to the 
world's upbuilding. Broad minds, however, will accept this and still other prin- 
ciples, as the New York Homeopathic Association have lately done. 



JC.il 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



monly called red, signifies the presence of hydrogen; so also 
does the F grade of blue-green, the G grade of indigo and the 
H grade of dark violet. All elements that are analyzed by the 
spectroscope, show some luminous lines more or less refracted 
according to the fineness of their atomic parts. The elements 
of the sun, however, cast dark lines in the spectrum, which 
signifies that they are first driven outward by the great heat 
from the surface of that body and meeting the same elements in 
the solar atmospheres are driven back according to the principle 
already explained (XIX), thus causing slight vacancies in their 
spectra, which appear as somewhat dark lines. It must not be 
inferred from this that no part of these elements succeeds in 
reaching the earth as sunlight, for several reasons, 1st, the sun 
being our parent sphere as we have seen, must have the same 
elements as those of our earth and hence its emanations must 
come from these elements; 2dly, the tremendous heat of the 
sun must throw up some distance from its surface an atmosphere 
of heavy and crude elements including the grosser portions of 
metals, etc. This atmosphere intercepts the grosser part of all 
other similar elements which are projected towards the earth 
from the sun's surface, thus causing the Fraunhofer lines, but 
cannot intercept their finer emanations which, being drawn into 
the atomic spirillse, are passed on to our atmosphere, and thus 
give us the effect of light. We have seen (Chap. Fourth, VII,) 
that the different elements have their finer and coarser atoms, 
the finer of which being more volatile are being radiated into 
space. The atoms that form the ethers of sunlight must be so 
fine as to be able to sweep through the cosmic ether and the 
atmospheric oxygen, nitrogen, etc., as well as through all trans- 
parent substances and into all substances which have absorptive 
affinities. That fine emanations from the sun's elements do 
penetrate the chromosphere and pass on to us in the form of 
sunlight we have already seen, in the fact that carbon, oxygen, 
hydrogen, etc., are driven by the sunlight into the plants, or into 
the germs when below the soil, or into chemically prepared 
paper, plate, etc., and the fact that they are thus driven shows 
that the same kind of elements must exist in the sunlight itself, 
for it takes carbon to repel carbon, oxygen to repel oxygen, etc., 
on the law that similars repel," as illustrated in XIX. If anything 



THE MATERIAL OF SUNLIGHT. 



261 



else but sodium could reflect the D grade of yellow-orange or 
anything but potassium the A and B grade of red, then our law 
would prove false, but such a thing has never been known. Each 
of the elements has certain exactly defined grades of color which 
it reflects when made luminous, and which no other substance can 
reflect. Fraunhofer observed about 590 lines and Sir David 
Brewster still later, 2000 dark lines in the solar spectrum, as 
caused by the luminous elements of the sun's atmosphere. 
Besides these there are the intervening luminous lines which 
must be the manifestation of various elements. According to 
Angstrom, hydrogen gives out 4 color lines, nickel 33, cobalt 19, 
calcium 75, copper 7, iron 450, titanium 118, sodium 9, etc. This 
shows that such elements as iron and titanium must be wonder- 
fully diversified in the sizes of their spirillae to be able to reflect 
so rich a variety of colors. Instead of there being simply 7 
colors as some suppose, there are 2000 different grades of color 
required to represent the color potencies of the metals of the 
atmosphere, and these constitute but a small part of the degrees 
of color in an extended solar spectrum. Those elements of the 
sun which, on being radiated from its burning surface would 
encounter no similar elements in the solar atmospheres, would 
pass directly on to us, and would cast no lines in the spectrum. 

2. Since writing the foregoing, a remarkable paper has been 
read before the American Philosophical Society by Prof. Draper, 
one of the foremost of living authorities on the subject of light, 
in which he speaks of the discovery "of oxygen, and probably 
nitrogen, in the sun," as revealed by photography. This paper 
was read on July 20th, 1877, and published in the Journal of the 
Franklin Institute for August, in which the following language 
is used: — "Oxygen discloses itself by bright lines or bands in the 
solar spectrum, and does not give dark absorption lines like the 
metals. We must therefore change our theory of the solar 
spectrum and no longer regard it as a continuous spectrum, with 
certain rays absorbed by a layer of ignited metalic vapors, but 
as having also bright lines and bands superposed on the back- 
ground of a continuous spectrum. Such a conception not only 
opens the way to the discovery of others of the new metals, sul- 
phur, phosphorus, selenium, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, carbon, 
etc., but also may account for some of the so-called dark lines, 



262 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



by regarding them as intervals between the bright lines." These 
grades of oxygen and other substances which are sufficiently fine 
to be transmitted through the spirilla; of the solar atmospheres 
doubtless come on to the earth with a brilliant light, and produce 
luminous lines in the spectrum, while the coarser grades are 
reflected back and thus form the dark lines of the spectrum. Is 
not this another mystery cleared up by the etherio-atomic law, 
and exactly what should be expected with the two grades of 
reflected and transmitted light? 

3. I will draw up a list of the materials of colors so far as 
contributed by 20 important elements, including 16 metals which 
the spectroscope has discovered in the sun's atmosphere, and the 
four metalloids, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon, which 
have so much to do with light, and which must certainly form a 
part of the solar ethers from their universality. The names of 
the metals are sodium, calcium, barium, magnesium, iron, chro- 
mium, nickel, copper, zinc, strontium, cadmium, cobalt, man- 
ganese, aluminum, titanium, rubidium. Hydrogen also exists 
in vast quantities in the solar atmosphere, as has been seen. 
Doubtless many more, if not all of the elements, have something 
of their finer emanations represented in light. Carbon we know 
forms a part of light and is imparted to plants by the sun's rays. 

3. Materials of Red-light: — Nitrogen, oxygen, barium, zinc, 
strontium, cadmium, rubidium. 

4. Materials of Red Orange Light: — Hydrogen, oxygen, 
nitrogen, calcium, barium, iron, copper, strontium, cadmium. 
This color, in common parlance, would pass for red, and consti- 
tutes a refined grade of that color. 

5. Materials of Orange Light: — Oxygen, calcium, iron, 
nickel, zinc, cobalt, rubidium, aluminum, titanium. 

6. Materials of Yellow-Orange Light: — Carbon, nitrogen, 
sodium, nickel, zinc, cobalt, manganese, titanium. This would 
often pass for yellow with those who are not discriminative. 

7. Materials of Yellow Light: — Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, 
calcium, barium, iron, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, strontium, 
cadmium, cobalt, manganese, aluminum, titanium. 

8. Materials of Yellow-Green Light: — Carbon, nitrogen, 
oxygen, sodium, calcium, barium, magnesium, chromium, nickel, 
copper, strontium, cadmium, cobalt, rubidium, aluminum, titanium. 



THE MATERIAL OF SUNLIGHT. 



263 



9. Materials of Blue-Green Light: — Carbon, nitrogen, hy- 
drogen, sodium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese, 
titanium. 

10. Materials of Blue Light: — Oxygen, nitrogen, barium, 
magnesium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, strontium, cadmium, 
cobalt, manganese, aluminum, titanium. 

11. Materials of Indigo -Blue Light: — Oxygen, nitrogen, iron, 
calcium, manganese, titanium. 

12. Materials of Indigo Light: — Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, 
iron, chromium, copper, strontium, titanium. 

13. Materials of Violet-Indigo Light: — Oxygen, nitrogen, 
carbon, iron, calcium, cobalt, rubidium, manganese, titanium. 

14. Materials of Violet Light: — Nitrogen, oxygen, barium, 
iron, strontium, manganese. 

15. Materials of Dark Violet Light: — Hydrogen, calcium, 
aluminum. 

16. There is a great intensity, as well as quantity of reflecting 
power in the range of the yellow and its kindred yellow-green 
and yellow-orange as the leading principle of luminosity, by 
means of which the universe is revealed to the eye of man. It 
occurs to me that the reason why the yellow is the most lumi- 
nous of colors is that its luminelles are of that golden medium 
size which are not so coarse that the solar ethers fail to make 
them incandescent, as in the case of the trans-red, nor so fine as 
to give out waves too small to make an impression upon the sen- 
sorium, like the trans-violet. The blue principle, including the 
indigo, is also strong and intense as the most prominent realm of 
chromo-electricity, or in fact of the other electricities which tend 
to manifest themselves in some hue or shade of blue. Magnetic 
substances are always strong in the blue as well as the still finer 
grades of electricity represented by the indigo or violet, as in 
iron, oxygen, cobalt, manganese, chromium, etc. The red, espe- 
cially the finer grade of red, more properly called red-orange, is 
not imparted by as many substances as some other colors, but by 
those which are ever and everywhere abounding, such as hydro- 
gen, oxygen, nitrogen, etc., so we are not left to perish with 
the cold. The trinity of colors, the red, yellow and blue, finds 
representation in the three great elements of Hydrogen, Carbon 
and Oxygen, which constitute so much of the world, including the 



264 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



whole or a large portion of the sugars, gums, starches, ethers, 
alchohols, many acids and much of the substance of the vegetable 
world. 

XXII. Metachromism. 



1. Metachromism, or the phenomena of color change in connec- 
tion with chemical combinations, has been a mystery for ages. 
Why it is, that, when certain elements are combined, both lose 
their original color, as in the union of copper and oxygen which 
forms the black oxide of copper, or why the union of certain other 
substances in equal parts exhibits the color of one and obliterates 
that of the other, as in common salt, in which the white color of 
the sodium appears, while the greenish yellow of the chlorine 
becomes invisible; why acids redden blue litmus paper, or why 
alkalies turn red litmus paper blue; why oxygen sometimes ap- 
pears with its characteristic blue when combined with some other 
substance, or yellow, when combined in larger proportions, or red 
when used still more largely, the blue becoming more and more 
departed from as it prevails more largely, these and similar ques- 
tions might well nonplus the chemists until the laws of chemical 
affinity, as founded upon a correct knowledge of atoms, have been 
developed. Armed with this atomic key, metachromism can be 
made a science, and the convertibility of forces be more and 
more understood. 

2. In binary compounds, in which thermal and electric atoms 
alternate with each other, the color of the substance thus formed is 
usually that of the thermal or basic atom. The reason of this is 
that the more thermal atom being broader mouthed, encases the 
more electric atom and hides its color spirals. (See Chap. Third, 
VII, also XXXVII). I quote a few of the many examples, the 
basic atoms being white unless designated: 

Potassium Iodide (KI), white. Iodine is blue-black 
Sodium Chloride (Salt, NaCl), white. Chlorine, is greenish 
yellow. 

Strontium monoxide (SO), white. Oxygen is colorless. 
Calcium, yellowish white. Calcium monoxide (Lime, CaO), do. 
Thorium, gray. Thorina, or Thorium Monoxide (ThO), gray. 
Magnesium, yellowish white. Magnesia (MgO), do. 



METACHROMISM. 



265 



Zinc, bluish white. Zinc monoxide (ZO), do. 

Mercurous Chloride, or Calomel (Hg 2 Cl 2 ), white. 

Water (H 2 0), transparent, as are both of its component 
gases. "The chlorides of sodium, lithium, strontium and cop- 
per," says Tyndall, "yield the same spectra as the bases them- 
selves," and the reason of that is that the heat has not as yet 
been made sufficiently great to overcome the powerful chemical 
affinity of chlorine for the encasing metals, hence they have not 
been separated in spectrum analysis. 

3. Some binary compounds which are usually represented by 
chemists as uniting, by single atoms of each element, evidently 
unite by twos of each, as both colors become visible, which could 
not be the case if the atoms alternated singly. Thus, in what is 
called gold monoxide (AuO), if the atoms should alternate singly, 
the oxygen atom would be encased in the gold, and consequently 
only the yellow color would appear. But its color is in reality 
green. How account for that. If two atoms of gold should ap- 
pear together, giving their yellow effect, followed by two atoms 
of oxygen, only one of which would be encased in the gold while 
the other would give its blue effect, we can at once account for 
the green of the compound, as the yellow and blue constitute 
green. It would seem more proper, then, to consider this a copper 
monoxide or black oxide of copper (CuO), which should be a yellow- 
ish red if its atoms alternate singly, but if they alternate doubly, 
we have the yellow and red principles of copper visible and the 
blue principle of oxygen left visible, which would account for its 
black or brownish black color, as these principles combined will 
produce black, or brown, or gray, or white, according to the propor- 
tions of each color. This then would make it a cuprous dioxide 
(Cu 2 2 ). Such compounds as the following observe the same 
law: — 

Platinum (yellow-potency, etc.). Platinum monoxide (PtO), 
black. 

Palladium (yellow, etc.). Palladium monoxide (PdO), black. 

Tin (orange, yellow, etc.). Tin monoxide (SnO), black pow- 
der. 

Fig. 168 will throw a little farther light on the joining of atoms 
in which an alternation of twos is supposed as the monoxide of 
copper. 



266 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



1 and 2 are the broader atoms of copper, r 
being encased in 2 and consequently losing the 
effect of its color spirals, while in the case of 2 we 
have the color spirals complete, which must re- 
flect to the eye the reddish orange color peculiar 
to copper. 3 and 4 are atoms of oxygen; 3 is too 
narrow to receive 2 fully, consequently the color- 
spirals of 2 are not concealed. 4, being another 
narrow atom of oxygen, cannot encase 3, conse- 
quently we have the color effects of the oxygen 
atom 3, which, when combined with the copper 
color of 2, will give a dark effect, that is some- 
times called black oxide of copper. 4 is encased 
by the next atom which is copper, and conse- 
quently its color effect is lost. Thus we have 
half the atoms of each element which produce color effects, and so 
get the combined effect of both. In the same way we may 
suppose the yellow atoms of gold to combine with the blue atoms 
of oxygen to produce a green effect. 




Fi 






\ 



1 63. Combined 
A Loins. 



4. Progressive Color Change. 



As the electric elements in a binary compound predominate 
more and more over the thermal or basic elements, the color of 
the compound tends towards the red end of the spectrum, passing 
perhaps from the blue to the yellow-green or yellow, then to the 
orange, or red, or reddish brown in the outer verge of the red. 
Thus 

In Chromium sesquioxide (Cr 2 3 ) the color is green. 

In Chromium dioxide (Cr0 2 ) the color is yellow-green. 

In Chromium trioxide (Cr0 3 ), the color is red. 

In the above sesquioxide the electrical element of oxygen ap- 
pears in quantities half as great again as the thermal base chro- 
mium, in the dioxide twice as great, in the trioxide three times 
as great. Other electrical elements such as chlorine, sulphur, 
etc., follow the same general law, as will be seen below in the list 
of examples. But first what is the explanation of this mystery? 
In the green above, a certain amount of the blue of the oxygen 
combines with the yellow of the chromium; in the dioxide this 



progressive color change 



267 



blue fades into the yellow-green in which the yellow predomi- 
nates; while in the trioxide it is entirely swallowed up in the red. 

It will be seen by examining the structure of the atom, Chap. 
Third, VII, 1, 3, that the dark-violet and violet spirals are the 
highest up on the atoms, and thus must be the most external at 
the vortex, the very point to be first struck by the impinging 
atom which enters this vortex. Is it not evident then that the 
atoms of oxygen which receive the neighboring atoms with 
some force must first have the dark violet and violet spirals 
agitated by the pressure? But when the dark violet spiral is 
agitated, its affinitive spiral the yellow-green must respond to it, 
and when the accumulated oxygen brings force enough to drive 
in the atom a little farther until the pressure comes upon the 
violet spiral, it is started into motion and by reaction kindles the 
affinitive yellow into new life. Suppose now we add a little more 
oxygen still, until the axial force becomes great enough to drive 
the atoms against the indigo and blue spirals which are especially 
active in oxygen and other electrical atoms. These at once start 
the affinitive orange and red into action and hence give the red 
effect to the compound. But now the question may arise, why 
do not the violet and blue show also? Because under sufficient 
pressure the atoms must wedge up against the blue and other 
axial spirals so closely as to prevent their being repellent of the 
blue and violet elements, and yet this very pressure must have 
that reactive effect on the yellow and red portion of the same 
spirals which will intensify them. The red and other thermal 
colors have an especially good chance of becoming visible as 
they connect directly with the red and other thermal spirals of 
the encasing atom, which are not concealed by the contiguous 
atoms. I will now quote a few examples as corroborative of the 
foregoing law: — 

Nitrogen monoxide (N 2 0), transparent. 

Nitrogen trioxide (Nitrous oxide gas, N 2 3 ), red-orange. 

Nitrogen tetroxide (N 2 4 ), red. 

Bismuth trioxide (Bi 2 3 ), straw-yellow. 

Bismuth pentoxide (Bi 2 5 ), reddish powder. 

Lead monoxide or Litharge (PbO), straw-yellow. 

Red Lead or Triplumbic tetroxide (Pb 3 4 ), recj. 

Lead dioxide or puce (Pb0 2 ), reddish brown. 



268 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



Tin sesquioxide (Sn 2 3 ), grayish. 

Tin dioxide (Sn0 2 ), yellowish. 

Gold monoxide, or Aureus oxide (AuO), green. 

Gold trioxide, or Auric oxide (Au0 3 ), reddish brown. 

Gold monochloride (AuCl), yellowish white. 

Gold trichloride (AuCl 3 ), red crystals. 

Iron monoxide, or Ferrous oxide (FeO), "pale green color, 
speedily becoming red by absorbing oxygen from the air." 

Iron sesquioxide, or Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ), red. 

Iron dichloride, or Ferrous Chloride (FeCl 2 ), green. 

Iron trichloride, or Ferric chloride (Fe 3 Cl 6 ), red. 

Ferrous iodide (Fel 2 ), pale green. Iodine becomes electrical 
when favorably combined. 

Ferric iodide (Fe 2 I 6 ), yellowish red. 

Gray oxide of Mercury (Hg 2 0), a sub-oxide. 

Monoxide of Mercury (HgO), or red precipitate. 

Cobalt dichloride (CoCl 2 ), rose red solution. 

Cobalt trichloride (CoCl 3 ), dark red brown. 

Molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ), light blue-gray. 

Molybdenum trisulphide (MoS 3 ), black (blue and orange). 

Molybdenum tetrasulphide (MoS 4 ), red. 

Sulphur monochloride (SCI), yellow-orange. 

Sulphur tetrachloride (SC1 4 ), red-brown. 

Potassium monoxide, or potassa (K 2 0), white. 

Potassium tetroxide (K 2 4 ), orange. 

Potassium monosulphicle (K 2 S), reddish-yellow. 

Potassium disulphide (K 2 S 2 ), orange. 

Potassium pentasulphide (K 2 S 5 ), dark red-brown. 

Chromous chloride (CrCl 2 ), is first obtained "as a white 
foliated mass which dissolves in water with great elevation of 
temperature, yielding a blue solution, which, on exposure to the 
air, absorbs oxygen with extraordinary energy, acquiring a deep 
green color." (Fownes' Chemistry, p. 437). The present law 
will show why it is that oxygen can thus produce a green effect 
with chromium, but a red effect with iron, etc. The red prin- 
ciple of Chromium, is so inert (see spectrum), that all the blue 
potency of oxygen cannot make it visible, whereas being active 
in iron, a very little oxygen can bring it into play, as even the 
sesquioxide of iron is red. In lead the red principle is still 



PROGRESSIVE COLOR CHANGE. 



269 



more active, requiring only one third more atoms of oxygen 
than of lead to develope it, as in red-lead (Pb 3 4 ). 

Under this law, too, it becomes quite obvious why acids will 
redden blue litmus paper, as all acids abound in oxygen, or at 
least in some element with predominating blue potencies. It 
becomes obvious, too, why the arterial blood is made so red by 
the large amount of oxygen it contains, while the venous blood, 
which has much less oxygen, is more blue. A great mystery is 
thus solved, for otherwise we might conclude that oxygen is a 
great heating principle, whereas it simply developes the heat in 
the opposite affinitive atoms, while its own cold-producing prin- 
ciples are held in abeyance in this and many other cases by these 
metachromic laws of combination, while in the venous blood a 
smaller amount of oxygen has its cold blue principles so aroused 
by the thermal atoms with which it is connected, as to make it a 
colder fluid than the arterial blood. We know that arterial blood 
is warmer than the blood of the veins, aside from the fact of its 
redness, for those in whom it predominates have a rubicund 
appearance, greater warmth of body, and are more subject to 
inflammation, fever, etc., while those in whom the venous blood 
predominates are more cold and dormant in their action. The 
rubific character of oxygen under similar circumstances explains 
a very common tendency in flowers to become red, as they are 
known to have large amounts of oxygen, while common green 
leaves get their blue principle from a smaller amount of oxygen, 
whose blue potencies have been developed by the affinitive red 
of the hydrogen. 

5. When Alkaline or Thermal Elements increase in quantity, 
as compared with the electric elements in binary compounds, 
the tendency of the color is toward the violet end of the spec- 
trum. Thus in the increase of sodium we find that Na 2 2 is 
yellow, while Na 4 is blue; so in potassium we find that K 2 4 
is chrome yellow, while K 4 is blue gray; also in Cr0 3 we have 
the red, while in Cr 2 8 we have green. It is well known that 
when litmus paper has been reddened by acids, potassium and 
some other alkaline substances will bring back the blue. This 
law is much like the unwinding of the last law. We may say, 
why does not the red principle of the potassium manifest itself, 
instead of tending towards the blue when it increases? Because 



270 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



if several potassium atoms occur together, they will encase each 
other, and hide the red spirals, and yet the axial portion of the 
same red spirals, constituting their chemical affinity, blue, will 
be rendered active and will especially excite the blue principle 
of the oxygen atoms. 

XXIII. Proofs of Other Octaves of Color 



Beyond that which is seen by the ordinary vision. Some of these 
are as follows: — 

1. There is a large portion of the sun's rays both above and 
below the ordinary visible spectrum. Muller says the rays 
extend below the red more than two octaves. To show the 
existence of one of the octaves above the visible spectrum, I 
quote the following from Prof. Roscoe: — "It is perhaps worthy 
of mention that the wave lengths of the solar lines L, O, Q, are, 
within the limits of observational error, half those of the lines 
A, B, C, as seen from the following table," in which the figures 
give the length of the waves in ten-millionths of a millimetre: — 

Name of observer. 

A observed by Angstrom 

" " VanderWilligen 
B " " Angstrom 

" " Fraunhofer 

C " " Dijtscheiner 

" " Angstrom 

The above facts would seem to signify that A and B, which 
belong to the potassium of the visible scale, have their corres- 
ponding vibrations, which are twice as fine and rapid in L and 
O, while C, which is the manifestation of hydrogen, has also its 
fine corresponding half-length vibrations in Q; in other words 
grades of potassium and hydrogen twice as fine as those which 
produce visible effects are represented by the lines in the spec- 
trum called L, O, Q, just as certain tones in music may be 
repeated in the octave above by means of waves twice as small 
and frequent as those which form the original tone. The prin- 
cipal difference between the lines A, B, C and L, O, Q is, that 
in the latter the lines are refracted more widely apart than in the 
former, which would go to show that the octaves gradually 



Length 
of wave. 


Half of 
wave length. 


Observed by 
M ascart. 


7612.I 
7633-6 


3806. } 

3816.8 \ 


3S19.1 L. 


6874.9 
6878.5 


34374 I 
3439- 2 I 


3440. IO O. 


657I.I 
6567.7 


3285.6 I 
3283.8 J 


3285.6 Q. 



PROOFS OF OTHER OCTAVES OF COLOR. 



271 



increase in dimensions as we go upward into the more volatile 
trans-violet. 

2. Length of Spectrum. Prof. Stokes has shown that the 
bright sparks from the poles of iron, aluminum and magnesium, 
give off light of so high a degree of refrangibility, that distinct 
bands are situated at a distance beyond the last visible violet 
ray, ten times as great as the length of the whole visible spectrum 
from red to violet! These bands cannot, of course, be seen under 
ordinary circumstances, but when allowed to fall on a fluorescent 
body, such as paper moistened with (sulphate of) quinine solution, 
they can easily be rendered visible; or we may photograph them 
and make them leave their impression on the sensitive film. "In 
order that these highly refrangible rays may be seen, no glass 
lenses or prisms must be used, as the rays of the highest refran- 
gibility cannot pass through glass: quartz, on the other hand, 
permits them to pass; hence all the lenses and prisms must be 
made of quartz" (Roscoe's Spectrum Analysis, p. 126). Allowing 
then for the increased length of the upper octaves of color, and 
considering that the spectrum runs some distance below the red, 
we may probably conclude that there are eight or ten octaves of 
color in ordinary sunlight, not quite one of which is visible to the 
ordinary human eye. 

3. Another harmony between the visible and the invisible parts 
of the spectrum was pointed out in the magnesium spectrum by 
Soret. In examining the trans-violet portion of this spectrum, 
Mascart found two groups of triple lines, which exactly resembled, 
in general appearance, the well known group of lines in green 
which appears in the solar spectrum at b. Soret has shown that 
if the length of the waves in the visible spectrum are represented 
by unity, the wave lengths of the higher lines would be repre- 
sented by 1/20, 1/27 and 1/31. 

4. Sir John Herschel, Stokes, Hunt, and other eminent scien- 
tists have been led by their investigations into the belief of other 
grades of color besides those which are visible. "We might 
almost be led to believe," said Herschel, "(from the evident re- 
appearance of redness mingled with blue in the violet rays) in a 
repetition of the primary tints beyond the Newtonian spectrum." 

5. The Missing Color for the completion of one octave is imme- 
diately above the violet as the beginning of the next color-octave, 



272 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



or immediately below the red as the beginning of the ordinary 
visible color-octave, the former being a repetition of the latter, 
only twice as fine, just as the 8th in the musical scale is the 
repetition of the 1st with waves twice as small. "Sir John Her- 
schel has shown us that by looking at the spectrum with a cobalt 
blue glass, we perceive a ray called by him the 'extreme red,' 
of a crimson color below the ordinary red ray of the spectrum. 
Again, by throwing the spectrum on paper stained yellow by 
turmeric, a ray of high refrangibility beyond the violet becomes 
visible, which ray is of a peculiar neutral color and has been 
called a gray or lavender ray." (Hunt.) It may be remarked that 
although the exact color above or below the visible spectrum 
cannot be perceived by ordinary human vision, or be brought to 
our perception by any devices of glasses, or saturated paper, or 
otherwise, from being either too fine or too coarse, yet the above 
experiments give a very good hint of it. It is said to be "crim- 
son" below the red, but crimson as defined by Webster is "deep 
red tinged with blue." In other words it retains a little of the 
blue principle of the violet, as every color must possess some 
elements of the contiguous color or colors, for according to the 
proposition of this paragraph, the immediate trans-red portion 
must be the upper note of an invisible scale of colors with the 
violet principle just beneath it. Again the immediate trans- 
violet portion is called lavender, but lavender itself is a kind of 
a violet-gray, and this comes from its proximity to the violet, 
and its comprising more or less of the dark luminelles above 
the visible spectrum. 

6. This invisible color approaches the red far more than the 
blue in appearance, although it retains some blue cast at the 
beginning of each chromatic scale, not far from the culminating 
point of heat, some portion of which it is probable that we may 
see just below the red. The last syllable of its name, thermel, 
should be pronounced with sufficient distinctness to distinguish 
it from the adjective thermal. 

7. Perhaps the crowning proof that there are different grades 
of colors beyond those usually visible, is that many persons 
have seen them, especially with the outward eye closed. The 
eminent scientist, Baron Reichenbach, of Vienna, by means of 
thousands of experiments with sixty persons, including ladies, 



PROOFS OF OTHER OCTAVES OF COLOR. 



273 



physicians, professors, naturalists, etc., proved beyond all rational 
doubt the reality of odic light and color, while the author has, at 
times, not only seen these, but a grade still finer and incompar- 
ably more beautiful than the colors of the external world. Many 
others have seen the same, and in the chapters on Chromo-Dy- 
namics and Chromo-Mentalism, I shall attempt to demonstrate 
the existence and character of these high grade colors in a way 
which, to reasonable minds, should be convincing. After the 
first or visible grade of color comes the odic light, or 2d grade, 
and then the third grade, which, being more connected with the 
mental and soul forces I have named Psychic. 

8. Two scales of color commencing at the bottom are as 
follows: 

Psychic Thermel or Tertio Thermel. 
Odic Dark Violet, or Secundo Dark Violet. 
Odic Violet, or Secundo Violet. 
Odic Violet-Indigo, or Secundo Violet-Indigo. 
Odic Indigo, or Secundo Indigo. 
Odic Indigo-BJue, or Secundo Indigo-Blue. 
Odic Blue, or Secundo Blue. 
t Odic Blue-Green, or Secundo Blue-Green. 
Odic Yellow-Green, or Secundo Yellow-Green. 
Odic Yellow, or Secundo Yellow. 
Odic Yellow-Orange, or Secundo Yellow-Orange. 
Odic Orange, or Secundo Orange. 
Odic Red-Orange, or Secundo-Red-Orange. 
Odic Red, or Secundo Red. 
Odic Thermel, or Secundo Thermel. 
Dark Violet. 
Violet, 
Violet-Indigo. 
Indigo. 
Indigo-Blue. 
Blue. 

Blue-Green. 
Yellow-Green. 
Yellow. 

Yellow-Orange. 
Orange. 
Red -Orange. 
Red. 
Thermel, or the invisible heat ray. 



SECOND 
COLOR SCALE 

unseen by ordinary 
VISION. The Odic 
Lights and Colors 
consist of finer poten- 
cies than those of the 
visible colors.' 

The Third grade 
colors commence 
with tertio thermel, 
the fourth, with 
quarto thermel, the 
fifth, . with quhtto 
thermel, etc. 



FIRST 
COLOR 
SCALE 
all visible ex- 
cept Ther- 
mel. 



9. Thermel is visible as a beautiful color midway between 
the dark violet and the grade of red just above it, to those who 

18 



274 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



can see the odic and psychic lights. The lower thermel is 
probably too coarse for any human eye to take cognizance of. The 
upper grades of thermel are near the culminating points of heat 
for their color-scales, but this heat is too fine for ordinary per- 
ception, or for measurement by thermometers. 

10. If the visible grade of colors comes from the action of the 
1st spirilla? of atoms, the Odic or secundo grade probably comes 
from the 2d spirilla?, and the Psychic or Tertio colors from the 
3d spirilla?. Finer colors would necessarily, then, come through 
a finer atmosphere, unless there are more than three grades 
of spirilla? in the atoms of the ordinary coarser atmosphere. It 
is reasonable to suppose that the grades of spirilla? of the same 
atom are an octave apart, otherwise there would be discordant 
action as it seems to me. Nature works not only on mathemat- 
ical but on harmonious principles. But if we are to judge of 
all things by all other things, as we find we may do in harmony 
with nature's unity of plan, and knowing as we do, also (see 
Chap. First, XVI), that all things are on the law of gradation, 
finer elements dwelling in the coarser, still finer ones in those, 
and so on, then we must conclude that there are finer atmospheres 
within the coarser on the same law. Thus we would conclude 
that there must be a finer atmosphere for the odic lights, an- 
other still finer for the psychic lights, etc. For corroboration of 
this, see Chapter Ninth, III, 2. 

XXIV. Color as Related to Taste. 



We have already seen (XII), that substances which give 
burning sensations to the taste, as black pepper, capsicum, etc., 
are apt to be black and red, and belong generally to the thermal 
end of the spectrum, although transparent elements being both 
thermal and electrical, often produce burning and very piercing 
sensations. Sweets belong to both the thermal and electrical 
colors with a preponderance of the thermal: acids to both 
the thermal and electrical colors, with a preponderance of the 
electrical, especially the electrical blue of oxygen, although in 
nearly all acids a small amount of the warm element of hydrogen 
exists. The alkalies have a greater preponderance of thermism 
than the sweets; the alcohols still more being full of the fiery red 



COMPLEXION AS RELATED TO SUNLIGHT. 



275 



principle of hydrogen, while the saline taste has both thermism 
and electricity nearly balanced. In producing the pleasing effect 
of sugar (Ci 2 H 2 20n) upon the taste, the carbon plays more 
especially over the surface of the papilla? of the tongue, kindling 
the nerves; the hydrogen also spreads more directly over the 
surface of the same, animating the blood, while the oxygen, with 
its cooling axial force, penetrates more interiorly into the papil- 
la?, and thus combined with the more exterior forces, holds them 
in a pleasant equipose without allowing any over stimulus. In 
acids, the oxygen is more abundant and the piercing principle 
stronger; in alkalies and alcohols the burning principle is in- 
tense as in ammonia (NH 3 ), Caustic Potash (OKH), Strychnine 
(C21H22N22O) and common alcohol (C 2 H 6 0.) It will be re- 
membered that carbon, hydrogen, potassium, etc., belong to the 
thermal or red and yellow principles. A very strong predomi- 
nance of either thermism or electricity in a substance, is dis- 
tressing to the taste and very poisonous in its effects. 

XXV. Complexion as related to Sunlight. 



1. Dr. Forbes Winslow says: "Black, brown and copper col- 
ored skins are observed among those who reside in tropical cli- 
mates in proportion to the intensity of the solar light, and the 
degree to which the body is exposed to its influence. The dis- 
coloration of the skin is not, however, perceived among those who 
live in temperate and cold regions. As we approach nearer to 
the pole the skin assumes a browner cast. This is evidenced 
among the Laplanders, Esquimaux and Greenlanders. In the 
Arctic regions, there cannot be said to exist any night. Here a 
constant light prevails, if not from the sun, yet reflected from the 
snow and ice, or emitted by the aurora borealis." (Influence of 
Light.) This darkening or browning effect is thus very properly 
explained as coming from the amount of light, and yet a little 
farther along Dr. Winslow says that the "white color of animals 
inhabiting the polar region is attributable to the absence of in- 
tense sunlight." It seems a little inconsistent for the Doctor 
thus to signify that the people of the Arctic regions are sup- 
plied with an almost ceaseless light which, he admits, causes 
blindness, etc., and yet the animals are whitened by "the ab- 



276 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



sence of intense sunlight." It would doubtless be a better 
explanation to say that the animals are made white there by the 
intense cold and electricity, as we have already seen in this 
chapter, X, the tendency of cold to whiteness of effect, as in 
snow, frozen carbonic acid, pale countenances, etc. 

2. The sun causes its yellow and brown effect from driving 
the molecules of carbon into the skin, thus tanning and toughen- 
ing the cuticle. The cold of the far north prevents the people 
from becoming as dark as they are in the torrid zones. Dr. 
Winslow says: — "Intemperate persons, addicted to vinous pota- 
tions, have a sallow and olive-hued complexion. The dark and 
dingy color of the pigmy people who live in high northern 
latitudes, arises principally from the fish and oils of a rancid and 
often offensive character, upon which they mainly subsist. This 
kind of diet is believed not only to affect the color of the skin, 
but to cause a diminution of the stature of this race, in cones- 
quence of their blood being difficult of assimilation and defective 
in nutrition." 

3. So far as intemperance darkens the skin, the inhabitants of 
the temperate zones drink more than they do in the frigid, and 
have more miasma, also, to make them bilious and yellow, and 
more than that, when they eat pork and fat, especially in warm 
weather, they have not the amount of keen, electrical oxygen to 
help them digest this carbon, in the shape of fatty foods, that 
their northern neighbors have. The carbon, belonging as it does 
to the thermal substances, needs an affinitive principle of elec- 
tricity for its proper digestion, for which reason it is more safe 
to eat it in winter than in summer, and in cold than in warm 
climates. 

XXVI. Summation of Points in Chromo Chemistry. 



1 . Spectrum Analysis, which has proved incomparably more exact than 
any other method of ascertaining the chemical properties of bodies, is 
founded on the fact that any element, when heated until it becomes incan- 
descent or is converted into luminous vapor, manifests its character in the 
grade of color which it radiates. 

2. Instead of there being seven colors in the solar spectrum, there are 
many thousands of shades and tints of color. Sir David Brewsier 



SUMMATION OF POINTS IN CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



277 



counted 2000 Fraunhqfer lines, each of which signifies some distinct grade 
of color, while there is also a large space in the spectrum where no Fraun- 
hqfer lines are visible, over which infinite grades of hues are scattered. 

3. The culminating point of heat in the spectrum is near the thermal; 
of light, in the yellow; of electricity, in the blue and indigo, although the 
finest electricity is in the violet. Stokes found the strongest electricities, as 
signified by means of hydrochloric acid, in the violet indigo. Other sub- 
stances place it elsewhere, from their especial kinds of chemical affinity. 

4. Spectrum Analysis, although rich in facts, has not hitherto been 
crystallized into a science. 

5. The colors which any substance exhibits in its spectrum, show its 
repellent or reflective potencies when under chemical combination. 

6. The ordinary appearance of an element when isolated or cold, shows 
what color it is repellant of; but when heated or in chemical combination 
this repulsion greatly changes, becoming more violent, and generally assum- 
ing different colors. 

7. The chemical affinities of a substance may be determined by its re- 
pulsions according to the atomic law already explained, Chap. Third, 
XXXVII, 10. 

8. Elements which in their cold, isolated character are white, are more 
electrical in their ordinary condition, but have a predominance of thermism 
when chemically combined, as in the case of the Alkalies and other white 
metals. 

9. Black or dark Elements, though in a thermal condition when un- 
combined, sometimes have a thermal predominance, sometimes an electrical 
one in the spectrum, or in chemical combination, according to whether 
their original grade of black was at the thermal or electrical end of the 
spectrum, or both, but on the whole have the warm principle more espe- 
cially. 

10. Gray and also transparent elements generally have both the ther- 
mal and electrical elements largely developed in their spectrum. 

1 1 . No elements have positive electrical colors in their normal state, but 
several have positive thermal colors. These under heat or chemical com- 
bination tend to assume higher grades of fineness, becoming highly electrical 
when active. 

12. The most powerful substances are transparent. 



278 



CHROMO-CHEMISTRY. 



13. Transparent Fluids, though abounding in both thermal and elec- 
trical patencies, have more frequently a preponderance of electricity. 

14. Transparent solids, from their thorough polarization, are on the 
whole unequaled in hardness. 

15. All substances under free chemical action, tend to repel and stimu- 
late those having the same grade of color with themselves. Among 
many applications of this rule we may note how in therapeutics 
the red-colored substances stimulate the arterial blood, yellow 
and orange ones the nervous system, including cerebral stimu- 
lants, emetics, purgatives, diuretics, etc, 

16. All substances under full chemical action tend to attract, or 
combine in harmonious union, those substances whose colors have a 
chemical affinity with their own. This rule accounts for the 
blue of the sky and ocean, the green of the leaves, the laws of 
germination, vision, chemical action in therapeutics, the har- 
monic contrast of colors in nature, the healing power of sun- 
light, photographic action, Homeopathic triturations, and many 
other things. 

17. Not only can it be shown that sunlight is an actual sub- 
stance capable of being collected, measured and controlled, but the 
very materials of which each color is composed can be given, and 
the law of its movement explained. This is not denying that the 
undulatory theory of light has important features of truth in it. 

18. The law of Metachromism shows why it is that in binary 
and some other compounds, the increase of oxygen and other blue- 
forming elements, develops the red end of the spectrum, while the 
increase of potassium, hydrogen, and other red or yellow-forming 
elements, tends to increase the affinitive blue or violet. 

19. Facts made known by the spectroscope, analogies and the 
experience of those persons who have a more interior vision de- 
veloped, show the existence of more refined and beautiful octaves 
of color beyond those which appeal to the ordinary vision. They 
show also that the ordinary vision cannot take in quite one com- 
plete scale of colors, the heat color below the red in the spectrum, 
which is termed thermal, being invisible. 

20. Different colors have relations to taste, such as sweet, sour, 
alkaline, saline, burning, etc. 

21. The complexion of people in different zones of the earth is 
modified by the sunlight. 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



279 



CHAPTER SIXTH. 

CHROMO-THERAPEUTICS, OR CHRO- 
MOPATHY. 

I. The Healing Power of Color. 

This must be quite evident to the reader by this time, 
especially as, in the last chapter, we saw the wonderful power of 
color repulsions and color affinities, and saw also that all things 
manifest their potencies by means of color. This being true, 
then, we may construct a more exquisite and exact Materia 
Medica, and erect a standard of medical practice based on prin- 
ciples of almost mathematical precision. Not only may we, by 
means of the principles already laid down, judge of the medical 
potencies of the coarser mineral elements, but of the finer poten- 
cies of the vegetable world, of water, air, electricity, and mag- 
netism, and the still finer forces of the sunlight. Sunlight 
constitutes a truly celestial materia medica which, according to 
principle XV of Chap. First, must be more safe, effective and 
enduring than the cruder elements, in case we know how to 
control it. 

II. Comparative Fineness of Healing Elements. 



Minerals are at the bottom of nature's scale of forces, being so 
crude that the most of their particles are unable to float in 
the atmosphere, and consequently are held down in the midst of 
earthy substances. The vegetable world which constitutes the 
direct food of man, is sifted of the coarser mineral elements by 
a beautiful and ingenious process, the carbon and some other of 
the finer elements of the sunlight and atmosphere being received 
into the plant or vegetable from the sky, while the elements 
that come from the earth are strained of their coarser ingre- 
dients by the spongioles of the root and absorbed only in a 



280 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



liquid state. It may readily be seen why cereals and fruits, 
growing, as they do, above ground and drinking in the refined 
elements of the sunlight so freely, constitute a higher grade of 
food or food-medicines than the roots, tubers, and bulbs, such 
as radishes, potatoes, onions, etc., which grow under ground. 
Water owes its healing power, 1st, to its cleansing character, and 
2dly to its electricity, combined also with a goodly amount of 
thermism. The electro-magnetic machine also presents similar 
grades of fine elements, inasmuch as, like water, it combines 
galvano, magneto and other grades of electricity. Pure air 
furnishes a somewhat more ethereal combination of elements 
than water, as it includes those which are sufficiently volatile to 
float, and presents fine ethers, which during the day-time are so 
constantly under the action of sunlight. But the finest potency 
of all, of which we can avail ourselves in the external world, 
comes from the sunlight, the only known element which tran- 
scends it in fineness, being the psycho-magnetic radiation from 
highly organized human beings. By understanding the etherio- 
atomic law we see at once how all things must incessantly 
radiate their peculiar essences and ethers, all ethers partaking 
more or less of the substances through which they pass, the 
finest substances having the finest emanations. 

III. The Healing Power of Red. 



1. According to principles XIX and XX in the last chapter, 
red must stimulate and increase the action of the warm red 
principle in the human system, as for instance, the arterial blood, 
and also act as the harmonizing affinitive element of the cold 
blue principle, which causes blueness of veins, paleness of 
countenance, etc. Examples have already been given, but a few 
examples quoted a little more minutely in the exact words of the 
U. S. Dispensatory and other recognized authorities, will help 
the better to establish the principles of not only the red but 
other colors, so far as drugs are concerned; having established 
which, we may be sure from the unity that reigns throughout 
nature, that the same principle in sunlight and every where else 
must produce similar results, the difference being that fine 
elements like the sunlight are more penetrating, safe, and en- 
during than coarse drugs. 



THE HEALING POWER OF RED. 



281 



2. The Balsam of Peru (Balsamum Peruvianum) "is of a 
dark reddish brown color, a warm bitterish taste, leaving when 
swallowed a burning or prickling sensation in the throat," "is a 
warm stimulating tonic and expectorant." 

3. Cayenne Pepper (Capsicum) Flowers white, "fruit smooth 
and shining, of a bright scarlet, orange or sometimes yellow 
color." "Powdered capsicum is usually of a more or less bright 
red color;" "is a powerful stimulant, producing a sense of heat 
in the stomach and general glow over the body;" "an arterial 
stimulant and rubefacient." 

4. Cloves (Caryophyllus) "are externally deep brown, in- 
ternally reddish, their taste hot" — "among the most stimulant 
of aromatics." 

5. Bromine. "A red liquid," "caustic and irritant," — "when 
diluted, tonic and diuretic." (Waring.) 

6. Iron. Ferric Oxide (Fe 2 3 ) "is of a reddish color and 
forms salts which, for the most part, have a reddish color." 
Ferrous Trioxide (Fe0 3 ) "wine red color." "The preparations 
of iron are powerfully tonic, raising the pulse, promoting the 
secretions, and increasing the coloring matter of blood." 

7. Red Cedar (Juniperus Virginiana), "stimulant, emmen- 
agogue and diuretic." 

8. Musk. "Powder, reddish brown, is a stimulant and anti- 
spasmodic, increasing the vigor of the circulation." 

9. Ammonium Carbonate (N 4 Hi 6 C308). Powerful in the 
red principle of hydrogen. "An arterial stimulant." 

10. Alcohol (C 2 H 6 0). Red predominates strongly from its 
Hydrogen. "A diffusible stimulant of heart and arteries — 
exciting to the nervous and vascular system, succeeded by equal 
depression." 

1 1 . The power of oxygen to develope the red principle of the 
blood and thus by reaction to harmonize and animate the system 
which has become too cold and sluggish, under a predominance 
of the bluish venous blood, is well known. The power of red 
glass and a red chamber to excite, cheer and cure the cold morbid 
condition of two despondent lunatics, as proved by the experi- 
ments of Dr. Ponza, has already been spoken of in Chap. Fifth 
XX, 20. 



282 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 

IV. Healing Power of Red Light. 



Red light, like red drugs, is the warming element of sunlight, 
with an especially rousing effect upon the blood and to some 
extent upon the nerves, especially as strained through some 
grades of red glass which admit not only of the red but the yel- 
low rays, and thus prove valuable in paralysis and other dormant 
and chronic conditions. The following facts are quoted from 
Dr. S. Pancoast's new work, entitled Blue and Red Light: — 

1st CASE. — Paraplegia (Paralysis of both Legs). 

"Master F., aged 8 years, had a tedious convalescence from a 
severe attack of diphtheria, which was suddenly interrupted by a 
very severe attack of paraplegia; the paralysis was almost com- 
plete; he could not walk and could stand only when supported 
by a table or chair. We had him arrayed entirely in white and 
placed in strong red baths from one to two hours at a time; soon 
after being placed in the red light he would fall asleep, and a 
profuse perspiration burst forth, saturating his underclothing; in 
three weeks he was walking firmly, and in two months was per- 
fectly well. More than two years have since elapsed and he has 
continued in perfect health." 

2d Case. — Consumption in the Third Stage. 

"Mrs. H., aged 35 years. This was a case of consumption 
in the third stage, with both lungs involved, the left hepatized 
with mucus rale through the upper third, and crepitation in the 
apex of the right lung; sputa copious, amounting to half a pint 
in twenty four-hours; her expectoration was a yellowish, ropy 
and frothy mucus and pus, a portion of which sank in water; she 
had severe night-sweats, and chills or creeps regularly at 11 
o'clock, A.M., followed by fever with flushed cheeks." Dr. Pan- 
coast proceeds to show that her parents and most of the family 
had died with consumption. He continues: — "I placed Mrs. 
H. under red baths regulated by the effects produced. In two 
weeks improvement began to manifest itself in all her symptoms; 
in another week the mucus rale became a sub-mucus, then suc- 
cessively a crepitant and a bronchial; soon respiration was re- 
sumed through the entire left lung, and the crepitation at the 



COMPLETE PHYSICAL EXHAUSTION. 



283 



apex of the right lung disappeared; expectoration improved and 
the cough became less frequent and less distressing; with the 
improvement in these symptoms the chills and fever and the 
dyspnoea disappeared and her strength rapidly increased; in two 
months and a half, the only remaining trouble was a slight hack- 
ing cough arising from an irritated throat." Dr. Pancoast pro- 
ceeds to state that she remained well between one and two years, 
and then, from assuming extra duties, caught a severe cold which 
developed into pneumonia and finally led to her death. He says 
that "in an active and extensive practice covering more than 30 
years, we have never known or heard of a case of consumption 
at so advanced a stage successfully treated. Her recovery was 
entire." 

If in the above case a deep blue glass had been used for 
her head, and beneath this some red, and then yellow, and then 
red for the limbs, it would doubtless have been a still more 
potent combination. 

3d Case. — Complete Physical Exhaustion. 



"Mr. R., 45 years of age, an overtaxed and prematurely 
worn out man of business became involved in financial troubles, 
* * mind and body were continuously on the rack, he could 
neither eat nor sleep normally, and at last complete physical 
exhaustion and nervous prostration naturally came upon him, 
for nature could endure no more. The first warning was severe 
pains in the back of the head, soon followed by shortness of 
breath, flutterings of heart, compressible pulse, loss of appetite, 
constipation and phospatic urine. * * We determined to try the 
red light treatment, especially as his prostration was unat- 
tended by any indication of morbid irritability, and in all our 
experience as a physician, we have never witnessed more re- 
markable beneficial results than were at once produced by the 
red ray in this case. The very first bath had the most en- 
couraging effect: it acted as a tonic both upon mind and body, 
dispelled his gloomy apprehensions and gave vigor to his physical 
functions. Commencing with small doses, we gradually increased 
them until assured that we had reached the most effective dose 
in proportion of red to plain panes and in length of bath. Mr. 
R. rapidly improved, notwithstanding his continued attention to 



284 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



business. From the first he slept more refreshingly, ate with 
better relish, his bowels became regular, and the secretions of 
his kidneys recovered the healthy appearance. Three weeks 
treatment sufficed, and there have been no signs of relapse." 

4th Case. — Uterine and Nervous Prostration. 

"Mrs. S., 45 years of age, had naturally a frail constitution, 
was from youth weak and delicate, with a tendency to nervous 
prostration; easily despondent, and ready to give up when ill. 
Her natural weakness had resulted in and been augmented by 
uterine difficulties which had continued for ten years, and had 
at last broken down her entire system, when she called on us for 
professional advice. Her condition was such that the slightest 
exertion completely overcame her and sent her to bed for days 
at a time; the influence of 'the change of life,' had brought on 
the crisis in an illness that kept her bedfast, which was directly 
attributed to a brief visit to the Centennial Exhibition; but this 
last was but a feather in the balance — the attack was impending 
and the excitement of the visit only hastened it. We applied 
the blue and red light treatment, alternating not at equal inter- 
vals, but according to variations in her symptoms. Her re- 
covery was rapid and permanent — a whole day at the Centennial 
some time afterwards did not over fatigue her. She has enjoyed 
better health uniformly since the treatment than ever before." 

V. When the Red is Injurious. 



1. Red is injurious, of course, when there is already too much 
of the red, or inflammatory condition of the system, such as the 
predominance of red hair, very rubicund countenance, or feverish 
and excitable condition generally. 

Iron, the preparations of which abound in the red, is "contra- 
indicated in inflammatory diseases, producing, when injudiciously 
employed, heat, thirst, head-ache, difficulty of breathing and other 
symptoms of an excited circulation;" "contra-indicated in the 
sanguine temperament generally." 

2. The same is true of the other red elements, or of elements 
in which red abounds in the spectrum, but the principle is too 
obvious to need further examples. The exciting effect of red 



WHEN THE RED IS INJURIOUS. 



285 



objects on various animals is also well known. That red light 
has exactly the same exciting effect is well known. I quote the 
following from a letter of a thoughtful observer, Edwin M. Hale, 
M. D., to the Chicago Tribune: — 

3. "In one of the French Insane Asylums, not only the blue 
ray but others were tried, and the effect was very interesting. 
The red ray caused results which confirmed the popular belief in 
its exciting, maddening, influence. When violent and maniacal 
patirnts were placed in rooms where the red ray predominated, 
they became worse. All the violent symptoms were aggravated. 
If these patients were removed to a room where the blue ray 
predominated, they became calm and quiet. It is related that 
one patient, a woman, whose delirium was greatly aggravated by 
the red ray, immediately said on going into the blue room — 'how 
soothing that is,' and shortly after, when left alone, fell asleep." 

4. Thermel must naturally produce an effect somewhat similar 
to that of red, so far as its heating qualities are concerned, but 
being invisible cannot, of course, affect one through the optic 
nerve. 

5. Dr. Pancoast speaking of the red light says that "if em- 
ployed to excess, as to amount or time, the red light over-excites 
the nervous system and may produce dangerous fevers or other 
disorders that may prove as troublesome as the evil we are seek- 
ing to correct. We seldom employ red light to the exclusion of 
the other rays, and it should never be so employed, except in 
extreme cases, when prompt action is the first consideration." 

The danger of the above "exclusive red light," which Dr. 
Pancoast deems so great as to require "a skilful physician," may 
be averted by using the red glass only a few minutes at a time 
at first, taking the precaution when the system becomes too hot, 
to put blue glass in its place, or a wet bandage over the head. 
For general cases, however, it would be better to have blue glass 
over the head and red and clear glass over the rest of the body in 
conditions of lethargy. A better arrangement still is the instru- 
ment devised by the author called the Chromolume, in which 
both physiological and chemical laws are complied with in the 
harmonic arrangement of glass. See explanation in XXIII and 
XXIV of this chapter. 



286 CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 

VI. The Healing Power of Yellow and Orange. 

We have seen in the last chapter (XIX, 3) the law by which the 
nerves become stimulated, more especially by the yellow color, 
and to some extent by the orange and even the red, these prin- 
ciples being included in the substance of the nerves themselves. 
We have seen that the more violent nerve stimuli include some- 
thing of the red or orange as well as the yellow, that drugs taken 
internally, when sufficiently active and exciting and working, no 
doubt, to some extent upon the vascular as well as the nervous 
tissues of the stomach, cause that quick repulsive action which 
is termed emetic; that those drugs whose yellow principle 
works somewhat more slowly, do not exert their expansive and 
repulsive action until they reach the bowels and thus constitute 
laxatives, or when sufficiently active, purgatives; that certain 
drugs which have an affinity for the liver and bile, causing them 
to act, are called cholagogues; that those which stimulate the 
kidneys are called diuretics; those which stimulate the uterus, 
from some special affinity they may have for that organ, are 
called emmenagogues; those which stimulate the nerves of the 
skin and to some extent the vascular glands in a way to cause 
perspiration are called diaphoretics; those which stimulate 
the nerves of the skin and call the blood outward until the sur- 
face becomes reddened are called Rubefacients. In all cases 
yellow is the central principle of nerve stimulus as well as the 
exciting principle of the brain which is the fountain head of the 
nerves, although, as we have seen, the more violent elements of 
stimulus approach the red, especially where vascular action is 
called forth. Those elements which act more directly to excite 
the brain, are called cerebral stimulants. I will give a few 
examples of the different drugs and foods which belong to the 
various departments of nerve action: — 

VII. Emetics, Yellow with some Red and Orange. 

1. Indian Hemp (Apocynum Cannabinum). The root is of 
"a yellowish brown while young, but dark chesnut (red brown) 
when old, with a nauseous acrid taste." "The internal ligneous 
part is yellowish white." "Powerfully emetic and cathartic, 
sometimes diuretic." 



LAXATIVES AND PURGATIVES. 



287 



2. Lobclina. "The active principle of lobelia is a yellowish 
liquid." "Lobelia is emetic, occasionally cathartic, diapho- 
retic," etc. 

3. Tartar Emetic (KSbC 4 H 4 7 , H 2 0), "a white crystal- 
line salt," with the yellow, orange and red all strongly developed 
in the spectra of its elements. "According to the dose it acts 
variously as a diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, purgative and 
emetic." 

4. Bloodroot (sanguinaria). "The whole plant is pervaded 
by an orange colored sap. The color of the powder is brownish 
red." The leaf "is yellowish green on the upper surface, paler 
or glaucous on the under, and strongly marked, by orange-colored 
veins." "Sanguinaria is an acrid emetic, with stimulant and 
narcotic powers." 

5. The fact that emetics deal so much in the red as well as in 
the yellow principle shows that they act more or less upon the 
blood and muscular tissues as well as the nerves. "The action 
of an emetic is directly or indirectly upon the nerve centres that 
supply these muscles. * * All emetics acting through the blood 
produce more or less depression." (Hartshorne). Emetics act 
principally upon the pneumogastric nerve. 

VIII. Laxatives and Purgatives — Yellow the principal 

COLOR, OR RED IN DRASTIC PURGATIVES. 



1. Podophylhtm or May Apple. "Yellowish green petioles." 
"The fruit is lemon yellow, diversified by brownish spots." 
"The powder is light yellowish gray." "An active and certain 
cathartic. In some cases it has given rise to nausea and vom- 
iting." "A hydragogue and cholagogue." The office of a 
cholagogue is to cause a flow of bile, which is of itself a yellow 
or yellow green fluid that has a laxative effect as it passes 
into the duodenum and lower bowels. 

2. Senna, (Cassia Marilandica). "Flowers beautiful golden 
yellow; the calyx is composed of five oval yellow leaves; the 
stamens are ten, with yellow filaments and brown anthers." 
"An efficient and safe cathartic." 

3. Colocynth (colocynthis). "Flowers are yellow." "Fruit 
yellow when ripe." "Contains a white spongy medullary mat- 
ter." "A powerful hydragogue cathartic." 



288 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



4. Copaiba. "A transparent liquid of a pale yellow color." 
It is "stimulant, diuretic, laxative." 

5. Gluten, phosphate of lime, etc., which constitute the hard 
yellow portion of grains near the external portion, are somewhat 
laxative. 

6. Figs (Ficus). "The best are yellowish or brownish." 
"Figs are nutritious, laxative and demulcent." 

7. Magnesia (MgO). The yellow-green principle strongest 
in the spectrum of magnesium. "Antacid and laxative." 

8. Magnesium Carbonate (MgC0 3 ). The yellow strong in 
both carbon and magnesium. "Laxative." 

9. Castor Oil (Oleum Ricini). "Yellowish." "A mild ca- 
thartic." 

10. Olive Oil (Oleum Olivse). "Pale yellow or greenish yel- 
low." "Nutritious and mildly laxative, given in case of irritable 
intestines. " 

11. Sulphur is "pale yellow * * laxative, diaphoretic," etc. 

12. Magnesium Sulphate (Epsom salt, MgS0 4 ), has the 
strong yellow principle of magnesium and sulphur, but is toned 
down by the cool blue of oxygen, so it is called "a mild and 
safe cathartic," a "refrigerant," etc. 

13. Eggs (Ovum). "The yolk in its raw state is thought to 
be laxative." 

14. Prunes (Prunum). Yellowish brown or orange brown. 
"Laxative and nourishing." 

15. Peaches have a yellowish pulp. Gently laxative. 

16. Cape Aloes (Aloe). "Powder greenish yellow." "Cathar- 
tic." 

17. Many more similar examples could be given, but these are 
quite sufficient to establish the potency of yellow as connected 
with the nerves of the bowels. I will quote the following, how- 
ever, to show that when we appeal more to the red principle with 
drugs we reach the coarser elements of blood and thus produce 
a more severe and drastic effect than when dealing more ex- 
clusively with the finer elements of the nerves: — 

18. Gamboge when broken "is of a uniform reddish orange, 
which becomes a beautiful bright yellow." "Gamboge is a power- 
ful drastic hydragogue cathartic, very apt to produce nausea and 
vomiting, when given in the full dose." 



HEALING POWER OF YELLOW LAXATIVE, ETC. 



289 



19. Black Hellebore (Helleborus niger). "The flower stem 
is reddish toward the base," has "rose like flowers." The petals 
are of a white or pale rose color with occasionally a greenish 
tinge." The root is "externally, black or deep brown, internally 
white or yellowish white, producing on the tongue a burning 
and benumbing expression, like that which results from taking 
hot liquids into the mouth." "Black Hellebore is a drastic 
hydragogue cathartic possessed also of emmenagogue powers. 
The fresh root applied to the skin produces inflammation and 
even vesication." A good example of the burning qualities of 
black and red. 

20. Croton Oil (Oleum Tiglii), "varies from a pale yellow to 
a dark reddish brown. Its taste is hot and acrid — it is a power- 
ful hydragogue cathartic, in large doses apt to excite vomiting 
and severe pain." 

21. Senna (Cassia acutifolia, etc.). "The leaflets are yellowish 
green color, the flowers are yellow, the fruit grayish brown." 
"The infusion is of a deep reddish brown color. When exposed 
to the air a short time, it deposits a yellowish insoluble precipi- 
tate. It is a prompt and safe purgative. An objection some- 
times urged against it is that it is apt to produce severe griping 
pain." 

22. Rhubarb (Rheum). "Good rhubarb is yellow, with a 
slight reddish brown tinge;" — "unites a cathartic with an as- 
tringent power, the latter of which does not interfere with the 
former, as the purgative effect precedes the astringent; * * ap- 
pears to affect the muscular fibres more than the secretory 
vessels. It sometimes occasions griping pains in the bowels." 

23. Why it is that a substance like potassium tartrate, and 
other saline substances may have the rubific element of potas- 
sium, and yet be but a "mild refrigerant cathartic," is easily 
explained by noticing the amount of oxygen (C4H 4 K 2 6 ) which 
moderates and cools the thermal and expansive qualities of the 
other substances, and acts somewhat as it does in acids. 

19 



290 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



IX. Healing Power of Yellow Light aided by Some Red 
and Orange: — Laxative, Animating, etc. 

1st Case. — Costtveness. 

In a case of costiveness at my office, during the month of 
June, I let the sunlight pass through some yellow-orange glass 
of a hue which is usually termed yellow, and over which I had 
placed a lens to concentrate the rays the better at certain points. 
I gradually moved the focus of the yellow light over the whole 
bowels but especially over the descending color on the left lower 
side. Commencing at 2 p.m., I continued the process for 10 
minutes. The perspiration was started over the whole body, 
although the thermometer stood at only 70° F. In 5 minutes af- 
ter receiving the light, the bowels commenced the rattling mo- 
tion similar to what is experienced with physic, and in 18 min- 
utes a gentle passage was caused, and that wholly without pain. 
Some persons would require 2 or 3 times as long an application 
as the above. I have caused the same results with the chromo- 
disc to be described hereafter. Any deep yellow glass would 
act in the same way, but the yellow-orange hollow lens which, 
the author has devised, is more prompt and effective than any 
other instrument, and charges the water within for internal use 
while it is being used externally. 

2d Case. — Bronchial Difficulty. 



In a case of Chronic bronchial irritation, I used the chromo- 
disc over the breast, straining a hot sunlight thus concentrated by 
reflection, through yellow glass. In less than a minute I was 
able to rubricate the skin. I used it about 15 or 20 minutes each 
day for several days. The patient felt uncommonly animated 
and clear in his mental perceptions, and his bronchial difficult- 
ties gradually decreased. The same result would, of course, be 
produced by means of yellow glass without the chromo-disc, by 
taking a longer time, or even by hot sunlight, by taking a still 
longer time. The Chromo Lens to be hereafter described is 
entirely unequalled in the rapidity and power of its action. 



HEALING POWER OF YELLOW LIGHT, ETC. 



291 



3d Case. — Costiveness cured by Charged Water, etc. 

Knowing as I did the power of the yellow and orange light to 
act upon the system directly, I concluded at once that it must 
have the power of so charging other substances that they would 
act upon the system in the same way, and as ordinary lamp light 
and gas light abound in the yellow-orange principle of carbon, 
etc., I was confident that they might be used with yellow glass 
to good advantage. 

Having been costive for a few days I held a small half-ounce 
amber colored vial of water close to a kerosene lamp for 7 min- 
utes, before retiring, and then drank it. In the morning I had 
two gentle passages without any pain, and for weeks experienced 
no return of costiveness. This is a good example to show the 
enduring character of the cures wrought by the finer elements. 

4th Case. — Animating and Laxative Effect of Do. 

The following letter from Mr. E. Norris, Artist, 59 Columbia 
St., Albany, N. Y., will explain itself: — 

"Dr. Babbitt: My Dear Sir: — I have tried the novel experi- 
ment of the yellow light and have been astonished at the results. 
I have found water charged with the sun's rays through yellow 
glass to be an absolute and to me unfailing cathartic; in small 
doses a gentle laxative, and in all cases exhilarative to the 
spirits. What its qualities are beyond these effects I do not 
know, but this much seems certain and it is marvelous. To me 
it is a great blessing, and I shall remember you with kind feel- 
ings. I am quite well, made, and kept so, by the yellow light." 

5th Case. — Do. 



A lady of East Tennessee, who had suffered with constipation 
and feeble health for many years, was advised to drink water 
charged in yellow bottles. She wrote me that she was drinking 
water charged in yellow wine bottles, and asked me to send her 
bottles of the right shade of color, remarking as follows: "My 
bowels have been acted upon now five successive days. I am so 
delighted that I can scarcely wait the intervening time before re- 
ceiving yours." I had not then got my yellow chromo lenses ready, 
and so had to recommend the poor substitute of yellow bottles. 



292 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



6th Case. — Costiveness and Hemorrhoids. 



Mrs. C. A. von Cort, of New York, author of "Household 
Treasure and Medical Adviser," and a lady of considerable 
medical experience, received from me a bottle of sugar of milk 
which I had charged with yellow-orange light, and the usual 
dose of which was an amount as large as one to three peas. 
Concerning its effects she wrote me the following letter, speaking 
of her experience in giving to Mrs. VanKeuren, of Mor- 
risania, and enclosing a note from the latter: — 

"Mrs. VanKeuren has suffered with hemorrhoids so severely 
that all ordinary purgatives which her physicians have given her, 
cause intense pain, and prove very prostrating. Your medicine 
charged with the yellow-light is elegant, and works gently and 
admirably." C. A. von Cort. 

The following is Mrs. Van Keuren's letter: — 

"Mrs. von Cort: — Please tell the doctor that the medicine 
you gave me has had the desired effect. The first needed a little 
assistance, the last one after 24 hours relieved me without help 
almost free from pain. I feel easier to-night than I have been 
for months." 

The first dose was doubtless too small, on account of her 
great costiveness. In severe cases it would be well to take two 
to four teaspoonfuls of charged water before each meal, until the 
bowels move, or even every hour in an emergency. The water 
can be charged somewhat in a few minutes of bright sunlight, 
but I allow my lenses to lie out of doors on the window ledge 
where the light can strike them constantly, meantime putting in 
fresh water every two or three days in hot weather to keep it 
pure. I have tested the power of water charged in these yellow- 
orange lenses in a great number of cases, and uniformly with the 
same effect, excepting with two or three persons whose bowels 
were already in a positive and active condition. With these no 
change was discovered. I also had a patient whose bowels were 
so very much constricted as to resist all ordinary medicine, and 
which resisted a single dose or two of the charged yellow water, 
but I feel confident that if the water had been taken hourly the 
proper result would have been accomplished during the day. 

I use deep blue lenses for water to check diarrhoea, or inflam- 



DIURETICS, DIAPHORETICS, EMMENAGOGUES, ETC. 



293 



mation, or sleeplessness, as will be seen hereafter. I have also 
a few purple lenses in which I charge water for indigestion, 
although I may not be able to supply the public yet, excepting 
a few physicians, to whom it is highly important, as their manu- 
facture for a small number is troublesome. 

The above examples, and all of my experience with the 
yellow-charged water, or blue-charged water, go to prove the 
gentle, safe and enduring effect of these refined elements, and 
their influence on the mind, in harmony with principle XV of 
Chapter First, and the reason of this deep and radical influence 
is that they deal directly with the nerve-forces which lie at the 
seat of power, instead of the blood, or muscles, or other subsid- 
iary functions, and that, too, without clogging the system with 
coarse and poisonous elements, such as is too commonly done 
with drugs. 

X. Diuretics, Diaphoretics, Emmenagogues, etc.: — 

YELLOW AIDED BY A CONSIDERABLE RED. 



Several of these have already been given. A few more will 
suffice to settle the principle. 

1. Dandelion (taraxacum). "It has a golden yellow flower. 
The fresh, full grown root is of a light brown color externally, 
whitish within, having a yellowish ligneous cord running through 
its center. Taraxacum is slightly tonic, diuretic and aperient; 
and it is thought to have a specific action upon the liver." 

2. Pure Carbonate of Potassium (C0 3 K 2 . 2xH 2 0). Red 
and yellow principle modified by the blue in the spectrum. 
"Antacid, alkaline and diuretic." 

3. Potassium Nitrate (Salt Petre, N0 3 K or N0 2 (OK). 
The red, yellow and blue principles all strong in the spectrum. 
"Refrigerant diaphoretic." 

4. Sassafras Oil (Oleum Sassafras). "Yellowish, becoming 
reddish by age." "A mild diaphoretic." 

5. Seneka (Senega). "Externally brownish, internally yellow- 
ish." "An active, stimulating expectorant, acting in overdoses 
like squill, as a harsh emetic, and also having some tendency 
towards the kidneys. 

6. Buchu (Leaves of Barosma). "Brownish yellow," etc. 



294 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



"Gently stimulant, with a particular tendency to the urinary organs, 
producing diuresis, and like all similar medicines, exciting 
diaphoresis when circumstances favor this mode of action. " 

7. Oil of Savine (Oleum Sabinse Ci H 8 ). "Colorless or 
yellow," has also the red principle of hydrogen, "is stimulant, 
emmenagogue and actively rubefacient." 

8. Mustard (Sinapis). "Black mustard seeds are of a deep 
brown color, slightly rugose on the surface, and internally yellow. 
White mustard seeds are of a yellowish color and less pungent 
taste." "Mustard seeds act as a gentle laxative." Its powder 
made into a poultice, or sinapism, "is an excellent rubefacient." 

XL Cerebral Stimulants: — Yellow with some Red and 

Orange. 



1. Opium is "reddish brown or deep fawn — when pulverized, 
a yellow-brown powder. Opium is a stimulant narcotic; it in- 
creases the force, fulness and frequency of the pulse, animates 
the spirits and gives new energy to the intellectual faculties. 
Its operation is directed with peculiar force to the brain, the 
functions of which it excites even to intoxication or delirium." 
After this comes the reaction in the form of sleep, then "nausea, 
headache, tremors — all the secretions, with the exception of that 
from the skin, are either suspended or diminished; the peristal- 
tic action of the bowels is lessened," etc. 

2. Saffron (Crocus), "has a rich deep orange color." "In 
small doses it exhilarates the spirits and produces sleep; in large 
doses gives rise to headache, intoxication, delirium, etc. 

3. Valerian (Valeriana). "The powder is yellowish gray. It 
is gently stimulant with an especial direction to the nervous sys- 
tem. In large doses it produces a sense of heaviness, pain in 
the head," etc. 

4. Ether is a colorless fluid, but strong in the yellow principle 
of carbon and the red principle of hydrogen (C 4 H 10 O). "Ether 
is a powerful diffusible stimulant, possessed also of expectorant, 
antispasmodic and narcotic properties." "Its effects are in- 
creased arterial action with delirium and diminished sensibility, 
followed by unconsciousness," etc. 

5. Water, charged with yellow and some red light through 
a yellow chromo lens, is stimulating to the brain and nerves, 



WHEN YELLOW IS INJURIOUS. 



295 



as signified in IX of this chapter, and leaves no bad after 
effects, as is the case with drugs. 

XII. Tonics: — Yellow and Red Predominant. 

1. Tonics are substances which gently and persistently 
stimulate and invigorate the human system, especially the nutria- 
tive and blood-making functions. I have already given several 
of them in the preceding matter and will mention but few here. 
Some of the best tonics have a fair share of the electrical colors 
also. Vegetable tonics are generally bitter and appetizing. 
Quinine and Iron are called the most important tonics. 

2. Quassia, yellowish, flowers sometimes red. "Highly 
tonic." 

3. Gold thread (Coptis). Roots of a golden color. "Tonic 
bitter." 

4. Gentian (Gentiana), "yellowish powder." "Tonic." 

5. Peruvian Bark (Cinchona). Pale, yellow and red varieties. 
"Excites warmth in the epigastrium," etc. "Nausea and vomit- 
ing," also "purging" sometimes caused. "Frequency of the 
pulse is increased." Its action upon the nervous system is of- 
ten evinced by a sense of tension, or fulness, or slight pain in 
the head, singing in the ears and partial deafness." Its most 
important extract is Quinine or Quinia, whose component parts 
are as follows, NC20H12O2. 

6. Iron, already described, see III of this chapter. 

7. Myrrh (Myrrha), "reddish yellow or reddish brown." 
"Tonic and stimulating, with a tendency to the lungs and 
uterus." 

8. Ginger (Zingiber), "yellowish brown." "A powerful 
stimulant." 

9. Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum). "Piperin the active prince- 
pie of pepper is in transparent crystals — as ordinarily procured 
it is yellow." Formula of piperin, according to Wertheim, N 2 
C70H37O10. "Black pepper is a warm, carminative stimulant, 
capable of producing general arterial excitement." 

XIII. When Yellow is Injurious. 



1. Yellow is injurious and over exciting to a system which 



296 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



has the nervous condition already very active and perhaps irrita- 
ble. Dormant, paralytic, costive, cold, chronic and stupid condi- 
tions, inert tumors, etc., are greatly relieved by the yellow aided 
by the red principle, but in fevers, acute inflammations, delirium, 
diarrhoea, neuralgia, palpitation of the heart, and over excitement 
of any kind, it is evident enough that these colors are contra- 
indicated. I will quote briefly again from Dr. Hale: — 

2. "Green is a quieting color, if not too green. A dark green 
is like a dark blue, it seems to lose its calmative power. Nor 
must the green have a suggestion of yellow in it, for yellow, like 
red, irritates the nerves of the insane. I have had patients who 
begged to have the yellow shades removed from the windows, it 
'irritated them so.' In the asylum to which I have alluded, there 
were a number of patients afflicted with melancholy. Some of 
them were placed in the blue rooms, others in the green. In 
both instances their malady seemed aggravated, or at least not 
benefited. Those placed in the yellow rooms complained that 
it made them feel badly. They become morose. All were bene- 
fited, however, by being placed in the red room, or in rooms 
lighted by ultra violet rays. The extreme violet rays, which some 
would call purple, are very stimulating to the nervous system. 
Children become exceedingly nervous from the bright sunlight, 
containing an excess of red and yellow rays. When ill from 
teething, from fever, and especially when the brain is affected, 
they instinctively turn from these rays, and seem to be soothed 
by a pale blue, or gray light." 

3. These remarks show a thoughtful study of the subject on 
the part of Dr. Hale, but should be modified slightly to prevent 
readers from being misled. Dark green and dark blue are spoken 
of as not being calmative in their nature. The doctor is evident- 
ly speaking of those persons who are melancholy and are already 
overstocked with the blue venous blood. To such ones these 
colors would simply be adding sombreness to sombreness, and of 
course they would not calm them. All the electrical colors must 
be more or less calmative to an excited human system as will be 
shown hereafter. All the circumstances with reference to the 
inmates of the asylum, show that their melancholy was due to a 
considerable extent to an excess of venous blood, from their re- 
pugnance to blue, and to an excess of nervous sensibility from 



WHEN YELLOW IS INJURIOUS. 



297 



their being injured by the yellow. Whenever they were under 
the chemical affinity of the yellow, namely the violet, they were 
benefited, not because the ultra violet is stimulating to the 
nerves, as the doctor supposes, but just the contrary as already 
shown (Chap. Fifth, XX, 18). Their nerves were already over 
excitable. A red purple is stimulating, especially to the blood. 
The stimulus which they most needed was in the red to offset 
the excess of blue in the veins, and this is the reason that the 
red was so useful to them. My own experience has shown me 
that persons with the erysipelas or an excitable nervous condition, 
cannot endure much of the strong sunlight without harm. The 
red, orange and yellow rays prove too exciting for them. A lady 
patient who inherited something of an erysipelatous condition, 
and was also neuralgic and otherwise excitable until she had spells 
of insanity, always became worse after taking baths of white light 
and found even blue and white light too exciting for her. 
Blue glass was far more soothing, but the glass which she used 
being mazarine, admitted so many of the other more exciting 
rays, that she could not use that very long at a time without feel- 
ing their exciting effect. I advised two thicknesses of the blue 
and the exclusion of all other rays. 

4. One great reason why yellow rules in the most violent of 
poisons, such as Prussic acid and strychnine, is because of the 
prominence of the yellow principle as a stimulus of the nerves 
combined with the red principle as a stimulus of the blood. Thus 
strychnine, according to Liebig, is composed as follows: N 2 C 44 
H 23 4 , which shows a decided predominance of the yellow 
principle in the carbon, much power of the red in the hydrogen, 
and not enough of the electrical oxygen to balance the irritating 
and fiery action of these thermal elements. "Next to Prussic 
acid, strichnia is perhaps the most violent poison in the cata- 
logue of medicines." Prussic acid is constituted as follows: — 
CNH, which gives great power of the yellow principle in carbon, 
and even in nitrogen, predominating red in the hydrogen and no 
decided electrical element to balance all this thermism, although 
the nitrogen may be considered slightly more electrical than it 
is thermal when in combination. "Strichnine acts especially as 
an excitor of the motor filaments of the spiral cord, causing tonic 
muscular contractions." "Hydrocyanic (prussic) acid, in poison- 



298 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



ous doses, acts conjointly on the cerebrum and spinal cord. All 
the animals I have seen killed by this agent, utter a scream, lose 
their consciousness and are convulsed. These are the symptoms 
of epilepsy. * * * The phenomena of epilepsy are eminently 
congestive. While the cerebral functions are for the time anni- 
hilated, the spinal ones are violently excited." (Bennett.) When 
prussic acid is taken in large amounts, the patient may fall almost 
as if struck by lightning." 

5. The yellow principle then being so powerful in its action 
on the nerves, we may easily understand why large doses of yel- 
low drugs are said to cause convulsions, delirium, vomiting, dras- 
tic purging, etc. Even so mild a substance as coffee with its 
yellow brown principle is said to be "contra-indicated in acute 
inflammatory affections," causing "nervous excitement" and a 
"disposition to wakefulness." Of dandelion it is said that "an 
irritable condition of the stomach and bowels, and the existence 
of acute inflammation centra-indicate its employment." Other 
even more active drugs with yellow, and especially with yellow 
and orange, or yellow and red potencies predominant, such as 
mercury, jalap, opium, alcohol, etc., must be still more disastrous 
to a sensitive nervous or sanguine system, especially when taken 
in large amounts. Coffee, though yellowish brown and laxative 
in some of its elements, has an astringent principle in its tannin. 
Those who wish to escape some of the worst effects of coffee, 
should not let it steep more than five to ten minutes, when the 
coffee grounds should be removed from the liquid to prevent the 
tannin from escaping into it. Under such circumstances I have 
found coffee laxative than otherwise. 

XIV. Healing Power of Blue and Violet. 

NERVINE, ASTRINGENT, REFRIGERENT, FEBRIFUGE AND SEDATIVE. 



1 . We come now to the cold, electrical and contracting poten- 
cies, which are very fine and penetrating, and also very soothing 
to all systems in which inflammatory and nervous conditions 
predominate. As we have seen in the last chapter, substances 
combine in a harmonizing union with those substances whose 
colors form a chemical affinity with their own and thus keep up 
that law of equilibrium which is the safety of all things. This 



HEALING POWER OF BLUE AND VIOLET. 



299 



law having been so abundantly explained, it is obvious beyond 
all guess work, that if the red arterial blood should become over 
active and inflammatory, blue light or some other blue substance 
must be the balancing and harmonizing principle, while again, 
if the yellow and to some extent the red and orange principle of 
the nerves should become unduly excited, the violet and also the 
blue and indigo would be the soothing principles to have applied. 
This applies to the nerves of the cranium, stomach, bowels, and 
kidneys, as well as elsewhere, in which the heating and expansive 
action of these thermal principles may beget the condition of 
delirium, emesis, diarrhoea, diuresis, etc., that can be assuaged 
only by the cooling and contracting influences of substances 
possessing the electrical colors. Can this law, which thus 
stands out clearly and simply like a mathematical demonstration, 
be shown to have a basis in actual practice in harmony with the 
experience of the medical world for ages back? The following 
are a few of the many facts that settle these principles and assist 
in crystallizing them into a chromo-therapeutical science. In 
considering them, the reader, who has become familiar with the 
working of atoms (Chap. Third), will readily understand that the 
electrical blue and violet forming atoms of substances, being the 
interior ones which are encased more or less by thermal atoms, 
must have their colors in part or wholly concealed at times by 
the encasing atoms, or at other times subject to the law of met- 
achromism which reverses the usual order of things especially in 
binary compounds (See Chap. Fifth, XX, 19, and XXII, 4, which 
the reader should be familiar with before proceeding farther). 
The law as a whole stands out in prominent light: — 

2. Aconite (Aconitum napellus). "Flowers dark violet blue." 
"A powerful nervous sedative and anodyne." "Applicable to 
cerebral inflammations." 

3. Belladonna, or Deadly night-shade, "has purplish stems," 
leaves "ultimately of a deep purple color, with violet colored 
juice." "The root is reddish brown, internally whitish." "Has 
sometimes been mistaken for a parsnip." "Soothes irritation and 
pain particularly in nervous maladies;" "is a powerful narcotic, 
possessing also diaphoretic and diuretic qualities," "causes 
dilatation of the pupil," "a powerful poison." Belladonna, from 
its large amount of yellow and red principle in its carbon and 



300 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



hydrogen, is stimulating, and from its electrical principle is sooth- 
ing, thus combining both styles of force. 

4. Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea). "Beautiful purple flow- 
ers;" "Powder of a fine deep green," "a red coloring principle, 
chlorophyl, albumen, starch, etc. Digitalis is narcotic, sedative 
and diuretic." In large doses a strong poison, leading to "con- 
vulsions, vomiting," etc. 

5. Ergot (Ergota), "is in solid grains of violet brown color 
externally, yellowish white or violet white within." "Ergot has 
been much used for promoting contraction of the uterus." Dr. 
Muller found it to check the bleeding from large divided arteries 
(applied externally), and Dr. Wright states that "either in pow- 
der or infusion it has a prompt effect in arresting hemorrhage." 

6. Cranesbill (Geranium). "Large purple, often spotted 
flowers." "Our best native astringent." 

7. Logwood (Hsematoxylon). "The flowers have a brownish 
purple calyx, and lemon yellow petals." "Of itself it is not a 
coloring substance, but affords beautiful red, blue and purple 
colors by the joint action of an alkaline base and the oxygen of 
the air. It is a mild astringent." "Contains tannin, — blue black 
variety." 

8. Purple Willow Herb (Lythrum salicaria). "Showy purple 
flowers." "Is demulcent and astringent." 

9. Indigo. "The complaints in which it has been employed 
with supposed advantage are epilepsy, infantile convulsions, 
chorea, hysteria and amenorrhcea." 

10. Phosphoric Acid (P0 4 H 3 ), the blue principle of Oxygen 
predominant. "When diluted is deemed tonic and refrigerant," 
"allaying spasms," etc. 

11. Sulphuric Acid (S0 4 H 2 ). Blue, indigo, and violet very 
strong. "Diluted, it is tonic, refrigerant and astringent." 

12. Nitric Acid (N 2 6 OH 2 ). Blue, indigo, etc. "Tonic 
and antiseptic." "Largely diluted with water, forms a good acid 
drink in febrile diseases." 

13. Hydrochloric Acid (HC1). Blue-green, blue and indigo, of 
chlorine, and blue-green, indigo and dark violet of hydrogen, 
giving some preponderance of electricity. "Tonic, refrigerant 
and antiseptic." 

14. Tartaric Acid (C 4 H 6 6 ). Blue and violet strongest. 
"Refrigerant." 



HEALING POWER OF BLUE AND VIOLET. 



301 



15. Tannic Acid (C27H22O17). In this important compound 
the powders of which are light bluish yellow, it may be supposed 
that the thermal principle rules from the amount of Carbon and 
hydrogen, but when we remember that it takes two atoms of hy- 
drogen to balance one of oxygen as in water, and that hydro- 
gen and even carbon are strong in the electrical colors, it may 
easily be understood why electricity as a whole has the mastery 
in this substance, although a part of the electrical atoms are 
encased in the yellow atoms of carbon. "The chief principle of 
vegetable astringents." "Used for hemorrhages," etc. 

16. Galls (Galla). "The best are externally of a dark bluish 
or lead color, sometimes with a greenish tinge, internally whitish 
or brownish." "Astringent." 

17. Sulphate of Copper (Cupric Sulphate, or blue vitroil S0 4 
Cu 5(OH 2 ). "Deep blue." "In small doses astringent; in 
large ones an emetic," from its yellow and orange principle. 

18. Ferrous Sulphate (Green Vitriol, Fe S0 4 ). "Pale bluish 
green." "Astringent and tonic." 

19. Blackberry (Rubus villosus). Violet colored juice. "As- 
tringent." 

20. Chloroform (CHC1 8 ). Strong blue and indigo, and some 
violet from preponderance of Chlorine. "A direct sedative to 
the nervous system, used as an anaesthetic by inhalation; but 
it frequently causes death by paralysis of the heart." 

21. Chloral hydrate (C 2 HC1 3 0. H 2 0). Predominance of blue, 
indigo and violet, but better balanced by thermism than chloro- 
form. For the promotion of sleep as an anodyne, it is much 
inferior to opium. Generally its after effects are less disagree- 
able than those of opiates. "Considerably used in delirium 
tremens and tetanus." "Poison." 

Green Tea (Thea viridis). "Green tea is characterized by a 
dark green color, sometimes inclining to blue or brown. Its in- 
fusion has a pale greenish yellow color." "Tea is astringent 
and gently excitant, and in its finer varieties exercise a decided 
influence over the nervous system," causing "exhilaration, 
wakefulness," etc. "Long continued in excessive quantity, it is 
capable of inducing unpleasant nervous and dyspeptic symptoms, 
the necessary consequence of over-excitement of the brain and 
nervous system. Green tea is decidedly more injurious in these 



302 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



respects than black." Green tea has 17.8 per cent of tannic 
acid. The reader will readily see that the double quality of pro- 
ducing excitement and astringency comes from the yellow and 
blue which combine to produce the green. 

XV. Healing Power of Blue or Violet Light.: — 

NERVINE, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, COOLING, ETC. 

In other words blue, indigo and violet light heal on exactly 
the same principles as do the drugs already named, only in a 
more exquisite, penetrating and less harmful way, from the supe- 
rior refinement of the elements thus received. To show that 
this is not mere theory, I will quote a few actual facts. 

1st Case. — Sciatica, Inflammation, etc. 



"An elderly lady on Hospital Place, off Lockwood street, has 
been afflicted with a sciatic difficulty for 11 years, and has not 
been entirely free from pain a single day during that time. Her 
age was 59, though she seemed to be 70. The disease was con- 
fined to the left limb, and the knee, ankle and foot would be 
swollen to twice their natural size. A week ago, 3 panes of blue 
glass were inserted in a west window, and the first bath was ap- 
plied to the ankle where the pain and soreness were located. In 
two or three hours a large lump on the ankle the size of a hen's 
egg and of a purplish color, entirely disappeared, as did also the 
pain and soreness. During the following night, the pain reap- 
peared in the foot, and the light being poor during the following 
two or three days, this point was not so easily relieved, but under 
a bath of strong light soon drove the peace destroyer away. But 
the most remarkable effect of blue glass sun baths on this pa- 
tient was witnessed on Sunday. The disease attacked her knee 
Saturday night, and she suffered the most excruciating agony. 
Sunday morning the knee was very much swollen, and the least 
weight upon her affected parts nearly threw her into spasms. As 
soon as possible the blue glass bath was taken, and in less than 
three quarters of an hour the pain had left, the swelling and 
soreness had disappeared, and the limb was to all appearance as 
healthy as it ever was. Yesterday she walked about the house 
as lively as a girl of 16. Another remarkable feature in this 



violent hemorrhage of the lungs. 



303 



case is that for over a year the toes of the left foot have been 
entirely useless, being benumbed; but the blue glass sun-baths 
have restored to her the full use of those members. — Providence 
Press, Feb. 14, 1877. 

2d Case. — Violent Hemorrhage of the Lungs. 



"A lady of my family, about six weeks ago, had a violent 
hemorrhage of the lungs, and for ten days raised more or less 
blood daily. She was very much weakened by the loss of blood, 
and considerably frightened withal. I obtained some blue glass 
and placed it in the window where she was in the habit of sitting, 
the blue glass constituting one-half of the lower sash of the win- 
dow. The lady sat daily in the associated lights, allowing the 
blue rays especially to fall upon the nerves of the back of the 
neck for about an hour a day. The second day, the sun's rays 
being unusually strong, she got 'too much blue glass,' and at 
night felt peculiar sensations in the back of the neck, among the 
nerves, and an unpleasant fulness in the head. These sensations 
wore off next day, and since then she has not remained so long 
at a time under the blue glass. But from the first she began to 
grow stronger, her face soon gained its natural fulness, and in a 
week she was, to all appearances, as well as ever. Of course, 
she was not cured of the trouble in her lungs in so short a time, 
but the soreness in her chest has passed away, and she begins 
to feel well again. After sitting in the associated light for a 
week, a large number of red pimples came out on her neck and 
shoulders, an indication that the treatment was bringing out to 
the surface the humors of the blood." From "Dutton" N. Y., 
Jan. 12, 1877, in Correspondence of Chicago Tribune. 

The expression in the above "she got too much blue glass" 
is incorrect. It should have been too much blue and transparent 
glass, as the stimulating white rays of the sun were totally wrong 
for such a case. She had too little blue glass. Even the maz- 
arine blue glass alone lets in too much of the other warmer rays 
to make it safe to take them on the head or upper spine for an 
hour at a time if the patient has a very sensitive brain or nervous 
system. This mistake results from the incorrectness of concept- 
ion which would make one method a panacea for everything. 



30! 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 

3d Case. — Cerebrospinal Meningitis. 



General Pleasanton received a letter from a lady in Cairo, 
Illinois, who had been afflicted with a dreadful case of spinal 
meningitis, and after suffering four years was cured by the blue 
light process. Condensed from N. Y. World. 

4th Case. — Neuralgic Headache. 

A merchant on Broadway informed the author that he came 
home from church one Sunday with a severe neuralgia and head- 
ache, and although he had no special faith in the blue glass, con- 
cluded he would try it. By sitting under mazarine blue glass 
30 minutes he was entirely relieved. 

5th Case. — General Nervousness. 

A benevolent lady physician of Vineland, New Jersey, 
informed me that she placed a large sheet of blue glass over one of 
her windows, and then set an easy chair in front of it, into 
which she invited her visitors. A feeble, nervous, elderly lady, 
who called frequently, was placed in the chair under the blue 
light. She immediately commenced improving, and after awhile 
concluded to ask the object of the blue glass in the window. 
After being told, she admitted that something had been making 
her feel much better, but could not tell before what it was. 

6th Case. — Rheumatism. 

The Hartford Post gives the account of a Mr. W. W. Larabee, 
proprietor of the Brower House, who was confined to his room 
with a severe attack of Rheumatism. A short course of blue 
sun baths gave him health and power to attend to business in a 
way which the paper calls "astonishing." 

7th Case. — Rheumatism. 

Dr. Robert Rohland of New York, in a letter to Gen. Pleas- 
anton says: "I exposed, about a year ago, a man suffering with 
severe rheumatism to the influence of blue light through two 
glass panes. He felt, after 15 minutes, much relieved, and could 
move about without pains, but complained of a nasty metallic 
taste on his tongue." 



BLUE LIGHT. COLORS FOR LUNACY. 



305 



Dr. Rohland speaks of another gentleman, a patient of Dr. 
Fincke, of Brooklyn, who, when his hand was placed in the blue 
light, experienced a taste like verdigris on his tongue. We have 
seen, Chapter Fifth XXI, 10, that copper, zinc and other metals 
must exist in blue light, although in that refined condition which 
prevents the poisonous effects of the crude metal. 

8th Case. — Tumor on an Infant. 

"In a little girl one month old, was found a hard resisting 
tumor about the size of a robin's egg, in the sub-maxillary region 
of the left side. I had it placed in such a position that the rays 
of light through a blue glass should impinge upon it, one hour 
at least each day. This tumefaction disappeared entirely within 
40 days. The child has developed astonishingly; is now seven 
months old; is exceedingly bright and happy; has not known 
an hour's sickness or discomfort. Its peculiar freedom from 
infantile ills, I attribute, at least in some degree, to the influence 
of the Blue Light. Wm. M. McLAURY (M. D.), to Gen. Pleas- 
anton in "Blue and Sun-Lights. " 

If a lens had been used in the above case to concentrate the 
rays in one place, and yellow orange glass, which has the rousing 
power of yellow and red, to animate the nerves and blood, alter- 
nated at times with blue, the cure would doubtless have been 
performed several times as soon. 

9th Case, or Series of Cases. — Colors for Lunacy. 



The following treatment of lunacy in an Italian Asylum, I 
copy from a condensed report. The ideas are somewhat vague, 
but mainly correct as far as they go: — 

Dr. Ponza, director of the lunatic asylum at Alessandria 
(Piedmont), having conceived the idea that the solar rays might 
have some curative power in diseases of the brain, communicated 
his views to Father Secchi of Rome, who replied: "The idea of 
studying the disturbed state of lunatics in connection with 
magnetic perturbations, and with the colored, especially violet 
light of the sun, is of remarkable importance." Such light is 
easily obtained by filtering the solar rays through a glass of that 
color. "Violet," adds Father Secchi, "has something melan- 

20 



306 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



choly and depressive about it, which, physiologically, causes low 
spirits; hence, no doubt, poets have draped melancholy in violet 
garments. Perhaps violet light may calm the nervous excitement 
of unfortunate maniacs." He then, in his letter, advises Dr. 
Ponza to perform his experiments in rooms, the walls of which 
are painted of the same color as the glass panes of the windows, 
which should be as numerous as possible, in order to favor the 
action of solar light, so that it may be admissible at any hour of 
the day. The patients should pass the night in rooms oriented 
to the east and the south, and painted and glazed as above. Dr. 
Ponza, following the instructions of the learned Jesuit, prepared 
several rooms in the manner described, and kept several patients 
there under observation. One of them affected with morbid 
taciturnity, became gay and affable after three hours' stay in a 
red chamber; another, a maniac who refused all food, asked for 
some breakfast after having stayed twenty-four hours in the same 
red chamber. In a blue one, a highly excited madman with a 
strait waistcoat on was kept all day; an hour after, he appeared 
much calmer. The action of blue light is very intense on the 
optic nerve, and seems to cause a sort of oppression. A patient 
was made to pass the night in a violet chamber; on the follow- 
ing day, he begged Dr. Ponza to send him home, because he felt 
himself cured, and indeed he has been well ever since. Dr. 
Ponza's conclusions from his experiments are these: "The violet 
rays are, of all others, those that possess the most intense electro- 
chemical power; the red light is also very rich in calorific rays; 
blue light, on the contrary, is quite devoid of them as well as of 
chemical and electric ones. Its beneficent influence is hard to 
explain; as it is the absolute negation of all excitement, it 
succeeds admirably in calming the furious excitement of ma- 
niacs." 

The soothing power of blue as tested in a French Insane 
Asylum, is shown in this chapter, IV. 3. The idea that blue 
light is devoid of "chemical and electrical rays" shows the pre- 
vailing ignorance on the subject. 

10th Case. — Sun-Stroke. 



Dr. Rohland has called my attention to a remarkable cure 
published in the N. Y. Evening Post. A Mr. E., of Englewood, 



BLUE LIGHT.— NERVOUS IRRITABILITY. 



307 



and doing business in New York City, had suffered severely for 
two years from the effects of a sun-stroke, and by merely wearing 
a blue band on the inside of his hat was entirely relieved. This 
is a refutation of the absurd idea which some still entertain, that 
color has no potency excepting when the sun shines upon it. 
Sunlight stimulates all colors into greater activity, but all sub- 
stances have their potencies according to their colors quite 
independent of light. 

11th Case. — Sciatica, etc. 

"Mrs. L., a widow aged 32, had been a severe sufferer for 
several years from Sciatica, with extreme tenderness in the 
lumbar region. We instructed her to sit daily for about two 
hours in a bath of all blue panes, with her back bared to the light. 
After the third sitting, the tenderness along her spine was almost 
entirely gone, while the distress and pain sensibly abated. This 
treatment continued but for ten days, when all symptoms disap- 
peared," Dr. Pancoasfs Blue and Red Light, p. 274. 

12th Case. — Cholera Infantum and Marasmus. 

"Master H., aged 18 months. This was a severe case of 
cholera infantum and marasmus brought on by teething in 
extremely warm weather; he had been under treatment by an 
excellent physician for some time, but was steadily declining. 
As the last faint hope we determined to try the blue treatment; 
he had been exceedingly irritable, but the blue light immediately 
soothed him into a gentle sleep and he came out of the bath 
calm and refreshed. Two months' treatment of him made him 
a fine healthy-looking child, with full, rosy cheeks and happy 
temper. We are confident that but for the blue ray this child 
must have died — no ordinary treatment could have saved him." 
Blue and Red Light. 

13th Case. — Nervous Irritability. 



Mr. T., aged 35. In consequence of long continued excessive 
physical and mental exertion, his nervous system was entirely 
disordered; the derangement manifested itself in nervousness, 
and trying irritability; he could not sleep at night, was disturbed 



308 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



by frightful dreams; his appetite was variable, sometimes rav- 
enous, at others, the very sight of food was an annoyance; his 
bowels varied, too, at times constipated, at others lax; he had 
frequent pains in his head, the least excitement unnerved him, 
and he was inclined to extreme despondency. His irritability 
forbade red light, and we determined to administer blue light 
with red light medicine. The beneficial results were imme- 
diate; his entire system improved rapidly; five baths actually 
restored a healthy tone to his nervous system, and he has since 
experienced nothing even of "nervousness," though his life is 
one of constant physical and mental activity." Blue and Red 
Light, p. 280. 

XVI. Healing Power of Blue and White Sunlight. 



This combination, of course, is more rousing and animating 
than blue or violet light alone, as it contains the electrical pow- 
er of the latter, and the healing power of all the rays combined 
in the ordinary white light. Gen. Pleasanton, who has demon- 
strated to the public the efficiency of combined blue and sun- 
light in vegetable growth and human healing, seems quite unac- 
quainted with the principle by which this is done, as most 
persons must be who do not understand atomic law and the 
principles of chemical affinity. He concludes that, as the rays 
of the sun come 186,000 miles per second and are all intercepted 
excepting the blue by the blue glass, their impact upon the glass 
produces negative electricity, "while the electrical condition of 
the glass is opposite, or positive, and heat is therefore evolved 
by their conjunction. This heat sufficiently expands the pores 
of the glass to pass through it and then you have within the 
apartment electricity, magnetism, light and heat, all essential 
elements of vital force." With reference to the above, I would 
say, 1st, that we would have the electricity, light, heat, etc., if 
there were no glass used; the same effects being produced by 
thin blue curtains, etc.; 2dly, the meaning of the terms positive 
and negative electricity, as commonly used, being entirely un- 
known, their use tends principally to blind one by means of words 
which smack of science but signify nothing; 3dly, the more the 
glass becomes heated by this action of sunlight, the more the 



HEALING power of blue and white sunlight. 



309 



heat rays will fail to pass through, as heat is repellant. The 
diathermancy of blue glass is exceedingly small, while the blue 
substance, sulphate of copper, is said to shut off all heat as shown 
by experiment, although the substance itself becomes warm by 
absorbing the heat rays, and this is a substance which makes 
perhaps the purest blue glass, especially when ammonia is added, 
and constitutes cupro-diammonium sulphate (N 2 H 6 Cu) S0 4 . 
Melloni has shown that plate glass shuts off over half of the heat 
rays of artificial light, while the mazarine blue glass must shut 
off more, and the cupro-sulphate blue the whole or nearly the 
whole. The blue should be understood to be of itself a cold 
electrical ray, so cold that when the thermometer stands at 56° 
F. in the blue rays of the spectrum, the yellow light will raise it 
to 62°, and the thermal to 79°, or nearly half as high again as the 
blue rays. How then does a mass of blue rays produce action 
when combined with a mass of white rays? We have seen in 
the Third and Fifth chapter that the blue color has a chemical 
affinity for the red, which being true, the blue rays of light must 
seize upon and combine with the red portion of the white 
light. I shall present facts a little farther on to show that 
while a small amount of blue with a larger proportion of white 
light will produce a greater heat than white light alone, yet an 
equal amount of blue and transparent glass placed side by side, 
is much more cooling than the ordinary transparent glass alone. 
In the following cases, which I quote mainly from General 
Pleasanton's work on "Blue and Sun-Lights,"* the blue light 
is probably in a considerable predominance so far as actual 
contact with the persons of the patients is concerned, and the 
effects already attributed to blue, are, as might be expected, the 
ones which generally appear. While the great error of General 
Pleasanton's book, therapeutically considered, is the one-sided- 
ness of recommending blue and white light for everything, yet if 
we were to take one combination only, this is perhaps as good 
as any that could be selected, as it gives the penetrating, calm- 
ing principle of blue, and the warming animating principle of 
white light, enabling one to take both at a time, with the head 
or any other warm and sensitive portion of the body under the 



*I think the grammar of his title would have been better under the name of 
Blue and White Sunlight, for both colors belong equally to the Sunlight. 



310 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



blue glass, while the colder portions are under the clear glass, 
or in case of fever or extra nervousness, to use the blue glass 
almost solely, while in case of a cold, dormant and chronic con- 
dition, the clear glass, or pure sunlight, should be used almost 
solely. In proving the advantage of the blue or violet combined 
with white light, in vegetable and animal life, Gen. Pleasanton 
has done a good thing for the world, and in spite of all his crude 
theories merits far more commendation than many of his critics 
who seem to have tried to offset his facts by their prejudices 

1st Case. — Sciatica. 

"About this time (Sept. 1871), one of my sons, about 22 
years of age, a remarkably vigorous and muscular young man, 
was afflicted with a severe attack of sciatica, or rheumatism of 
the sciatic nerve, in his left hip and thigh, from which he had 
been unable to obtain any relief, although the usual medical as 
well as galvanic remedies had been applied. He had become 
lame from it and he suffered much pain in his attempts to walk. 
I advised him to try the associated sun and blue light, both 
upon his naked spine and hip, which he did with such benefit, 
that at the end of three weeks, after taking the first of these 
baths of light, every symptom of the disorder disappeared, and 
he has had no return of it since, a period now of three years." 
Gen. Pleasanton 's Blue and Sun-Lights, p. 14. 

2d. Case. — Two Cures of Rheumatism. 



"Some time since, two of my friends, Major Generals S. and 
D. of the United States regular army, were on duty in this city. 
On making them a visit at their official residence, I saw on the 
window ledge, as I entered the room, a piece of blue glass of 
about the size of one of the panes of glass in the window. Af- 
ter some conversation, General D. said to me, Did you notice 
that piece of blue glass on the window ledge? I said I had ob- 
served it. 'Do you know what it is there for? ** S. and I have 
been suffering very much from rheumatism in our fore-arms, 
from the elbow joints to our fingers' ends; sometimes our fingers 
were so rigid that we could not hold a pen — we have tried al- 
most every remedy that was ever heard of for relief, but with- 



BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT. NERVOUS PROSTRATION. 



311 



out avail; at last I said to Gen. S., suppose we try Pleasanton's 
blue glass, to which he assented — when I sent for the glass and 
placed it on the window-ledge. When the sun began about ten 
o'clock in the morning to throw its light through the glass of the 
window, we took off our coats, rolled up our shirt sleeves to the 
shoulders, and then held our naked arms under the blue and 
sunlight; in three days thereafter, having taken each day one of 
these sun-baths for 30 minutes on our arms, the pains in them 
ceased, and we have not had any return of them since. We are 
cured.' 

"It is now more than two years since the date of my visit to 
these officers. Two months ago Gen. S. told me that he had 
not had any return of the rheumatism, nor did he think that 
Gen. D. had had any. Gen. S. in the mean time had been ex- 
posed to every vicissitude of climate from the Atlantic Ocean to 
Washington Territory, on the Pacific, and from the 49th degree 
of north latitude to the Gulf of Mexico, and Gen. D. was then 
stationed in the far north." Blue and Sun-Lights, p. 15. 

The foregoing and other examples illustrate the durability 
and power of the fine forces according to Chap. First, XV. 

3d Case. — Nervous Prostration. 



Statement made by a lady patient of Dr. Fisher, N. Y.: 
"Having been an invalid for nearly three years, and for the 
last half of that time confined entirely to my rooms on one floor, 
I became so reduced by the long confinement, and my nervous 
system seemed so completely broken down, that all tonics lost 
their effects, sleep at nights could only be obtained by the use of 
opiates, appetite, of course, there was none, and scarcely a ves- 
tige of color remained either in my lips, face or hands — as a last 
resort I was placed, about the 19th of January, 1874, under the 
influence of the blue glass rays. Two large panes of the glass, 
each 36 inches long by 16 inches wide, were placed in the upper 
part of a sunny window in my parlor, a window with a south 
exposure, and as the blue and sunlight streamed into the room, 
I sat in it continuously. I was also advised by Dr. Fisher to 
make a regular sun bath of it; at least, to let the blue rays fall 
directly on the spine for about 20 or 30 minutes at a time, 
morning and afternoon; but the effects of it were too strong for 



312 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



me to bear; and as I was progressing very favorably, by merely 
sitting in it in my ordinary dress, that was considered sufficient. 

"In two or three weeks the change began to be very per- 
ceptible. The color began returning to my face, lips and hands, 
my nights became better, my appetite more natural, and my 
strength and vitality to return, while my whole nervous system 
was most decidedly strengthened and soothed. 

"In about six weeks I was allowed to try going up and down 
a few stairs at a time, being able to test in that way how the 
strength was returning into my limbs, and by the middle of 
April, when the spring was sufficiently advanced to make it 
prudent for me to try walking out, I was able to do so. 

"The experiment was made a peculiarly fair one by the 
stoppage of all tonics, etc., as soon as the glass was placed in 
the window, allowing me to depend solely on the efficacy of the 
blue light." Blue and Sun-Lights, p. 25. 

In the above case the lady had a mass of blue glass suf- 
ficiently great to cover almost if not entirely the whole of her 
body which was very proper, as much of the white light would 
have been too exciting for so sensitive a person. A proper 
kind of blue would not have been thus "too strong" on the 
bare skin. 

4th Case. — Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Nervous Exhaustion. 



"In the latter part of August, 1871, I chanced to visit a 
physician of this city, of my acquaintance, whom I found to be 
in great distress, and plunged in the lowest despondency. On 
inquiring the cause he told me he feared he was about to lose 
his wife, who was suffering from a complication of disorders 
that were most painful and distressing, and which had baffled 
the skill of several of the most eminent physicians here, as also 
others of equal distinction in New York. He then stated that 
his wife was suffering great pains in the lower part of her back, 
and in her head and neck, and also in her lower limbs; that 
she could not sleep; that she had no appetite for food and was 
rapidly wasting away in flesh; and that her secretions were all 
abnormal." [Here is given an account of her commencing the 
use of blue and white light, her husband having placed alternate 
blue and clear panes of glass in one window.] 



BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT. BALDNESS, ETC. 



313 



"Six days after this interview, I received a note from the 
doctor, asking me to send him some copies of my memoir on 
blue light, etc., which he wished to forward to some of his 
distant friends, and at the close of it he had written: 'You 
will be surprised to learn that since my wife has been under the 
blue glass, the hair on her head has begun to grow, not merely 
longer but in places on her head where there was none, new hair 
is coming out thick.' This was certainly an unexpected effect, 
but it displayed an evident action on the skin, and so far was 
encouraging. Two days after the receipt of this note, I called 
to see the doctor, and while he was giving me an account of the 
experiment with the blue light, his wife entered the office, and 
coming to me, she said, 'Oh, General! I am so much obliged to 
you for having recommended to me that blue light!' Ah!' 
said I, 'is it doing you any good?' Yes,' she said, 'the greatest 
possible good. Do you know that when I put my naked foot 
under the blue light, all my pains in the limb cease? * * My 
maid tells me that my hair is growing not merely longer on my 
head, but in places which were bald, new hair is coming out 
thick.' She also said that the pains in her back were less and 
that there was a general improvement in the condition of her 
health. 

"Three weeks afterward, on visiting them, the doctor told me 
that the arrangement of blue and sunlight had been a complete 
success with his wife; that her pains had left her; that she now 
slept well; her appetite had returned, and that she had already 
gained much flesh. His wife a few moments afterward, in person, 
confirmed this statement of her husband, and he added: — 'From 
my observation of the effects of blue and sunlight upon my wife, 
I regard it as the greatest stimulant and the most powerful tonic 
that I know of in medicine. It will be invaluable in typhoid 
cases, cases of debility, nervous depressions and the like.'" 
Blue and Sun-Lights, p. 10. 

The above mentioned physician is Dr. S. W. Beckwith, 
Electrical Institute, 1220 Walnut St., Philadelphia. I have not 
space here for his letter confirmatory of the above, and speaking 
enthusiastically of General Pleasanton's theory for the improve- 
ment of vegetable, animal and human life by these arrangements 
of colors. 



314 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



5th Case. — Infantile and Animal Growth. 



The following is a part of a letter from Commodore J. R. 
Goldsborough, of the U. S. Navy, dated Mound City, 111., May 
31st, 1872, and addressed to Gen. Pleasanton. After speaking 
of the extraordinary growth of plants which he had caused by 
alternate blue and plain glass, he speaks of two broods of 
chickens hatched on the same day, one of which was reared 
under an ordinary coop and the other "partly covered with blue 
and plain glass." "The chickens of each brood," he continues, 
"were fed at the same times, and with equal quantities of similar 
food. Those under the blue glass soon began to display the 
effects of the stimulating influence of the associated blue and 
sunlight by their daily almost visible growth, increase of strength 
and activity, far exceeding in all these respects, the developments 
of the chickens of the other brood which were exposed to the 
ordinary atmospheric influences. 

"I will also relate to you what I imagine to be another 
remarkable circumstance having relation to this subject. 

"On the 29th of January, 1872, the wife of one of the gentle- 
men on the station gave birth prematurely to a very small child, 
which weighed at the time only 3¥i pounds. It was very feeble, 
possessing apparently but little vitality. It so happened that 
the windows of the room, in which it was born and reared, were 
draped with blue curtains, through which, and the plain glass of 
the windows, the sunlight entered the apartment. The lacteal 
system of the mother was greatly excited, and secreted an 
excessive quantity of milk, while at the same time the appetite 
of the child for food was greatly increased, to such an extent 
indeed that its mother, notwithstanding the inordinate flow of 
her milk, at times found it difficult to satisfy its hunger. 

"The child grew rapidly in health, strength and size; and on 
the 29th of May, 1872, just four months after its birth, when I 
saw it, before I left Mound City, it weighed 22 pounds." Blue 
and Sun-Lights, p. 7. 

With reference to the above I would simply remark that a 
thin, somewhat gauzy, blue curtain would doubtless be desirable, 
for in case a curtain is too thick it would become nearly opaque, 
and thus absorb the blue rays before they reach the patient. 
Glass, when convenient, is doubtless best. 



blue and white light, meningitis and baldness. 



315 



6th Case. — Partial Paralysis in a Child. 

"Sometime since, Mrs. C, the wife of Major-General C, a 
distinguished officer of the U. S. regular army, told me that one 
of her grandchildren, a little boy about 18 months old, had from 
his birth had so little use of his legs that he could neither crawl 
nor walk, and was apparently so enfeebled in those limbs that 
she began to fear that the child was permanently paralyzed in 
them. To obviate such an affliction, she requested the mother of 
the child to send him with his two young sisters, to play in the 
entry of the second story of her house, where she had fitted up 
a window with blue and plain glass in equal proportions. The 
children were accordingly brought there, and were allowed to play 
for several hours in this large entry or hall under the mixed 
sun and blue light. In a very few days, Mrs. C. told me that the 
child manifested great improvement in the strength of its limbs, 
having learned to climb by a chair, to crawl and to walk, and 
that he was then as promising a child as any one is likely to 
see." Blue and Sun-Lights, p. 22. 

Parents, especially those whose children are somewhat ner- 
vous and feeble, should take a hint from the above and have their 
nurseries arranged accordingly. Some blue and violet glass in 
the windows would tend to quiet the brains and stimulate the 
nutritive functions of children, who in our climate tend rather to 
over activity of brain and nerves. 

7th Case. — Spinal Meningitis and Baldness. 



Gen. Pleasanton relates an agreeable incident which occurred 
to him but a few weeks since. "A lady and her daughter called 
to see him, and announced that they had come from Corning, N. 
Y., to Philadelphia, for the express purpose of thanking him for 
saving the daughter's life. 

"Four years ago she was afflicted with a violent attack of 
spinal meningitis. Her sufferings were indescribable but con- 
tinuous. Every conceivable remedy had been resorted to during 
these four years, but the patient received no benefit. Her ner- 
vous system at last became so disordered that the slightest sound, 
or the most gentle agitation of the air, threw her into the most 
agonizing suffering. She was wasted away in flesh, could not 



316 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



sleep at night, had no appetite, and her life was despaired of. 
Hearing of Gen. Pleasanton's discovery in associated lights, her 
parents determined to try it. A bay window was fitted with al- 
ternate panes of blue and plain glass, and the young lady sat daily 
in the light which streamed through them. Her physicians, of 
course, laughed at the idea, pronounced the whole thing a hum- 
bug, etc., as is the habit of professional gentlemen whenever any 
new idea is broached. The physician was dismissed, and the 
young lady relied wholly upon the blue-glass treatment for her 
restoration to health. The lady says that on entering the room 
thus lighted, the pains from which she was suffering almost im- 
mediately ceased. They would return in a modified form on 
leaving the room, but grew less from day to day. Very soon her 
condition began to improve, her appetite returned, and with it 
her strength; she began to gain flesh, her sleeplessness dis- 
appeared, and in short, she was speedily restored to health. 

"A singular feature of this young lady's case was that her 
hair all came out and she became as bald as an egg. Her phy- 
sician examined the scalp with a microscope, and declared that 
there were no roots of hair remaining, and that, consequently, she 
would never again have a natural head of hair. This announce- 
ment, to a young lady, was worse than would have been the 
reading of her death-warrant. Better the cold grave and its at- 
tendant worms than to go through life with a wig. Under the 
blue-glass treatment, however, the hair did begin to grow, the 
young lady discarded her wig, and when she called upon Gen. 
Pleasanton she showed him a luxuriant growth of hair, which any 
young lady might envy. She was profusely grateful to the Gen- 
eral for having restored her hair, and incidentally saved her life. 
So much for examples and illustrations. These and numerous 
others which I might cite if you had space to print them, show 
that the blue associated with the sunlight has a wonderfully 
stimulating effect upon both vegetable and animal life." Corres- 
pondence of the Chicago Tribune, dated Jan. 12, 1877, by Dutton. 

An account of the same case was given in the New York 
Tribune. I have caused a new and rich growth of hair in sev- 
eral persons by manipulating the scalp with the ends of my fin- 
gers, and thus animating it with vital force. How much safer to 
use these finer forces for the head than the many preparations 



BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT. INFLAMMATION. 



317 



which poison the system and sometimes induce paralysis and in- 
sanity. 

8th Case. — Concussion and Inflammation. 



The following is a portion of a letter dated Jan. 23, 1877, to the 
Chicago Tribune by General Pleasanton and relates to a severe 
fall which he received in alighting from his carriage: — 

"My right shoulder, right dorsal muscles, and right lumbar 
region received the shock of the fall. Fortunately, my head did 
not strike the pavement. The concussion knocked the breath 
out of my body, and it was a considerable fraction of a second be- 
fore I could have an inspiration of air. Some gentlemen kindly 
picked me up, and assisted me into the nearest store. At the 
expiration of an hour I was sufficiently recovered to be enabled 
to call upon my family physician, who lived about a square dis- 
tant, by whom my body was carefully examined. He said that 
there had been no fracture of ribs or bones, but that I had re- 
ceived a very severe contusion, the effects of which I would feel 
for some time at my age. I knew that such an opinion meant 
long protracted suffering with very little hope of relief from any 
process secundum artem. He prescribed soap liniment to soften 
the muscles of the injured parts; it afforded no relief. The 
pains were very great and constant, and, in a paroxysm of cough- 
ing, I experienced the most intense pain in the back part of my 
right lung, which I thought had been brought into contact with 
the inside of my ribs when I fell. Inflammation of the lung, with 
its consequent attachment to the inside of the ribs, immediately 
recurred to my imagination, and the doctor was again invoked. 
He prescribed a porous plaster to confine the muscles, so that, in 
the act of coughing or sneezing, the pain might be mitigated, but 
it afforded no relief. The next day there was a bright sunshine 
and a clear atmosphere. In my bathroom I have a window with 
a southern exposure, arranged with alternate panes of blue and 
plain, transparent glass. I determined to try the efficacy of a 
sun-bath with blue glass. Accordingly, uncovering my back, I 
sat with it to the blue and sun lights, which were streaming 
through the window into the bathroom. As soon as these lights 
began to fall upon my back the pains began to diminish, and 



318 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



at the end of half an hour they had ceased altogether. Towards 
evening the pains returned; but they were much less than 
they had been before I had taken the blue-light bath, and during 
the night I was easier than I had been previously. The next 
day we had again a brilliant sunshine, clear atmosphere and low 
temperature; and, intending to take another bath of blue and 
sunlight, I sent for my physician, that he might witness the ef- 
fect for himself. He is the very eminent surgeon, Dr. D. Hayes 
Agnew, Professor of Surgery and Anatomy in the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

"He arrived while I was taking this bath, and was shown up 
into my bath room. On coming into the room I said to him, 
'Doctor, I am glad you have come at this time. I am taking a 
bath of blue and sun lights.' He replied, with a smile of incre- 
dulity as to its effect, 'I see you are;' and I said, 'It is doing 
me great good; it is relieving all my pains; and I wish to give 
you some information that you should know. Will you be good 
enough to place your naked hand on that pane of transparent 
glass, through which the sunlight is streaming into the room? 
You will find it as cold as the outer atmoshere, which is at freez- 
ing temperature.' He placed his hand on it, and said, 'Yes, it 
is very cold.' 'Now,' said I to him, 'put the same hand on 
the next pane of glass, which is blue; you will find it hot.' He 
did so, and, in the greatest surprise, said, 'Why, I never 
knew that!' 'Of course you did not,' I replied; 'that is one 
of my discoveries, that I have been trying to pump into you doc- 
tors for the last fifteen years, but without effect.' He then said, 
'This is very wonderful; I had no idea of it before.' Then he 
said. This room is very warm; have you any fire to heat it?' 
I answered, 'No! The windows and the southern and western 
walls are in contact with the outer air. The adjoining chamber 
on one side, and the staircase on the other, are each without 
artificial heat.' Then,' said he, 'how do you make it so 
warm?' 'That,' I said, 'is another of my discoveries, and is 
produced by the conjunction of the opposite electricities of sun- 
light and blue glass!'" 

The fact that so learned a gentleman as Dr. Agnew was not 
aware that blue glass under the influence of luminous rays is 
warmer than clear glass, shows how uninformed our medical men 



BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT. RHEUMATISM, ETC. 



319 



are concerning some very simple facts in connection with these 
fine potencies, and for Gen. Pleasanton to say "that is one of 
my discoveries," shows that he is not very familiar with the 
principles of optical science as already developed. 

9th Case. — Rheumatism, etc. 



Dr. Robert Rohland having referred me to Mrs. William 
Proessel, of No. 20 East 42d. St., N. Y., as a very remarkable cure 
by sunlight, I was led to make a personal and careful examina- 
tion of the same. She has been a severe sufferer from rheuma- 
tism for eight years as a reactive effect of uterine difficulties, her 
knees were badly swollen and hardened at the joints, limbs made 
crooked, finger joints enlarged, and fingers badly contracted by 
the flexor muscles, left arm and shoulder seemingly paralyzed, 
and she altogether so helpless as to have to be carried to dif- 
ferent parts of the room by her friends. She tried nearly every 
style of treatment in vain, as nothing but the blue and white sun- 
light combined has ever succeeded in bringing her steadily and 
thoroughly forward. Her windows are prepared with about half 
a pane of blue glass set up against one side of each pane of clear 
glass. This she found to be more soothing than when set up in 
the middle of a pane of clear glass, each kind of light thus being 
made to come in larger masses. She has blue-green shades by 
which she regulates the quantity and locality of the light. She 
has been in the habit of taking the light not only on the knees, but 
on the whole spine including a little of the cerebellum. Although 
taking it upon the bare skin even in winter, she did not suffer with 
the cold after getting the light fairly upon her. When the blue 
light struck her, its immediate effect was to make her feel cold, 
but almost instantly a reaction would give her warmth. She says 
it would often seem as though flies were touching her skin where 
the blue and white light joined. This shows the electrical and 
chemical action evolved by the two styles of light. 

She has already used the above for 8 or 9 months, commenc- 
ing early in the Autumn of 1876, and extending onward during 
the good days of the following winter and spring, and can now 
walk freely with only a slight limp, the knees have assumed 
their usual size, the arm and shoulder are well, the fingers have 



320 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



become straight and the joints nearly their proper size, and al- 
though not yet a strong person, she is like a transformed being 
as compared with her past. 

I have pointed out to her what, as it seems to me, have been 
mistakes in her method of using the light, 1st, that which comes 
from following Gen. Pleasanton's rule of having equal amounts 
of blue and clear glass, which, in her very sensitive and nervous 
condition, caused too much excitement, pain, and sometimes 
sleeplessness, leading her at times to resort to quieting drugs 
which have a bad after effect. In the process of arousing a dor- 
mant system, deadened by chronic diseases, all thorough radical 
treatment must arouse more or less of acute pain and bring up 
perhaps old symptoms which for the time being lead the unin- 
formed to think they are growing worse, but in such a case when 
the pain becomes too severe, a resort for a time to nothing but 
the blue or violet light would give relief; 2dly, as soon as her 
arm and shoulder had been relieved, it would have been well not 
to have taken the light so near her brain, as it often caused pain 
in the head: when she first commenced, she could not endure 
the light thus over ten minutes at a time, but afterwards she 
came gradually to use it several times as long; 3dly, she has 
wholly neglected to use the light on her liver, stomach, lungs 
and bowels, consequently her vital processes have not been as 
greatly animated and strengthened as might have been done. 

Miscellaneous Cases. 



I will merely mention the following cases, given in Blue and 
Sun-Lights by Gen. Pleasanton, as treated by blue and clear 
glass: — 

1. Major-General Chas. W. Sanford's invalid daughter "ma- 
terially benefited." 

2. Henry H. Holloway, of 5 South 10th St., Philadelphia, 
cured of rheumatism of nearly two months' standing by 3 or 4 
sunbaths of blue and white light. His mother, also, relieved of 
severe sickness. 

3. Two lambs, newly born, weighing respectively 3 J /2 and 4 
pounds, were placed in a pen fitted with blue and uncolored 
glass, "fed alike with skimmed cow's milk," and at the end of 3 
months weighed, respectively, 55 and 51 pounds. 



WHEN blue and violet are injurious. 



321 



4. Several cases given which show that flies and hurtful in- 
sects are killed under blue glass or blue gauze. 

5. Remarkable increase of vegetable growth caused, which 
will be noticed in the next chapter. 

6. A mule cured of deafness and rheumatism by having its 
head and neck illuminated by the blue and white light which 
came through transoms. 

7. The hatching of silk-worms greatly facilitated by violet 
glass. 

8. Marvelous development of an Alderney calf, which was 
supposed at first by the keeper, to be too feeble to live. 

XVII. When Blue and Violet are Injurious. 



1. All the electrical colors, including the various shades of 
blue, indigo, violet, and even blue green, are too cooling and con- 
stricting in general cases of paralysis, costiveness, chronic rheu- 
matism, and gout, consumption (the acute forms excepted), and 
all cold, pale, and dormant conditions of the system, although 
the brain, especially its upper portion, may, quite generally, even 
in these conditions be put under blue glass to advantage. In all 
cases of melancholia, and depression, these electrical colors are 
contra-indicated, as a person who has what is called the blues, is 
already sufficiently supplied with that article without having any 
more of it. 

2. Dr. Pancoast, of Philadelphia, who has a considerable expe- 
rience in healing by means of colored lights, speaking of blue 
light, says: "Its action is as pronounced in reducing, as that of 
the red is in producing, nervous excitement. If administered in 
small doses, it acts as a gentle sedative, creating a disposition to 
sleep, but as soon as this effect is reached, the bath should cease. 
In cases of extreme nerve tension, when prompt action is imper- 
atively demanded, we employ a pure blue bath, but this is rare, 
and as there is always danger in so large a dose, we are very 
careful to note the momentary effects, lest the patient be re- 
duced to a condition of extreme prostration — sometimes the lapse 
from intense excitement to as extreme prostration is sudden. 
As a general rule, a dose in ordinary cases would be a bath of 
about two hours, through a window containing alternate blue and 
plain glass." Dr. Pancoast has thus made his bath much longer, 

21 



322 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



I think, than most persons could comfortably endure, especially 
if their heads were to be exposed to the full light of clear glass 
in the mid-summer of our American climate. In England, Rus- 
sia, or Prussia, a sun-bath could be taken with impunity for a 
much longer time than in Italy, Greece, India, Spain, or even in 
France or Austria, and in winter perhaps twice or thrice as long 
as in summer. I once took a seven hour sun-bath on the 
upper deck of one of our steamers as it passed through the 
New York Bay, and a short distance into the ocean, during a 
hot July day, but the electricity of a constant breeze sustained 
me, and the only damage I received was that the skin of my 
hands and face became somewhat burned, but was soon relieved 
by the use of blue glass and a little glycerine. The new ani- 
mation of body and mind canceled this little drawback many 
times over. 

XVIII. Healing by means of Substances Charged with 
Blue Light. 



1. Light being an actual substance moving with peculiar 
styles of vibrations according to the particular colors which com- 
pose it, and at a rate of nearly 186,000 miles a second, it is easy 
to see that it must have great power, and that the substances 
receiving it must partake of this power. The fact that the 
whole world, mineral, vegetable, and animal, is ever being trans- 
formed into new and beautiful growths, forms and colors under 
its magic touch, shows its almost omnific power. 

2. Reichenbach proved by many experiments upon persons 
of very delicate sensibilities, whom he called sensitives, the great 
and peculiar power of sunlight. Sometimes he would carry a 
long copper wire, one end of which they held in a dark room, 
and without their knowledge, would place a plate of metal at- 
tached to the other end directly in the rays of the sun. The 
sensitives would feel it immediately and powerfully as an icy 
cold principle, so cold in fact that it would stiffen their hands. 
Baron Reichenbach took this as a proof that the finer elements 
of sunlight are cold. This is true so far as its electrical rays are 
concerned, but the cold which they felt so powerfully may be ac- 
counted for on the principle that thermo-electricity was evolved 



HEALING BY MEANS OF BLUE-CHARGED SUBSTANCES. 



323 



by the heating power of the sun's rays, the natural tendency of 
electricity being always to move from a hot to a cold portion of 
an object. 

3. Reichenbach had water stand in the sunlight five minutes, 
when Miss Maix, on drinking it without knowing what was done, 
said immediately that it was magnetized. "It produced the pe- 
culiar pepper-like burning, well known to the sensitive, on her 
tongue, palate, throat, down to the stomach, at every point arous- 
ing spasmodic symptoms." Water which stood twenty minutes 
in the sunshine, was found to be as strongly magnetic as it could 
be when charged with a large nine layered magnet. "I allowed 
Miss Reichel to become used to the feeling of my hand, and then 
went out into the sunshine. After ten minutes had elapsed, 
during which time I had exposed myself on all sides to the sun's 
rays, I went back and gave her the same hand. She was much 
astonished at the rapid alteration in the great increase of force 
which she experienced in it, the cause of which was unknown to 
her. The sun had evidently impregnated me in exactly the same 
way as a magnet had charged the body of a man" (in a previous 
experiment). Reichenbach further affirms that Miss Maix could 
not bear the increased power of persons coming out of strong 
sunlight, and that iron, glass, or any other object could be 
charged with a power which affected her like a magnet, while 
a magnet which had become weak was made strong by being 
placed in the sun, thus confirming the observations of Barlocci, 
Zantedesschi and others concerning solar magnetism. 

4. A substance called Od-sugar or Odo-magnetic sugar has 
been devised and used with remarkable success as a curative 
agent by Adolph von Gerhardt, M.D., of Germany, and also pre- 
pared and supplied by Robt. Rohland, M.D., of 429, 2d Ave., New 
York. It consists of the sugar of milk charged by certain rays of 
the sun through a prism, being called od-sugar from the fact 
that a certain amount of odic or od force is brought into action 
by means of the sunlight, although the sunlight itself must be 
the more immediate potency. When the sugar is charged by 
the thermal rays it is called positive odo-magnetic sugar; when 
charged by the electrical rays, negative odo-magnetic sugar, or 
negative od-sugar, terms which are not very accurate, as the word 



32! 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



positive naturally means strong or aggressive, while negative 
means weak or yielding. Surely the wonderful chemical potencies 
of blue and violet cannot be called negative in their character, for 
in many combinations the red and yellow are most feeble in com- 
parison. Thermo-od-sugar and electro-od-sugar would discrimi- 
nate better. In Dr. Rohland's pamphlet he says, "If a part of 
the sugar becomes placed within the solar spectrum in the red 
and yellow rays, and another part in the blue and violet rays of the 
sunlight, and a sensitive tastes them after some time of exposure, 
the first will taste tepid and nauseous, and the latter cool and re- 
freshing." This admirably confirms what we have already seen 
to be the true potencies of color, the red and yellow drugs being 
more warming and nauseating and including the emetics, while 
the blue and violet ones are cooling and soothing to the nerves. 
I will quote from Dr. Rohland's pamphlet a little of the testimony 
of physicians, some of whom I am acquainted with and know to 
be eminent in their profession. This testimony is with refer- 
ence to the electro-od-sugar, and shows its quieting, cooling, 
soporific character according to the principles which I have al- 
ready given. 

CASE 1st. — Phthisis Pulmonalis, Sleeplessness, etc. 

"The patient was very weak, very sallow, and the eyes 
looked strained and staring; sleepless, expectoration of purulent 
taste. After "Od," one dose,* reports: Slept well, feels better 
and stronger than he has for a month, looks fresher in the face 
and eyes, the expectoration tastes salty — cough unchanged." S. 
Swan, M.D., 13, West 38th St., N. Y, Nov. 8, 1870. 

2d Case. — Nasal and Bronchial Catarrh, Nervousness, etc. 

"A young lady from Philadelphia, * * was much reduced 
in strength and vitality, extreme excitability of the nervous sys- 
tem — raised blood and pus from the bronchia or lung; could 
not sleep. First night, gave her Pulsatilla — no relief; then nux 
vomica — no better. I then, the third night, gave her one odo- 
magnetic sugar powder. Result: sound sleep all night — the 
first she had had for more than two months — much refreshed in 



*A dose is half a grain or about what would lie on the point of a knife. Double 
this amount I have found to be more effective. 



BLUE-CHARGED SUBSTANCES. TOOTHACHE, ETC. 



325 



the morning." O. R. GROSS, M.D., 273, West 52d St., N. Y, 
Aug. 28, 1870. 

3d Case. — Convulsions. 

"The child of Mr. Mailander, a mechanic near Jena, IV2 years 
old, had been lying with the most fearful attacks of cramps for 
four hours, so that the parents as well as the physician declared 
it hopelessly lost. Good luck happened to make me pass near 
his house; I was called in and saw the child lying in terrible 
convulsions. I chanced to have a flask of od-negative (electro- 
od) milk-sugar with me, so I poured a blade's end full of it into 
his mouth. Scarcely 15 minutes elapsed when the cramps, to 
my great surprise and that of every one else, ceased altogether 
and the child became perfectly well again." Adolph von Ger- 
hardt. 

4th Case. — Menorrhagia and Toothache. 



"On the 4th of Aug. 1870, I gave Dr. St. Clair Smith, Phy- 
sician of the "Five Points House of Industry," two doses of my 
odo-magnetic milk-sugar. Yesterday (Sept. 12, 1870), he bought 
a flask of the sugar, and on this occasion told me the following: 

"One of his lady patients suffered from profuse menstruation; 
another from violent toothache, and each was completely cured 
15 minutes after the odo-magnetic sugar had been taken. The 
two patients themselves could not comprehend it; but as Dr. 
Smith, having had two doses only, could not continue the medi- 
cine, the sufferings returned next day." Robt. Rohland, M.D. 

Dr. Rohland says that "every physician, without one excep- 
tion, who has tried this odo-magnetic milk-sugar, even with 
great reluctance and caution, has had to report some great re- 
sults; some in intermittent fever with China, when the latter had 
failed by itself; others in headache, toothache; some in diarrhoea, 
or other disorders of the digestive organs, in fits and hemor- 
rhages; and every one in nervous debility, nervousness, weakness, 
sleeplessness, depression of mind" etc. etc. 

In IX of this chapter, the reader will see a simpler method 
of gaining the potencies of blue and violet light in connection 
with water, which the author has devised, and also a number of 



326 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



examples in which the yellow and red principles have been devel- 
oped in connection with water and given with marked success 
for animating the system, acting as a laxative, alterative, etc. 
Dr. Von Gerhardt did not seem to have ascertained the potencies 
of the thermal colors, although they are perhaps more practical 
and valuable than those of the electrical colors taken all in all. 

5th Case. — Diarrhcea cured with blue — charged Water. 

Although the blue and violet principles are especially valua- 
ble for checking nervous and inflammable conditions, I have in 
several instances checked the too free action of the bowels by 
light strained through blue glass placed over the bowels, or by 
water charged in blue bottles, or blue chromo lenses. 

Miss K., formerly a patient of mine, living on Broadway, was 
becoming haggard in her appearance from diarrhoea which had 
lasted five weeks. I handed her a blue bottle which I had filled 
with water, and had standing in the sun for a part of a day. She 
drank something like a tablespoonful of this two or three times 
a day. In one or two days her diarrhoea ceased, and up to this 
time, several months having elapsed, it has not returned. A favor- 
able symptom in the case is that she did not swing to the other 
extreme of constipation, as would very likely have occurred under 
an opium treatment. It should be remarked that she took only 
an occasional sip of the water after the first day or two. The 
blue chromo lens, to be described hereafter, is still better. 

XIX. Healing Power of Pure Sunlight. 



Pure white light, as nature gives it to us, is of course far 
more desirable for man than any one color of sunlight, for in 
this we get all colors and all potencies combined. While many 
conditions of disease and perhaps imperfections of climate may 
be improved by a predominance of some one or more colors as 
brought about through prisms or colored glass, the combined 
rays, as in white light, are the ones which man and nature must 
generally depend upon, and which most of all they require. 
Although sunlight combines both the thermal and electrical rays, 
covering every variety of power, yet as a whole, especially in warm 
weather, it is powerfully heating and stimulating in its nature, 



healing power of sunlight, tumors, etc. 



327 



kindling into action dormant systems and proving to be over-ex- 
citing especially when falling on sensitive brains. By exposing 
any portion of the body to the sun not to an undue extent, the 
skin becomes somewhat darker, clearer and more rosy in its gen- 
eral character, having on the whole a richer effect than the waxy 
whiteness of bleached indoor faces. The darker and more rubi- 
cund appearance comes from the carbon which is driven into the 
skin by the light, and being of the right color to stimulate the 
nerves of the surface, the blood is more or less drawn there and 
thus a more rosy appearance is developed. This gives an activity 
and toughness to the cuticle which enables it to resist many 
external influences of the atmosphere, and often prevents the 
taking of cold, while it also withdraws heat and inflammation from 
the internal organs. Light which has passed through glass must 
be somewhat softer and more refined than the full glare directly 
from the sun, as it is strained of some of its coarser elements and 
some of the intensity of its heat. This, of course, makes it less 
desirable when the greatest external power is required. I will 
quote a very few cases of sun-healing. 

1st Case. Prevention of Colds, etc. 

The toughening power of the sun was well illustrated some 
years since in the case of a lady patient of the author. She 
was very feeble and negative, and every little exposure would 
cause her to take cold. She took a course of sun-baths on the 
skin over the lungs and other parts of her body, since which she 
rarely if ever takes cold. In this respect she has become per- 
manently strong, as years have elapsed without a recurrence of 
her old conditions. 

2d Case, or Series of Cases. Cure of Tumors, Mother's 

Marks, etc. 



The following, taken from the N. Y. "Herald of Health," is 
from the pen of Augustus Barnes, who remarks that he has 
studied the hygienic properties of light for 38 years: 

"I can remove cancers in their earlier stages, tumors, noevus 
maternus (or mother's marks). It matters not whether the latter 
are red, black, purple, brown, or other color, or whether they 



328 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



cover the entire side of the face, or large protuberances appear, 
I remove all by a lens and the simple rays of the sun, without 
starting a drop of blood, or leaving a scar but for a short time. 
There is less pain attending this operation than by common 
surgery. Uncomely moles that disfigure the face of many per- 
sons can be made to disappear and leave the face as fair as 
Nature intended it, nor do they ever reappear. This treatment 
produces no ill effects, for there is no mineral or chemical poison 
in the rays of the sun. 

ADVANTAGES OF THE SUN'S RAYS OVER ALL OTHER CAUSTICS 
AND THE LANCET. 



1 . There is no mutilation of any part, nor is a drop of blood 
ever drawn. The sun's rays will cauterize a vein or an artery 
so as almost instantly to stop their bleeding. 

2. There is no after dressing needed, except for cancers. 

3. There are no bad effects resulting from poisoning, for the 
sun's rays are not poisonous. 

4. There is no scar left, after a sufficient time has elapsed 
for the healing process; and the redness caused by the burning 
will disappear in from one to six months. 

5. Those who have been subjected to both systems express 
themselves as feeling less than half the pain under the sun's 
rays. 

6. No detention from business is required. 

7. There is no fainting under the operation. 

8. Anaesthetics are rarely required. 

9. The quickness and permanence of the treatment and the 
simplicity of the operation are remarkable. It is easily controlled, 
and the operator can burn to a considerable depth, or so slightly 
as to only destroy the cuticle, stopping the cauterization at 
whatever stage he pleases. 

10. The remedy is to be found wherever the sun shines, 
requiring no preparation, no grinding, no mixing, but is ready 
every day and free to all." 

With reference to the above it should be remembered that 
the blue is the balancing principle where too much of the red 
or inflamed condition exists, while the yellow-orange is the great 
animating principle in hard tumors or other dormant conditions, 



DISASTROUS EFFECTS OF A LACK OF SUNLIGHT. 



329 



for which reason the blue chromo-lens and the yellow-orange 
chromo-lens, to be described hereafter, would be superior to one 
which is transparent, in certain cases. 

3d. Case. — Complication of Diseases. 

"A very remarkable instance of recovery from disease has 
been related by the late Baron Dupuytren, the eminent French 
surgeon. A lady, residing in Paris, had suffered for many years 
from an enormous complication of diseases, which had baffled 
the skill of all her medical advisers, and her state appeared 
almost hopeless. As a last resource, the opinion of Dupuytren 
was requested upon her case, and he, unable to offer any direct 
medical treatment essentially differing from all that had been 
previously tried in vain, suggested that she should be taken out 
of the dark room in which she lived, and away from the dismal 
street, to a brighter part of the city, and that she should expose 
herself as much as possible to the daylight. The result was 
quickly manifest in her rapid improvement, and this continued 
until her recovery was complete. An equally singular instance 
has been related by Southey, in the case of his own parent." 
Dr. Forbes Winslows "Influence of Light" p. 171. 

XX. Disastrous Effects of a Lack of Sunlight. 



1. Sir James Wylie says that "the cases of disease on the 
dark side of an extensive barrack at St. Petersburgh, have been 
uniformly, for many years, in the proportion of 3 to 1 to those 
on the side exposed to strong light." 

2. Dr. Forbes Winslow in his volume entitled "Light; its 
Influence on Life and Health," uses the following language: — 

"It may be enunciated as an indisputable fact, that all who 
live and pursue their calling in situations where the minimum of 
light is permitted to penetrate, suffer seriously in bodily and 
mental health. The total exclusion of the sunbeams induces 
the severer forms of chlorosis, green sickness, and other anaemic 
conditions depending upon an impoverished and disordered state 
of the blood. Under these circumstances the face assumes a 
death-like paleness, the membranes of the eyes become blood- 
less, and the skin shrunken and turned in a white, greasy, waxy 



330 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



color; also emaciation, muscular debility and degeneration, drop- 
sical effusion, softening of the bones, general nervous excita- 
bility, morbid irritability of the heart, loss of appetite, tendency 
to syncope and hemorrhages, consumption, physical deformity, 
stunted growth, mental impairment and premature old age. The 
offspring of those so unhappily trained are often deformed, weak 
and puny, and are disposed to scrofulous affections." 

3. Dr. Ellsworth, of Hartford, says: "Take a rabbit and shut 
him from the sunlight, and he will die of consumption in a few 
weeks. The tubercles will be just as perfectly formed in his 
lungs as in the human species, and the symptoms in every re- 
spect will be the same." 

4. Many persons keep themselves pale and sickly by means 
of parasols, unbrellas, shaded rooms, and in-door life generally. 
Parasols should be dispensed with excepting in the hottest sea- 
sons. Sailors who are ever in the pure air and sunlight, and 
children who play much out of doors, generally present a ruddy, 
healthy appearance. The following severe cut on our American 
house-keepers, from an editorial of the Chicago Tribune, is well 
merited: — 

"In this country, there seems to be an implacable feud be- 
tween people and the sun — the one striving vigorously and even 
fiercely to get into the houses, and the other striving just as 
fiercely and vigorously to keep him out. The average American 
housekeeper does not think she has fulfilled her whole duty un- 
til she has made the rounds of the whole household, shut all the 
doors, closed all the shutters, and drawn all the curtains on the 
east and south sides of the house. This is the morning's job. 
In the afternoon she makes the same grand round on the west 
side of the house. She is not quite happy and contented until 
the sun has gone down and darkness sets in. She is substan- 
tially aided in her raid against the sunlight by the heaviest of 
shades, curtains and lambrequins. Thus the fight goes on day 
by day and season by season. In summer she shuts out the 
sun because it is too hot. In winter she shuts it out because it 
will spoil her carpets. In spring and fall she has other reasons. 
She has reasons for all seasons. Thus she keeps the house in 
perpetual shade, in which the children grow up sickly, dwarfed, 
full of aches and pains, and finally have to be sent off into the 



DISASTROUS EFFECTS OF A LACK OF SUNLIGHT. 



331 



country post-haste so that they may get into that very sunlight 
which they have been denied at home, and in which the coun- 
try children run and are glorified." 

5. Our Street-Car and Railroad Conductors are too often 
most careful to shut out the sun from their vehicles, even in 
weather when it would be especially delightful and animating to 
have its rays. In fact this glorious orb of heaven is frequently 
treated as if it was man's deadliest enemy, instead of being the 
dispenser of power and beauty in all directions, as it really is. 

6. The ancients often had terraces, called Solaria, built on 
the tops of their houses, where they were in the habit of taking 
their solar air baths. Pliny says that for 600 years Rome had 
no physicians. Using such natural methods of retaining or gain- 
ing physical power as vapor baths, manipulation, sunlight, exer- 
cise, etc., they became the mightiest of nations. By this remark 
I throw out no slur against true and wise physicians, who are 
blessings to a community, but would call their attention more to 
nature's finer methods rather than to the use of so many drugs, 
blisters, moxas, bleedings, leechings, and other violent processes 
which so weaken and destroy the beautiful temple of the human 
body. 

7. "Who has not observed the purifying effect of light," says 
the beloved Florence Nightingale, "and especially of direct sun- 
light upon the air of a room? Go into a sick room where the 
shutters are always shut (in a sick room or bed-chamber there 
should never be shutters shut), and though the room has never 
been polluted by the breathing of human beings, you will observe 
a close, musty smell of corrupt air, i.e. unpurified by the effect of 
the sun's rays. The mustiness of dark rooms and corners, in- 
deed, is proverbial. The cheerfulness of a room, the usefulness 
of light in treating disease, is all-important. 'Where there is 
sun there is thought.' All physiology goes to confirm this. 
Where is the shady side of deep valleys, there is cretinism. 
Where are cellars and the unsunned sides of narrow streets, 
there is the degeneracy and weakliness of the human race, mind 
and body equally degenerating. Put the pale, withering plant 
and human being into the sun, and if not too far gone, each will 
recover health and spirit." Notes on Nursing. 

8. The lack of pure light and pure air in mines tells seriously 



332 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



upon the health of miners. "Fourcault affirms that where life 
is prolonged to the average term, the evil effects of the want of 
light are seen in the stunted forms and general deterioration of 
the human race. It appears that the inhabitants of the arondisse- 
ment of Chimay, in Belgium, 3000 in number, are engaged 
partly as coal miners, and partly as field-laborers. The latter are 
robust and readily supply their proper number of recruits to the 
army; while among the miners it is in most years impossible 
to find a man who is not ineligible from bodily deformity or 
arrest of physical development." Forbes Winslow's Influence of 
Light. 

9. Dr. Andrew Winter in the Pall Mall Gazette, London, says: 
— "When the St. Martin's national school, leading out of Endell 
street, was built some years ago, we noticed with pleasure that a 
play-ground was built at the top of the school, where light and 
air were plentiful. The necessity of light for young children is 
not half appreciated. Many of the affections of children and 
nearly all the cadaverous looks of those brought up in great 
cities, are ascribable to this deficiency of light and air. When 
we see the glass-rooms of the photographers in every street, 
high up on the top-most story, we grudge them their application 
to a mere personal vanity. Why should not our nurseries be 
constructed in the same manner? If mothers knew the value of 
light to the skin in childhood, especially to children of a scrofu- 
lous tendency, we should have plenty of these glass-house nur- 
series, where children may run about in a proper temperature, 
free of much of that clothing which at present seals up the skin 
— that great supplementary lung — to sunlight and oxygen." 

10. "It is a well established fact that, as the effect of isola- 
tion from the stimulus of light, the fibrine, albumen and red 
blood-cells become diminished in quantity, and the serum, or wa- 
tery portion of the vital fluid, augmented in volume, thus induc- 
ing a disease known to physicians and pathologists by the name 
of lukoemia, an affection in which white instead of red blood-cells 
are developed. This exclusion from the sun produces the sickly, 
flabby, pale, anasmic condition of the face, or ex-sanguined, ghost- 
like forms so often seen amongst those not freely exposed to air 
and light. The absence of these essential elements of health 
deteriorates by materially altering the physical composition of 



WHEN SUNLIGHT IS INJURIOUS. 



333 



the blood, thus seriously prostrating the vital strength, enfee- 
bling the nervous energy, and ultimately inducing organic 
changes in the structure of the heart, brain and muscular tis- 
sue." Dr. Forbes Winslow. 

XXI. When Sunlight is Injurious. 

1. Very bright and hot sunlight is injurious and sometimes 
dangerous when allowed to fall directly on a sensitive or over- 
heated brain, on inflamed, or over-sensitive eyes, etc. It is more 
especially apt to be dangerous to those who indulge in alcohol, 
opium and other cerebral stimulants, or to those who have large 
active brains and full flow of blood, especially of the red arterial 
kind. In such cases the tendency is to sun-stroke,* and the 
blue or violet principle is needed as counterbalancing agents. 

2. The symptoms of sun-stroke are usually head-ache, vertigo, 
dimness of vision, nausea, often developing into coma, or even 
delirium and convulsions, ending in many cases in insanity, 
softening of the brain, or death. 

3. For the Prevention of Sun-stroke, the following are hints, 
especially, when there is tendency to a hot brain: — 

Wear a light-colored, well-ventilated hat with blue lining. 

Avoid meats and other heating foods. Eat a plenty of fruit. 

Wet the hair on the temples and top of the head often, but 
not behind. 

Ladies should avoid the use of large masses of hair. 

If the hot brain-pressure is felt coming on, dash cold water 
on the face and temples, or in the absence of that, clasp and 
squeeze both temples with the fingers to crowd the blood back, 
and rub the back-neck powerfully to draw the blood from the 
cerebrum. 

Where especial danger is apprehended, wear a cool, wet 
bandage around the forehead and head. 

4. For the Cure of Sunstroke the great object should be to 
cool off and draw away the mass of congested blood from the 
front brain. I will detail the process which I adopted in a some- 



*The use of the term Coup de Soleil, so difficult to pronounce by English 
speaking tongues, or of any other foreign words unless a more exact meaning is to 
be conveyed thereby, smacks of pedantry. If we cannot manifest our learning other- 
wise than by employing useless words, we are weaklings, sure enough. 



334 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



what remarkable case on Fourth Avenue, New York, a report of 
which was given in the N. Y. Daily Graphic, and I believe that 
most cases, not only of sun-stroke, but of apoplexy, if taken in 
time, could be cured in the same way, especially as I know of 
many other cases which have been treated on a similar plan. 

This man was supposed to be dead or dying, by his distressed 
wife, when I was called in, and according to her account he had 
already lain nearly three hours in a state of coma, brought on by 
the intense heat. To make matters worse his friends had 
drawn him off into the darkest corner of the room, where was 
the least air, and they lacked even the discretion to loosen his 
shirt collar or any part of his clothing. Hastily loosening his 
clothing, I called for ice-water, meantime pounding him briskly 
over his back, legs, and feet, and making downward passes from 
his head. When the ice water came, I put a quantity of it over 
his face, forehead, temples, and top-head, but was especially care- 
ful not to put any on the cerebellum and back-neck, after the plan 
which is frequently adopted, as this, by its contracting character, 
would tend to deaden a great vitalizing center, and also to close 
the channels of egress for the blood in its movement from the 
front brain. The ice-water caused him to start slightly and 
show signs of life. But the great agency upon which I depended 
was a pail of as hot water as could be endured, which I poured 
from a dipper on the back of his neck and lower occiput, as he 
was turned on his stomach and held out from the lounge, being 
careful not to reach as high as the upper back-head. This soon 
started him into new life, he showed some slight convulsions, 
vomited, and then rose up, exclaiming, "all right!" and declar- 
ing that he was well. I told him that he had better avoid busi- 
ness for a day or two, but he chose not to, and from that time 
onward did not lose an hour. The same hot water treatment is 
also admirable for paralysis, apoplexy, brain-pressure, vertigo, etc. 

XXII. Sleep-Producing Elements. 



1. There is great danger of making a mistake, in the pro- 
cesses for inducing sleep from the fact that the philosophy of 
sleep is not generally understood. This will be found explained 
to some extent in chapter Tenth, VII, I. Intense action of the 
vital ethers of the front brain causes mental activity and conse- 



SLEEP PRODUCING ELEMENTS. 



335 



quently wakefulness. When these ethers are drawn off to other 
portions of the body, the front brain becomes quiescent and sleep 
is produced. The best condition for intellectual action and wake- 
fulness is when there is a free and uninterrupted flow of pure 
and well oxydized blood, for such flow stimulates the activity of 
the mental ethers as they flow through the contiguous nerves, 
while the ethers that flow through the blood are also active. 
Such blood is also favorable to sleep in the time of sleep, as it 
causes a brisk action of forces in other parts of the body, which 
relieves the head. When, however, through impoverished or im- 
perfect blood, or when from over-excitement of the cerebrum 
the front and upper brain become congested so as to blockade 
the free channels of these mental ethers, consciousness dies out, 
and what is called sleep (sometimes coma) ensues, but a very im- 
perfect style of sleep it is, which serves but a poor purpose in 
building up the system. This condition is induced by opium 
and some other narcotics. From the following synopsis of the 
opinion of the London Lancet, it will be seen that even the old 
school of practice is beginning to repent of the use of one of 
their most common remedies: — 

"Sleep produced by narcotics or so-called sedatives, is poi- 
soned. Their use gives the persons employing them an attack 
of cerebral congestion, only differing in amount, not in kind, from 
the condition which naturally issues in death. There is grave 
reason to fear that the real nature of the operation by which 
these deleterious drugs, one and all, bring about the uncon- 
sciousness that burlesques natural sleep, is lost sight of, or 
wholly misunderstood, by those who have free recourse to poisons 
on the most frivolous pretences, or with none save the exigency 
of morbid habit. Great responsibility rests on medical prac- 
titioners, and nothing can atone for the neglect of obvious duty." 

2. From the above it may be seen why opium, which has a 
considerable of the exciting principle of yellow and red, may 
induce sleep. Having a strong affinity for the brain, it at first 
excites that organ and gives animation of thought and feeling; 
when so much blood has been drawn there as to produce con- 
gestion, the sleepy feeling approaches. The reason why it 
tends to prevent diarrhoea, is that the heat of the bowels is 
drawn towards the brain. 



336 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



3. While the blue, indigo and violet are naturally cooling and 
soothing to an excited brain and nervous system, and especially 
promotive of sleep, yet in cases of costiveness, the yellow light 
over the bowels, or substances charged with light through yellow 
chromo lenses (See IX of this chapter), often cause such action 
of the bowels as to call the excitement from the brain and pro- 
duce sleep. In most cases, however, the violet and blue are the 
natural sleep-producing principles for an excitable or feverish 
brain. I would advise persons who are costive, and yet nervously 
excitable, to take yellow-charged water during the daytime and 
blue charged water on retiring. A warm hand on the back neck 
or lower spine, or a hot foot bath will assist in inducing sleep. 

XXIII. Practical Instruments for Color-Healing. 



1. Thus far we have seen an overwhelming array of facts to 
show the marvelous healing power of light and color as a new 
and blessed reality which is just dawning upon mankind, and it 
will now be well to consider briefly some of the instruments by 
means of which this power can best be utilized. Having en- 
deavored thus to crystallize the different color potencies into a 
therapeutical science, it is now important also to gain some hints 
on chromo -therapeutical or chromopathic art. 

2. The Material through which Colors are transmitted, is a 
matter of great importance. There have been so many thought- 
less directions with reference to this subject, so many mere as- 
sertions without proof, and entirely contrary to established laws, 
that it is high time some definite standard was reached. Gen- 
eral Pleasanton recommends the mazarine glass, and this is col- 
ored with cobalt. Dr. Pancoast, in his Blue and Red Light, says: 
" 1 . There is no special virtue in one blue pane of glass over any 
other of the same shade; cobalt blue is the best, and glass col- 
ored in the process of manufacture, is better than painted glass, 
because the pigment applied externally imparts more or less 
opacity to the glass. 2. There is no special advantage in any 
particular method of arranging the glass in any particular sort 
of frame: an ordinary sash placed upright in the window frame, 
is as good as any other frame in any other position. 3. The 
blue ray cannot be focalized — it refuses to be modified, or 



PRACTICAL INSTRUMENTS FOR COLOR HEALING. 



337 



changed, or concentrated by the most powerful lens," etc. Ad- 
miring these gentlemen for the interest they have taken in this 
admirable cause of light and color, I am sorry to have to differ 
totally from the above conclusions excepting in the matter of 
painted glass. What is the use of colored glass excepting its 
power to transmit certain colors, and why have not these gentle- 
men inquired into the colors which different kinds of glass trans- 
mit? 

3. Cobalt blue Glass, is brilliant to look at, and multitudes 
have purchased foreign Mazarine Blue glass at high prices in 
order to gain what was supposed to be some mysterious poten- 
cies, although American manufacturers are now making it equally 
well. But this same cobalt glass through which people fondly 
suppose that they are gaining the cooling, soothing principle of 
blue almost solely, transmits nearly every color in the spectrum 
both visible and invisible, hot and cold. "The spectrum ob- 
tained under this glass," says Prof. Robt. Hunt, was perfect from 
the extreme limits of the most refrangible rays down to the yel- 
low which was wanting. The green ray was diminished, form- 
ing merely a well defined line between the blue and the yellow 
rays. The orange and red rays were partially interrupted." 
"The extreme red (thermel) forms a well defined circular image." 
(Researches on Light.) Sir John Herschel also has shown how 
finely the very hottest invisible rays below the red, the thermel, 
are passed through cobalt glass. The real character of the co- 
balt color-transmissions, then, is as follows: while it transmits 
the blue, indigo and violet, and the fine rays far into the invisi- 
ble trans-violet, it also transmits something in the hottest por- 
tion of the prismatic scale, including thermel, and part of the 
red and orange. It is quite unfit then for a hot, excitable brain, 
or for a very sensitive and over-nervous person, and is by no 
means the best for inflammatory conditions, although it would 
be excellent for persons with some degree of nervousness from 
its predominance of electrical colors, and also with some dor- 
mant conditions of bodily function, especially if still farther 
aided by white or orange light. Thus far I have never had a 
single patient who could endure the mazarine colors long upon 
the head, and one lady, the wife of General P., who let them fall 
upon an inflamed stomach, complained of their heating qualities. 

22 



338 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



Contrary to Dr. Pancoast's assertion, too, I find by experiment, 
that the blue light can be brought to a focus just as readily as red 
or yellow light, although of course it does not form so brilliant a 
focus as the more luminous colors, and moreover as to "the spe- 
cial advantage of any particular method of arranging the glass 
in any particular sort of frame," the testimony of Mrs. Proessel, 
already given, shows that special methods have special advan- 
tages, and I shall soon attempt to show just how these colors 
should be arranged in order to the finest physiological effect in 
describing the Chromolume, the Chromo-Disc, etc. But first of all 
it is important to know the exact chemical properties which are 
transmitted through different kinds of glass. 

3. Deep Blue Glass, colored by Cupro-diammonium-sulphate, 
or, in the old nomenclature, the cupro-sulphate of ammonia, (N 2 
H 6 Cu) S0 4 , has a rich deep color, and is the true vehicle of the 
color electricities almost entirely unadulterated by the thermal 
rays, consequently it should stand at the head of all the colors 
for the general calming and cooling of the brain, nerves, or 
inflammatory sections. It "obliterates all the rays below the 
green ray, those above it permeating it freely." "The most re- 
frangible or chemical rays well insulated." (Hunt.) So far as 
I know there is no glass in the market of exactly these ingredi- 
ents, although I have been able to get my blue chromo-lens made 
with nearly these materials. 

5. Deep Iron Green. The description of this and other 
styles of glass is condensed mainly from Hunt's "Researches on 
Light." Glass colored green with iron oxide admits the vio- 
let, blue, green and orange freely, and some yellow and red. Is 
scarcely surpassed for its cooling electric effects. 

6. Very brilliant Copper Green. Admits violet, blue, a small 
amount of orange, a fair amount of yellow, and a full amount of 
green. 

7. Violet Glass (Manganese). The yellow rays nearly want- 
ing; red shortened; green fades into black shadow, and all the 
other rays blended in an intense oval patch of blue. The chemi- 
cal action extends into the trans-violet. 

8. Red or Pink Glass (Gold). Very beautiful. The spectrum 
becomes an oval spot of intense redness covering the visible 
thermal rays, embracing thermel, and extending to blue. 



COLORED SOLUTIONS. 



339 



9. Red-Orange (Silver). All the more refrangible rays de- 
cidedly obliterated, and even the green somewhat shortened; 
but in the place of the blue and violet rays there is some red. 
The yellow and orange are considerably reduced, the red stand- 
ing out in great brilliancy, giving the glass the general character 
of red-orange. 

10. Pure Yellow (Coloring matter Carbon). Is lacking in 
the violet and indigo rays; strong orange and yellow-green re- 
duced — a weak blue — acts far up in the fine trans-violet rays. 

11. Yellow by Iron. Transmits thermel, some red, consider- 
able orange, strong yellow, small amount of decided green rays, 
some indigo. Gives the fine tonic effect of refined iron. I 
have given the colors as they are usually named. What is 
commonly called yellow is really nearer a yellow-orange in many 
cases. Numerous other kinds of colored glass are used, but 
space is wanting here, and these are the leading qualities. 

Colored Solutions. 



12. Thermel and red. Solution of Carmine in supersulpliate 
of Ammonia. Transmits thermel, red and lower half of orange. 

13. Yellow. A saturated solution of Bichromate of Potash. 
Beautifully transparent; red and yellow. 

14. Green. Chlorate of Iron and Copper. Highly trans- 
parent, transmitting blue, green, yellow and orange. 

15. Fluorescence. One part of the Sulphate of Quinine to 200 
parts of water on a plate glass trough transmits the whole of the 
visible spectrum, and develops a "celestial blue" in the invisible 
trans-violet portion over a space about equal to the visible spec- 
trum. When the solution is made stronger the violet is more or 
less cut off. Other fluorescent materials have been spoken of 
elsewhere. 

16. Blue. Cupro-Stilphate of Ammonia, described in No. 4. 

17. Other solutions can be made of material much the same 
as those given in the different colored glass, with a spectrum 
which must be similar. Very many other combinations, both in 
glass and in solutions, are practicable. 



.VI 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



XXIV. Heat Transmitted by Colored Substances. 

1. The following table, prepared by Robt. Hunt, shows that 
the greatest heat is transmitted not by red or ruby glass, as 
might be supposed from the well known heat of red, but by the 
orange glass which transmits not only the red and thermel, but 
something of the electrical blue, thus adding another fact in proof 
of the principle which General Pleasanton's discovery seemed to 
verify, namely, that a small amount of electrical rays added to a 
mass of warm rays, causes a greater heat that the warm rays 
alone. Next to the orange glass, a transparent substance trans- 
mitting all the rays gives the most warmth, then the yellow 
glass, then the red, while the green and some grades of blue 
glass are coldest in their transmissions, though cobalt blue 
is warmer than "brown-red" — or more properly speaking very 
red brown. 

Colors. Colors transmitted. Heat. 

Ruby (gold). Red and thermel 87 'F, 

Brown-Red. Red, orange and portion of thermel. 83°. 

Yellow. Red, orange, yellow, green and blue. 88 -r 
Cobalt Blue. Violet, indigo, blue, some green, and 

some orange, red and thermel 84°. 
Orange. . Little blue, green, yellow, orange, red 

and thermel . 104 

Deep Green. Orange, yellow, green and blue . 74° 

Clear glass (with a little water), all the rays . . 89" 



2. Without the water in the last case, the heat would have 
been somewhat greater, though still less than that transmitted 
by the orange glass. Other grades of glass, to be hereafter ex- 
perimented upon, will probably modify this table somewhat. The 
foregoing facts show that a substance may appear to transmit 
yellow, orange, etc., and nothing else, judging by its main effect 
when the light shines through it, whereas the spectrum will 
reveal several other colors which are also transmitted. Such 
facts do not signify that the pure red and thermel rays of light 
are not the warmest, nor that the blue, indigo and violet are not 
in themselves the coldest. It is true, however, that any careful 



THE CHROMOLUME. 



341 



observer can see, in what is usually called yellow glass, tints of 
orange; in other words, its real color as it appears even to the 
unaided eye is yellow-orange. The coldest rays transmitted, as 
given in this table, are in connection with deep green, although 
of course a blue or violet equally deep must be still colder. 

XXV. The Chromolume. 



1. Having ascertained the color potencies which are trans- 
mitted through various hues of glass, as well as of fluids, we are 
now prepared to inquire how they should be combined in order 
best to harmonize with physiological law in the cure of human 
ailments. 

2. The Head and Brain. In the first place the head being 
the positive battery of the whole system, and the brain having 
seven or eight times the amount of blood in proportion to its 
size that is averaged in other parts of the body, together with a 
great mass of nerve matter, its general tendency is to be espe- 
cially warm and sensitive, consequently we need for its pur- 
pose the nerve-and-blood soothing colors, such as blue, indigo 
and violet, and the absence of the warm colors. For this 
reason panes of glass colored by the cupro-sulphate of ammonia 
already described (XXII, 4), would be most admirable for this 
purpose, especially as it gives free passage to the violet, indigo 
and blue rays, and almost entirely excludes the thermel, red, 
orange and yellow. The Mazarine blue glass, although hand- 
some, is more heating as we have seen than other grades of blue, 
and therefore poorly adapted to the brain. Theoretically, the 
violet ray being the most refined and cooling, would naturally be 
the best for the head, but there is no violet glass known that can 
give us the pure violet without a goodly share of red, and this 
interferes with the best effect for most brains, for which reason 
the blue and indigo shades are on the whole the best. We will 
need, then, 12 or 15 inches in depth of the cooling style of blue 
glass to cover the head well, while its horizontal width may be 
about 15 inches. This we will form into a graceful ogee curve at 
the top, and for the sake of developing its power best will place 
a border of red orange, 2 or 3 inches in width, over its top and 
sides, to arouse its best affinitive action and give beauty of effect. 

3. The Neck and Thorax. Joining immediately on to the 



342 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



last named glass, we shall need another piece for the neck and 
upper thorax, reaching considerably over the lungs and heart. 
This like the other should be cooling in its nature, being over a 
somewhat excitable region, and yet can well tolerate a certain 
amount of heat, so under ordinary circumstances the mazarine 
blue glass, colored with cobalt, will probably be the very best 
which could be employed for that region. We will need about 
six inches of this and will border it with red, colored with gold. 

4. The Hypochondrium. We come now to the upper bowels, 
including the liver, stomach, spleen, duodenum, etc., and consti- 
tuting the central region of digestion. What color is most 
needed for good digestion? Two important substances are used 
in digesting food, gastric juice and saliva. The gastric juice be- 
ing an acid, and consequently electrical, would have its action 
increased by the thermal colors, such as red and yellow, and the 
same colors would also stimulate the blood, muscles and nerves 
of the stomach, while the saliva, having the alkaline or thermal 
principle predominant, would have its chemical action increased 
by the blue or violet, which would also tend to counteract too 
much of the inflammatory action of the red. A medium purple 
glass transmits these principles and thus becomes par excellence 
the color for regulating digestion. Six inches of this will an- 
swer, and a border of yellow or greenish yellow, especially the 
canary yellow of uranium, will form its chemical affinity. 

5. The Umbilical Region. The bowels are aroused into ani- 
mation by the yellow color more especially, as has been abun- 
dantly shown, and a small strip of yellow glass three inches in 
depth, bordered by its affinitive violet, will be sufficient. 

6. The Hypogastrium and Loins. For the loins and lower 
viscera, a green glass will have a fine tonic effect, and will be very 
soothing to any inflammatory conditions, such as cystitis, uterine 
or ovarian irritation, etc. Nearly every variety of green glass 
transmits the orange, yellow, green and blue rays. The yellow 
and orange will animate the nerves, while the blue will have a 
cooling effect and tend to constrict and draw up relaxed muscles. 
If the parts are dormant, yellow-green would be preferable — if 
inflamed and over-active, blue-green. A border glass of dark red 
will be nearly a chemical affinity. 

7. Lower Limbs. For the rest of the way covering the limbs 



THE USE OF THE CHROMOLUME IN HEALING. 



343 



and lower extremities, the warmest colors are most desirable, 
especially as these parts are farthest from the vital centres. 
Having ascertained that the warmest effect comes through the 
orange or red-orange glass, this will be the most proper material, 
while the mazarine blue and the cooler blue will be excellent 
affinitive colors for the border on each side. About 15 inches of 
this will be sufficient, as the patient should sit or recline while 
receiving the colors. 

8. The whole of this combination enclosed in a walnut frame 
with metallic frame work inside for the different colors, I have 
termed the Chromolume,* which means literally color-light. Its 
colors being arranged very much on the law of harmonic contrast, 
as well as according to the principles of chemical affinity, it con- 
stitutes one of the most beautiful ornaments imaginable for a 
drawing-room, or bed-room window, and certainly one of the 
best of all instruments for vitalizing, healing and toning up the 
human system. 

XXVI. The Use of the Chromolume in Healing. 

1. Position of the Instrument. The lower end may rest upon 
the lower ledge of a window, while a cord is attached to the 
upper end, and being passed through an improvised loop at the 
top of the window may come down and be held by the hand, or 
wound around some hook or nail at the side of the window. In 
this way the upper end of the chromolume may be allowed to 
hang some distance from the window or parallel to the window 
to make the light strike in the right place, or the whole instru- 
ment may be drawn up further towards the top as circumstances 
may require. An invalid chair in which a person may be placed 
at different angles would be desirable, but an ordinary lounge 
or rocking chair will answer. 

2. Treatment of Head. A majority of persons who are in 
feeble health, or who use the brain too intensely, have the head 
too warm, and the liver, stomach, and bowels too dormant, and the 



*From xpcoua color, and lumen, light. Some may object to the union of a Greek 
and Latin root in the same word, but as we may thus gain so euphonious and expres- 
sive a term by the means, it seems quite whimsical to raise this objection. What 
are these two old dead languages good for except to be resurrected for use in the 
living present, in all kinds of combinations which are most concise and musical? 



344 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



arrangement of the colored glass in the chromolume as already 
described, is just suited to such conditions. In case the brain 





""WW 




<s s 


6 


3 


/ 


a 


;o 


9 


to 


11 


11 


n 


h 


/J 


n 


K 


" 


IS 




t- 



Fig. i6y. The Chromo- 
lume.* 



i. Light Yellow colored with silver for the disc, 3 inches 
in diameter. 

2.2. Light colored violet, (Manganese.) 

3.3. Red-Orange (Silver), ly in. long. 

4. The cool grade o£ blue 14 in. deep by 16 broad, colored 

by cupro-svdphate of ammonia, or similar materials. 

5. Mazarine Blue, 6x16 in., colored with cobalt. 

6,6. Ruby red on the left and gold-red on the right, 2j x 
6 in. 

7. Purple, 6x 16 in., Manganese and gold. 

8,8, Light Greenish Yellow, z\ x 6 in., colored with urani- 
um oxide. 

9. Yellow, 3 x 16 in., colored with iron or other metal. 

10,10. Deep Violet, 2| y. 3 in., manganese. 

1 1. Green, 6 x 16 in. 

12,12. Dark Red, z\ y. 6 in. 

13, Orange, 16J x 16 in. 

14,14. Light Violet, 2$ x 16 in., manganese, etc. 

i 5. Red-Orange, a\ x T 6 in., silver. 

16,16. Blue, zj x 2+ in. 



*I have designed two sizes of the Chromolume, both prepared after the above 
design, the glass part of the larger being 57 by 21 inches, the inside column being 
16 inches, and the borders 2 l A inches each in width, while the smaller is 53 by 18 
inches, the central column being 14 inches, and the borders 2 inches in width. The 
larger can be furnished at $10, the smaller at $9, and an extra charge of $1 for box- 
ing when they are to be shipped. What is called the crystalline style of glass, con- 
sisting of foliations over the whole surface, and being more beautiful and somewhat 
more effective than the glass in common use, will cost one quarter more when the 
border alone is supplied with it, and one half more when the whole frame is sup- 
plied with it. Those wishing a chromolume can address: BABBITT & Co., Science 
Hall, 141 8th St. (Near Broadway), New York. In very special cases of disease, by 
giving a brief and clear explanation of the symptoms to be treated, the glass in the 
instrument will be changed to suit conditions as far as possible. The glass for a 
chromolume may not always be found of exactly the grade or character of what is 
named above, but some of the choicest and richest grades that can be found will be 
provided. These instruments will be furnished only to order. 

The CHROMO-DISC can be furnished, including five colors of crystalline glass, a 
lens 2 inches in diameter to concentrate the rays, for $5. The price of the crystal- 
line glass is $1 per square foot. 



THE USE OF THE CHROMOLUME IN HEALING. 



345 



and nerves, however, are in the negative condition which induces 
facial neuralgia and general coldness, the instrument should be 
raised a little, so that the face and ears at least should come in 
the range of the mazarine glass. 

3. Treatment on the Skin. Decided benefit can be received 
from sitting in the light of the chromolume with the ordinary 
clothes on, much more benefit by sitting in a white garment or 
covered by a sheet, and still more benefit by allowing the rays 
to fall directly upon the skin. In this last case a person 
takes a full air bath as well as a color bath. With dark clothes 
on, the light is degraded into mere heat, although of a fine 
quality. 

4. Treatment of the Back. After using the light in front for 
some time, the patient should turn over and let it strike on the 
back in much the same manner as on the front. If the back of 
the neck and lower spine and hips are especially cold, the patient 
should slip down farther into the warm rays, the upper spine 
and occiput coming under the mazarine glass, and the lower spine 
coming under the orange and green glass combined. By 
animating the occiput, and the cervical and brachial plexuses 
of nerves, reaching as low as the shoulders, a life-giving power is 
communicated to the arms, lungs, motor nerves, etc., which will 
prevent, or tend to cure, rheumatic, paralytic, or inflammatory 
conditions of those parts, while by thoroughly animating the 
lumbar and sacral plexuses of the lower spine, the lower viscera 
and limbs will receive a new life, and sciatica, lumbago, rheuma- 
tism, gout, paralysis, etc., be relieved. In female or other diffi- 
culties which cause the small of the back to be hot and weak, 
that portion should be under the green glass, and the hips, 
which are apt to be cold, under the orange. The green, which 
is one of the most cooling of all glasses will thus tone up the 
back, while the orange glass, by its great heat, will call away 
the warmth from above, and animate those nerves that give 
warmth to limbs and feet, which in such cases are generally 
too cold. 

5. White Light with the Colored. In most baths of the 
chromolume light, it would be well for a part of the time to have 
a portion of the body under the direct sunlight, keeping the head 
in most cases in the blue light, or if even that is too strong for 



346 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



a very sensitive brain, the light can be shut off altogether from 
the head, by hanging cloth or paper over the upper part of the 
instrument. If a correct anti-thermal blue glass can be found, 
such a precaution will not be necessary. 

6. If the bowels are habitually too free or inflamed, the narrow 
strip of yellow glass can be covered up, and the body slipped 
down farther under the green, the tendency of which is cooling, 
anti-inflammatory, and constricting. 

7. For sluggish action of the kidneys, tendency to dropsical 
affections, Bright's disease, etc., it would be well to have the 
junction of the yellow and purple glass come just above the 
small of the back, remembering also to have the white light fall 
on that portion for a time each day, especially the white and col- 
ored light combined. 

8. For Feverish and Irregular Condition of the Sexual Sys- 
tem, the green glass light should come over the small of the back 
and lower spine, the orange commencing at the lower part of the 
hips. This rule is of great importance, and will tend to save the 
patient from the fearful wreck that overtakes vast multitudes of 
mankind, and from a condition which, if not arrested in time, will 
baffle the power of all drugs to heal. It should be pursued per- 
severingly, days, weeks and months if necessary, for there is a 
quiet, deep-reaching and marvelous power in well regulated light 
to heal all such difficulties, as well as to build up exhausted ner- 
vous systems generally. 

9. Artificial light may be used to fine advantage with the 
chromolume, especially if the lamp or gas-burner is directly be- 
hind the blue or green shades of glass. Such lights having a 
larger relative amount of carbon than sun-light, the yellow and 
orange principles are more active, which fact explains the cause 
of their being more exciting to the eyes and nervous system than 
the light of day, causing inflammation of the eyes (ophthalmia), 
dimness of vision (amaurosis), etc. Blue and violet light con- 
stitutes a beautiful balancing power for such conditions. (See 
Chapter on Vision.) The great advantage of being able to use 
artificial light, especially in a country like England, in which di- 
rect sunlight in winter is very scarce, and also during the darker 
portions of our own year, must be apparent to all. Artificial 
light has much the same character as sunlight, with the excep- 



THE CHROMO-DISC. 



347 



tion that it is feebler, less white, and more irritating, but when 
it is purified by being strained through glass, and its yellowish 
and reddish character offset by a certain amount of the blue and 
violet element, it can be made very valuable. The electric light 
has great power and purity. Although the light for general pur- 
poses may well be placed directly back of the blue glass, yet 
for special conditions it must be changed; thus, for head-ache, 
sleeplessness, etc., place it back of the upper blue; for sore 
throat, and most lung difficulties, place it back of the mazarine 
blue; for indigestion, back of the purple; for costiveness, back 
of the yellow; for uterine or ovarian inflammation, back of the 
green, etc. 

10. A convex Lens for concentrating the rays, hung behind 
any particular kind of glass, according to the part of the body 
which needs most power, greatly intensifies and hastens the ac- 
tion of the light, but this should not generally be done over the 
brain, or over the heart in case it is subject to palpitation. 

XXVII. The Chromo-Disc. 



1. Another instrument which I have devised, and which I 
call the Chromo-Disc, although not possessing the resplendent 
array of colors of the chromolume, and not, like that instrument, 
having the power to cover the whole system at a time, has some 
advantages as follows: 

It concentrates the light at any portion of the body with 
several times its ordinary intensity. 

It can be moved about with the greatest ease to any desired 
position. 

It is admirably adapted to artificial lights, as it can be placed 
on a table, bureau or chair, and turned to any point of the body. 
It works equally well with sunlight. 

It is supplied with the blue, the yellow, the red, the purple, 
and the opalescent white glass, which last admits all the rays in a 
softened refined form. The different styles of colored glass are 
all of the beautiful kind with foliated work, called crystalline glass. 

It is supplied with a small lens two inches in diameter, so 
that in the case of tumors, mother's marks, or very dormant condi- 
tions, it may concentrate the rays with still greater power, or the 



348 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 




Fig, 170. 
The Chromo-Disc. 



lens may be used separately at times. Fig. 
170 represents the Chromo-Disc. Diameter 
at the smaller end about 5 inches, at the 
larger end 15 inches, length 19 or 20 inches 
from 6 to 7; material, tin with a Japan var- 
nish on the outside; 1, 2, 3, 4, is a frame 
about 5 by 12 inches, in which the glass is 
inserted so as to cover the small end of the 
disc, and will hold a white and colored pane 
simultaneously when desired; 5, is an aper- 
ture through which the lens can be inserted 
when needed. It concentrates the light with 
about 4 or more times the ordinary intensity 
The portion of the body upon which the light 
as near the small end as possible to get the 
The instrument complete with the five kinds 



if kept bright, 
falls should be 
greatest power. 

of crystalline and opalescent glass and the lens can be furnished 
at $5. It can be held in the hands with the large end as perpen- 
dicularly as possible to the sunlight, or can be laid on a table and 
its ends raised by means of books or other objects so as to get 
it in exact range with the sun's rays or with artificial light. Un- 
der the hot rays of summer, shining directly into the disc with- 
out the intervening of windows, the skin can be rubricated in 
from 30 to 100 seconds on some tender portions of the body, 
while in a still longer time blisters can be drawn, although the 
latter style of violence should not be practiced on ordinary occa- 
sions. If, however, it should be deemed necessary to vesicate 
the skin in severe cases, the vesication caused by sunlight is 
much less injurious than that caused by the ruder drug escha- 
rotics. Vesication can be caused the most readily through the 
yellow or red glass, or without any glass at all. The chromo lens, 
however, is superior to the disc for purposes of vesication or for 
concentration of power. 



XXVIII. General Healing with the Chromo-Disc. 



1. For Nervous Excitability, hot or Inflammatory Conditions, 
Fevers, Acute pains, etc., the blue is the proper glass to use, as 
this admits the violet, indigo and blue, and a portion of the fine 



TREATING SPECIAL DISEASES WITH THE CHROMO-DISC. 



349 



trans-violet. Where the condition is somewhat dormant, and 
yet nervous, slip the blue glass along and let in some of the white 
light, at least a part of the time. 

2. For arousing the arterial blood, wanning cold extremities, 
etc., the red glass is excellent, but should also have more or less 
of the yellow glass which really transmits a greater variety of 
warm rays than the red, as we have seen. 

3. For arousing nervous action, warming up and thawing out, 
so to speak, hard negative inflammations, and vitalizing a cold, 
chronic condition, the yellow glass is best. 

4. For animating the venous blood, stimulating the stomach, 
liver, spleen, etc., the purple glass is best, although the yellow is 
very fine for the liver also. 

5. In many of the above cases, the glass may be moved along 
a part or the whole of the time, so that the white rays may com- 
bine more or less with the colored ray, and thus add power and 
variety of effect. In case the direct white light is too strong, and 
especially in case of gas-light or candle light where there is no 
glass to strain the light of its coarser elements, the white glass 
can be inserted by the side of the colored glass. 

6. For very sensitive places like the brain, the blue should 
be used, and the disc should be held six inches or more from the 
head so as to give a soft diffused light. 

XXIX. Hints for Treating Special Diseases with the 
Chromo-Disc. 

1. Diseases of the Brain and Nervous System* 

For a Very Hot Brain, blue glass only. A wet bandage 
over front and side brain in emergencies. 

Congestion of the Brain. Blue over the front brain, blue 
and white or purple and white, over the occiput (back-head) and 



*In presenting this list I do not, by any means, give the only method that is 
useful, but the one that is the most directly indicated on general principles. Much 
must be determined from the patient's feelings and symptoms. It should always 
be remembered, however, that in dormant or chronic conditions, the thorough rous- 
ing treatment, which is required under any true method of treatment, must often bring 
up old symptoms, and in some cases cause uneasiness for days or even weeks before 
relief may come. In my explanations I shall aim to avoid technical terms and use 
as simple language as possible to be brief. By the term white, I mean white glass. 



350 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



and cervix (back-neck). (Feet in hot water.) If the cervix is 
cold, use the yellow awhile. 

Softening of the Brain. — Blue and white over the front 
brain, and at times blue and white or even yellow over the 
occiput. 

Hydrocephalus (Water on the Brain). — Yellow and white 
over the occiput, also blue and white in front. 

Facial Neuralgia. — Blue over temples, ears and face. 

Heat of Spinal Column. — Blue, or blue and a little white. 

Apoplexy. — Blue on front brain; (hot water over the lower 
occiput and cervix, as in sunstroke, XXI, 4.) 

Paralysis. — Yellow and white over lower occiput, also 
over upper and lower spine, purple over pit of stomach; yellow 
over bowels. When the spine is warm use blue. 

Convulsions. — Blue over pit of stomach, as well as over 
the occiput, spine, etc. 

Hysteria. — Blue over the head; also blue, or blue and 
white over the womb, small of back and pit of stomach. 

Sciatica. — Blue and white over lower spine. 

2. Diseases of the Respiratory Organs. 

Pneumonia. — Blue over the lungs, blue and white over 
the cervix * and lower occiput. 

Pleurisy. — Blue and white where the pain is acute. 

Hemorrhage of lungs. — Blue. (Feet in hot water.) 

Consumption — Tubercular and Chronic. — Yellow and white 
over the lungs, also over the cervix. Occasionally use purple 
and white, or blue and white when too much heat exists, and 
when sleeplessness and hot brain occurs use blue on the head. 

Bronchitis. — Blue and white over upper lungs, alternating 
at times with yellow and white; the same over the cervix. 

Aphonia (loss of Voice). — Yellow and white over the 
throat and cervix. 

Croup. — Yellow and white alternating with blue and 
white over throat and cervix. 

Sore Throat. — Blue in front, yellow on the cervix. 

3. Affections of the Organs of Circulation. 

Palpitation of the Heart. — Blue over the heart, several 



*It should be remembered that some nerves of the cervix connect directly with 
the lungs. 



TREATING SPECIAL DISEASES WITH THE CHROMO-DISC. 



351 



inches off; also purple over the digestive organs and yellow 
over bowels. 

Fatty Degeneration of the Heart, or other dormant con- 
ditions; red and white, or yellow and white. If the excitement 
becomes too great, use the blue. 

Goitres and other dormant Tumors should have a lens and 
strong sunlight, or the red or yellow glass. Positive or hot 
inflammations should have the blue. Great cures can be thus 
wrought. 

4. Diseases of the Skin. 

Purpura (purple spots). — Yellow — sometimes the purple. 

Nosvus (mother-mark). — Has often been scattered by Mr. 
Augustus Barnes by sunlight focalized on the spot by a lens. I 
would recommend also some use of the blue glass to counter- 
balance the red principle, and at times the use of the red or yel- 
low to scatter the same. 

Erysipelas Red Pimples, Rash, and hot conditions of the 
skin generally indicate the counterbalancing blue principle, ex- 
cepting probably such diseases as the Small Pox and other 
Exanthemata, which may be treated as in the next paragraph. 
Scabies (Itch) and other diseases in which parasites occur, need 
the blue, which, as will be seen in the next chapter, often destroys 
animalcules.* 

Pustules, White or Watery Pimples, etc., should be treated, 
I think, with an alternation of yellow and blue glass, the former 
to animate and scatter the dead conditions, the latter to cool 
off the heated parts. 

In diseases of the skin it is very important, of course, to 
attend to diet and have the liver, blood, bowels, etc., in good 
working order. 

5. Zymotic Diseases (Epidemic, Contagious, Endemic). 

Eruptive Fevers, or Exanthems, such as Small Pox, Scarlet 



*In such diseases as well as Erysipelas and overheated conditions, I have often 
afforded the patient a remarkable relief by having him bathe with carbolic acid, 
a tea-spoonful of the acid being used to a quart or more of water. The carbolic 
acid seems to destroy the parasites developed by over-heat and excess of the alkaline 
principle, while pearlash, occasionally used, will destroy the excess of animalcules 
developed by too much acidity. A teaspoonful of pearlash can be used with a quart 
or three pints of water. All systems abound in animalcules, but when any part be- 
comes excessive in its action, or out of balance, it is liable to have an excess of them. 



3:>2 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



Fever, Measles, etc., should, I think, have the virus well brought 
outward by the stimulating character of red or yellow. After 
this is well developed, the cooler principle of purple, then blue 
and white, and then blue alone can be applied to reduce the fever. 

Whooping Cough. — Yellow and white, also blue and white 
at times upon the throat. 

Diphtheria. — Blue over the throat and pit of stomach, and 
yellow and white at times on the cervix. Start the bowels int 
action in this and the other zymotic diseases by the yellow glass 
over them. At times rouse the throat with yellow. 

Intermittent Fever, or Ague and Fever. — In this disease 
the negative condition of the system seems first to draw the heat 
from the skin to the internal organs, leaving the surface where 
sensation is most acute, in a chilled condition, after which the 
interior organs, becoming surcharged with heat, react and send a 
thermal wave to the skin, thus giving the burning effect of fever. 
Thus while the patient feels cold he is internally hot, and vice 
versa. Now as the solar plexus, stomach, etc., which are central 
portions of the visceral system, must be overheated during the 
chill, my plan would be to concentrate the blue light directly on 
that point, especially the pit of the stomach, where it can pen- 
etrate very deeply and establish an equilibrium, while on the 
other hand, during the fever, the same portion being too cold 
could be animated by the yellow glass, which should also extend 
somewhat over the bowels, as they are known to be torpid dur- 
ing the hot stage. On the same plan the drinking of very hot water 
during the fever, and of cold water (say lemonade) during the 
chill, would hasten the winding up of the disease very materially. 
When the head aches use blue glass over it, especially during the 
fever, as it will both soothe the head-ache and check the fever. 

In Atonic Fevers in which the forces are negative, flowing 
inward too much, such as Typhoid, Ship, Jail, Camp and Yellow 
Fevers, the blue glass is most important for the head, perhaps 
the blue and white for the cervix, the purple somewhat over the 
stomach and liver, but the blue over the bowels if the diarrhoea 
is bad. 

In Entonic Fevers, in which the forces are positive and in- 
flammatory, flowing outward, exemplified by Bilious Fever, Ty- 
phus Fever, etc., bring the blue to bear strongly upon the head, 



TREATING SPECIAL DISEASES WITH THE CHROMO-DISC. 



353 



especially the temporal and frontal region, the yellow upon the 
bowels, etc., as symptoms may indicate. 

6. Diatheses. 

Inflammatory Rheumatism, needs of course the blue glass 
over the inflamed parts, but especially on the upper and lower 
spine, the upper spine including the lower occiput, the cervix 
and the brachial plexus having a direct power over the whole 
system, and especially over the arms and hands, while the lower 
spine including the lumbar and sacral plexuses, rules the legs 
and feet. Open the bowels with the yellow, tone up the stomach 
and liver with the purple, use blue sometimes over the heart, etc. 

Chronic Rheumatism, in which the parts have become dor- 
mant and hard, and crocked by long standing, need the yellow 
over the upper and lower spine, as well as over the parts directly 
affected; sometimes the red may be used, and if the excitement 
becomes too great, the blue and white may be used, or blue alone. 

Gout should be treated on the same general principles as 
rheumatism, somewhat more attention being given to the kidneys, 
which may be quickened with yellow, while a nauseated or agi- 
tated stomach should be soothed with the blue, and hot painful 
toes with the same. 

Scrofula, as we have already seen, is caused or promoted 
greatly by a want of light, as well as of pure air, to vitalize the 
lungs. The stomach should be well toned up by purple, the liver 
by purple, and sometimes yellow, the bowels by the yellow un- 
less they are irritated and too free, the lungs perhaps by blue 
and white and a careful diet used, consisting much of vegetables, 
cereals and fruits, rather than fatty and heating substances. By 
all these instrumentalities the blood is gradually made pure and 
the system enabled to eject its morbid matter. 

Goitres, and other hard negative conditions especially require 
the yellow, the red being sometimes substituted, while a lens to 
concentrate the rays intensely will make still quicker work with it. 

Nasal Catarrh, having such close connection with the brain, 
would perhaps be more safely treated with blue and white than 
with yellow light, and a sensitive brain cannot endure even this 
more than five or ten minutes at a time when the catarrh is bad. 

7. Diseases of Stomach, Liver, Bowels, Kidneys, Uterus, etc. 
Gastritis, Nausea, and other irritated or inflamed conditions 

23 



3:.. I 



CHROMO THEHAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



of the stomach, indicate the use of blue; very dormant condi- 
tions can have the yellow, but purple is best in most cases for 
stomach and liver. 

Constipation: yellow over the whole bowels, especially the 
left and lower portion and briefly over the liver and stomach. 
Ten to twenty minutes will suffice with the disc. 

Diarrhoea: Blue over the bowels, and briefly over the liver 
and pit of stomach. 

Worms: purple over the stomach, also yellow over the 
stomach and bowels. 

Cholera Infantum, or Summer Complaint: blue over the bow- 
els and spine, and sometimes over the head and stomach. This 
will be found very effective. Even sunlight on the whole body 
would be excellent. 

For the Liver in the case of a dormant or sluggish action, use 
the purple and yellow alternately just over and below the ribs. 

For Inflammation of the liver {Hepatitis), use the blue. 

For Dormant Kidneys, as in Bright's Disease, etc., use the 
yellow and red alternately, sometimes inserting the white, just 
above the small of the back, but if the small of the back itself is 
hot, use the blue. When the kidneys are irritated or evidently 
inflamed, use the blue, or blue and white. Treat other parts of 
the system as symptoms indicate. 

Diabetes: I would recommend yellow, or yellow and white 
over the kidneys, liver and lungs, blue and white for the lower 
bowels, while the brain, bowels, etc., are to be regulated accord- 
ing to the symptoms. When the region of the kidneys seems 
over-excited or warm, use the blue. This disease is considered 
incurable by drugs, but occasionally full baths of sunlight over 
the whole body, with bathing, manipulation, etc., to start the 
skin, correct diet, together with the above treatment, will be 
powerful to heal even this disease, from what I have learned. 

Inflammation of the Bladder {Cystitis). Blue over the hypo- 
gastrium, yellow over the lower spine, etc. In Chronic Cystitis, 
however, yellow in front may sometimes be used. 

Uteri Lapsus {Falling of the Womb). Blue and white over 
the hypogastrium, also over the small of the back. Make 
upward passes over the lower bowels. 

Inflammation of the Ovaries: blue. 



GENERAL SUGGESTIONS IN HEALING. 



355 



Deficient Menstruation: alternation of yellow and red over 
the hypogastrium, breast, and lower spine. 

Excessive Menstruation: blue over the hypogastrium and 
small of back. Tone up the liver and digestion. 

Hemorrhages, Burns, Wounds, etc. : blue. 

8. General Suggestions in Healing. 



While treating local diseases, the whole system should be 
toned up and perfected so that a disease may remain cured. 
Among the leading things to be done is to see that the bowels 
move freely and properly, to have the blood well vitalized by 
purple over the liver, stomach, and lungs, or when especially in- 
active, by yellow over the same, and to have a due amount of the 
out-of-door sunlight, pure air, and nourishing but simple food. 
Wonderful as are the healing properties of light and color, so 
gentle, so penetrating, so enduring in their effects, and often so 
potent when coarser agencies are worthless, we must not be so 
narrow-minded as to consider it a panacea for all ills, and when 
we commence using it deem it unnecessary to attend to bathing, 
manipulation, friction, open air exercise, food which is heating 
or cooling, or demulcent, or laxative, according to conditions, 
proper sleep or other important considerations. While I have 
endeavored to make the general principles of chromatic healing 
so simple that private individuals may accomplish wonders by 
themselves, yet such is the complicated nature of disease, that a 
physician will be necessary to direct the use of the different kinds 
of glass in many cases, but this physician, however, should be 
familiar with the foregoing principles of Chromo-Chemistry and 
Chromo Therapeutics, either from his own investigations or from 
the study of this work. It is the intention of the Author to write 
a work on "Human Development, Including the Philosophy of 
Cure and the Upbuilding of Man by Nature's Diviner Methods," 
in which the aim shall be to present many new, practical and 
simple plans for developing both the mind and body as concom- 
itants to light and color, and also to crystallize into a science, as 
far as may be, the subjects of therapeutics and psychophysics. 

The use of colored glass by itself can be used on the same 
principles as the foregoing which are pointed out for the chromo- 
disc, only of course it will require a longer time. 



356 CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY 

XXX. The Chromo Lens. 

1. Taken all in all, however, there is an instrument which is 
cheaper, more convenient to handle, and exerts greater power in 
a short time than perhaps any other style of healing instrument 
which has thus far been invented, and that is the Chromo-Lens, 




The Ciiromo-Lens, ode fourth of the actu:il size. 



fig. 171. This I have had made of a pure crystal grade of glass, 
of three different colors, namely: the blue, of a character greatly 
superior to the mazarine blue in its exclusively soothing and 
electrical effects; the yellow-orange or amber-colored; and the 
transparent. 

2. A remarkable fact with reference to these double convex 



THE CHROMO-LENS. 



357 



lenses is that they are hollow, the whole lens being five and a 
half inches in diameter, and one and a half inches through at 
the thickest point in the middle. Their capacity is about eight 
ounces, or half a pint. 

3. Another remarkable thing about these lenses is that they 
are generally intended to be used only when filled with a liquid. 
This liquid may be water, and when thus filled, the more trans- 
parent lenses will sometimes ignite paper when placed in the 
direct light of the sun, 7 to 11 inches from the object, and of 
course would rubricate the skin in a few seconds if thus held, 
or vesicate it in a few seconds more. 

4. The third remarkable thing about them is, that the sub- 
stances placed within the colored lenses, and charged by the 
sunlight become medicated with an exquisite principle which 
is more gentle, enduring and far reaching in its effect than ordi- 
nary drugs. The simplest substance to charge thus is water, a 
dose of which may consist of from one or two teaspoonfuls to as 
many tablespoonfuls. 

5. Two very distinct styles of power are developed by the aid 
of the lenses, 1st, by concentrating a certain color upon any de- 
sired portion of the body by holding the lens of that color in the 
sunlight; and 2dly, by charging the water with a therapeutical 
quality in harmony with that of the colored light itself for taking 
internally. 

6. The water will become more or less charged in a few min- 
utes of good sunlight, but I usually hang my lens in the window 
and let the sun constantly rest upon it, although in quite hot 
summer weather, the water should be changed for fresh water 
every two to four days, especially that in the yellow-orange lens. 
The handle, of course, should be kept on, as it consists of a stop- 
per as well as a handle, and protects from the full sunlight as 
well as from impurities. This handle is composed of a handsome 
nickel-plated material which when screwed on brings the glass 
against a layer of cork so that the metal itself does not come in 
contact with the enclosed liquid. 

7. Some solutions for the Transparent Lens are as follows, 
which I give without trying to astonish the reader with Latin 
terms or mysterious hieroglyphics difficult to be written, feeling 
confident that pure water would be just as effective if called by 



358 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



its English name as if called aqua pura, that one drop would be 
just as much if written 1 drop, as if written 1 gutta, or 1 mini- 
mum, and that it would be just as accurately prepared if I should 
say mix, as if I should say misce, misce cum aqua, etc: 
Solution for Red or slightly Red Orange: — 

Sodium Salicylate 2 grains 

Tincture of iron 4 drops. 

Mix and fill the lens with water. 
This is admirable for all cold and dormant conditions, being 
warming to the blood and animating to the nerves. It would be 
excellent for deficient menstruation if held over the lower vis- 
cera, more or less rousing to the bowels, and suited to dormant 
kidneys when held just above small of back. 
Solution for Blue: — 

Cupro-diamtnonium sulphate. . . 20 to 40 grains. 

Tartaric acid 5 grains. 

Mix and fill the lens with water. 
If it is desired that a few of the warming rays should be 
transmitted through the lens, 20 drops of the sulphate would 
suffice, but 40 drops would make it more suitable for use over 
the brain or for an excitable nervous system. 25 or more drops 
of Ammonia would add depth to the blue. Another solution for 
the blue which will admit more red rays than the above is as 
follows: — 

Solution of Indigo 25 drops. 

Fill lens with water and filter if necessary. 
A Fluorescent Mixture. 

The following mixture which is more or less transparent to 
all the rays, being fluorescent, is remarkably attractive of the 
exquisite trans-violet forces: 

Quinine Sulphate 20 grains. 

Dilute Sulphuric acid to dissolve it. . 20 drops. 
For nervous persons soften with 10 grains Cupro-Sulphate 
of Ammonia, to give blue effect. 

As the sunlight partakes more or less of the nature of that 
which it passes through, it must carry the effects of the quinine 
and sulphur of this mixture into the system receiving it, and 
thus have a refined tonic character, just as the first solution 



THE CHROMO-LENS. 



359 



named above carries the effect of iron, sodium, carbon, hydrogen 
and oxygen, and is exceedingly animating. 

Solution for Yellow-Orange: — 

Potassium bichromate 20 to 30 grains. 

Mix with the 8 oz. of water and filter. 
Laxative, and animating to bowels and nerves generally. 

8. The Colored Lenses, however, have a special value over the 
transparent ones, inasmuch as they are always charged with a 
beautiful, deep color and require only water within, which of it- 
self becomes exquisitely medicated for taking internally when 
desired. Although the solutions which are yellow-orange and 
red may be used with much effect in connection with artificial 
light, the others need the more electrical light of the sun, which 
is proportionally less potent in the thermal colors, for which rea- 
son on cloudy days, or at night, they cannot so well be used. If 
we put water, however, in the real chromo-lenses, it becomes 
charged while the sun is shining, so as to retain much of its power 
for days or even weeks, and can be used at any time in- 
ternally. This is a great advantage. 

9. Sugar of Milk, of the granulated kind which will flow 
easily in and out of the lenses, is an admirable neutral substance, 
which when put into these lenses will store up an immense 
amount of medicinal power, enough in fact to make hundreds of 
doses at a time. These may be kept strongly charged by let- 
ting them hang up against a window, or even by letting them 
occasionally come into the sun. The only trouble with sugar of 
milk is, that the lens containing it cannot be used for bringing 
the light to a focus on the external system, and the sugar should 
not be removed from it unless it can be placed in some entirely 
opaque substance, or in a bottle having the same color as the lens. 
For this reason water is better, if a person is not going to travel 
and is willing to take a little more trouble in charging it every 
few days. To have the advantage of both, two sets of lenses 
would be necessary. When sugar of milk is charged it would 
be well not to have the lens full, as an occasional shake will 
bring the more interior portions outward the better to receive 
the light, although the light would permeate the whole by turn- 
ing both sides towards it. I would recommend an amount as 
large as two or three peas for a dose. I caused a lady who had 



160 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS OR CHROMOPATHY. 



been so agitated by a fever that she could not sleep, to sink into 
a very comfortable slumber by as much of the blue-charged su- 
gar as would lie on the point of my knife, but the sleep became 
still deeper the next night by doubling the dose. She was de- 
lighted with it from the fact that it left no bad influence behind, 
as opium or chloral had done. 

10. The Blue Chromo-Lens. After much trouble I have 
succeeded in getting a very perfect and beautiful blue, or rather 
what might be called an indigo-blue, very much in resemblance 
to ultramarine, for my lens. Nearly all blue bottles and vials, and 
most of the blue sheet glass of the day, are colored with cobalt 
of the mazarine hue, which, as we have seen, transmits a large 
amount of the hot and exciting rays, quite unfit for the best 
cooling and soothing purposes. To test blue glass, hold a burn- 
ing match behind it, or any other artificial light and a strong 
reddish cast will be perceptible in mazarine panes, or a yellowish 
cast in some other styles, but the blue lens seems almost ab- 
solutely impervious to the red or yellow or other thermal colors, 
admitting only the blue, indigo-blue, violet and blue green, or the 
electrical hues. Portions of the lens as seen by sunlight have 
a violet cast, and I at first feared it might be caused by admitting 
the red with the blue rays, but on testing it I have not been able 
to force the least particle of red light through it, and even the 
violet light of an ordinary lamp is too coarse, or at least too 
feeble to pass through to much extent. It thus gives great pur- 
ity of effect which is most desirable in therapeutics. The many 
cases which I have already enumerated of healing by means of 
blue light, or by blue and white light, or by objects charged with 
blue and violet light, show the remarkable value of being able 
to control this color especially in such cases as the following: — 

All nervous and excitable conditions; 

Fevers, inflammations and hemorrhages; 

All conditions with a surplus of the red element; 

Diarrhoea and visceral excitement; 

Nausea, pleurisy, palpitation; 

Menorrhagia, or excessive menstruation; 

Points of acute pain, or too great heat; 

Neuralgia, headache, spinal irritation, etc. 
In treating the head, especially on the front and upper part, 



THE CHROMO-LENS. 



361 



or the temples, the blue only is a sufficiently soft and soothing 
color as a general thing, although in the case of some persons who 
have cold foreheads and dormant conditions from nasal ca- 
tarrh, the purple or even the yellow may be ventured upon for a 
short time. In treating the body with the blue, the white light 
may be allowed to come upon the skin around on the outside of 
the lens, excepting in the case of erysipelas or extreme irrita- 
tion of the skin, when blue alone is allowable. In small pox, scar- 
letina and other eruptive fevers, it would be desirable to use the 
yellow-orange lens and a warm sunlight also, at first for a day or 
two, until the virus is brought outward, if the room is sufficiently 
warm to prevent catching cold; then the purple may be used 
for a day or two, and then the blue to cool the fever. The gen- 
eral principles of treatment as explained under the caption of 
Chromo-Disc will apply here. The blue lens must not be deemed 
weak, because it does not burn like the others. It works with a 
quiet power. I may not always succeed in getting them made 
so free from thermal colors as the present stock. 

11. The Yellow-Orange, or Amber Colored Lens, is rather 
darker than yellow-orange, and while admitting yellow as the 
leading color, admits also some orange and red and yellow-green, 
which last, being thermal, works in harmony with the rest. This 
lens will perhaps be deemed the most valuable of all by a majority 
of persons, having a vitalizing and warming power, and being 
especially adapted to such cases as the following: — 

All cold, dormant and chronic conditions; 

All anaemic or impoverished states of the blood; 

All pale, sallow complexions with poor arterial blood; 

Constipation of the bowels; 

Amenorrhcea, or suppressed menstruation; 

Dormant liver, kidneys and lower spine; 

All hard, chronic tumors and negative inflammations; 

Bronchitis, ulceration of lungs, cold cervix; 

Paralysis, chronic rheumatism, chills; 

Despondency, stupid brain, dropsy, exhaustion, etc. 
The white sunlight may also come in to advantage all around 
the lens on the person. There are very many cases in which 
the following condition occurs which may nonplus some persons: 
The stomach and epigastrium may be hot and irritated, thus 
calling for the blue principle, while the bowels are constipated, 



362 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



thus requiring the yellow-orange; what shall be done? The blue 
lens could be held over the pit of the stomach, and the amber 
colored one over the bowels simultaneously, or at least during the 
same sitting; or the yellow charged water may be sipped before 
each meal in the day-time, and the blue charged water on retiring, 
to soothe the stomach and bring sleep. This last plan is espe- 
cially desirable with nervous persons who are costive and wakeful. 

12. The Purple Lens, which we sometimes have made, is 
useful — 

For animating the venous blood which is purple; 
For use over the stomach, spleen, kidneys, etc.; 
For animating the blood without being too exciting. 

13. The greatest heat will probably be produced by the trans- 
parent lens, as the other lenses have been made with too deep a 
color to transmit all of the rays which they are naturally fitted 
to receive. While this depth of color makes the lenses some- 
what less powerful in concentrating the rays to a focus by re- 
fraction, it makes them all the better for charging the water or 
other substance which may be placed within. They generally 
prove as powerful as any one will wish to endure, if placed in a 
hot sun, and brought very near to a focus, especially when win- 
dow panes do not intervene. The blue lens must be excepted 
from this remark, as the stock which I have thus far received may 
be focused upon the hand for many seconds without giving the 
least perceptible heat, even under the sun's most powerful rays. 
I have set paper on fire in two seconds with the transparent lens, 
and this without being able to bring it to a perfect focus. This 
will show its power as compared with the ordinary small solid 
lenses, such as will cost from $2 to $4, as they must be brought 
to several times as fine a point of light and heat before they can 
ignite paper. Under a moderate sunlight, however, it will not 
always ignite paper. 

14. Food or Drink can be charged in a few moments by 
means of the chromo lenses, so as to have it produce different 
medical effects, according to the color used. I have known a 
single teaspoonful of yellow charged water to act as a laxative to 
the bowels, and if a person is constipated he could charge his 
bread or his beverage through the amber-colored lens for one, 
two or three minutes, or through the blue lens if the bowels are 
too free, or when nervousness or sleeplessness occurs. 



THE CHROMO-LENS. 



363 



15. The rock against which some skeptical or rash persons 
split when dealing with these fine forces, is the desire to have 
them act with a rude power similar to that of coarse drugs and 
to have an immediate effect. This will sometimes happen, and 
the patient occasionally becomes more than satisfied of it, wish- 
ing he had taken a little smaller dose of sunlight, but in many 
cases it works so gently as to be almost imperceptible, — 2 hours, 
6 hours, 12 hours or 24 hours after it is taken, but its effect is 
much more lasting than those of ordinary drugs, as it deals more 
directly with the fine nervous forces. Some are cured of cos- 
tiveness gradually and effectively by the yellow water, and yet 
cannot tell just when or how it was done. Persons who have an 
active condition of the bowels, sometimes fail to perceive any 
effect from the charged water, at least in an ordinary dose, as 
positive forces seem to be met with positive forces, and one 
gentleman, after having become cured of habitual constipation 
and made strong by its means, says it no longer has the same 
effect upon him. That is all right, for the affinitive conditions 
which once attracted it are gone and no longer need it. 

16. Because the blue light or blue-charged elements tend to 
soothe and bring sleep, it must not be considered the only thing 
which can do this. The yellow-charged elements often give a 
very exuberant feeling, animating the brain, but in many cases 
they in a short time so animate dormant bowels without causing 
pain, as to draw the forces from the brain and thus induce sleep. 

17. A small assortment of these lenses will constitute a little 
drug store in minature, a veritable home doctor, capable of draw- 
ing down from the skies those fine celestial medicines which 
penetrate softly and deeply into the human system, which work 
radically upon both mind and body, and which must save great 
suffering and many doctor's bills.* 

18. Examples of the great healing power of the different 
colors of sunlight, or of substances charged by these colors, are 
given on page 290 onward and page 322 onward, etc. 



*The lenses have burnished nickel plated handles which screw on or off at 
pleasure, and hold a piece of cork air-tight upon a glass screw that projects from 
the lens itself. The price of each lens, put up in a paper box, carefully wrapped, and 
supplied with a pamphlet to explain the method of use in different diseases, is $1. A 
solid lens of the same size would cost $6 to $8. The least outfit should have two 



364 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



XXXI. The Solarium. 

The ancients had small terraces built on the tops of their 
houses which they called Solaria, and in which they took their 
sun baths. Something similar but modified to suit modern wants 
would be admirable. A solarium could be built entirely above 
the body of a house on the roof, or could be arranged just under 
the roof in the garret where there is room. The glass in either 
case should be overhead in order to be exposed to the sun all 
day, and should run north and south or northeast and southwest, 
so that when a person lies under it, the head could be to the 
north or northeast. The glass could be arranged somewhat as 
in the Chromolume, only having the red-orange longer to cover 
limbs and feet, or it can be arranged as follows to good advantage, 
making up the main center of colored glass 15 inches wide, the 
first color at the north for the head being of cupro-sulphate of 
ammonia blue glass 12 inches deep, or at least deep blue glass 
which excludes red and yellow rays, then the mazarine blue 12 
more inches, then 4 inches of yellow, then 8 inches of green, 
then 8 inches of red purple, and then 28 inches of red-orange for 
legs and feet. For the sake of a fine chemical action, place on 
each side of the blue panes a strip of red or red-orange glass 2 
or 3 inches wide, on each side of the yellow, a strip of violet, on 
each side of the green, red or dark red, on each side of the red- 
purple, yellow-green or yellow, and on each side of the red- 
orange, the blue or indigo-blue (sulphate) glass. Beyond all of 
this on each side, the clear glass may extend all the way to a 



lenses if possible, the amber colored and the blue. A much better outfit would be 
the amber colored, the blue, and the transparent, which if taken at one time will 
be put at $2.50, thus saving half a dollar. A still better outfit would be the two 
colored lenses and three more transparent ones, which latter could have three 
of the leading solutions made up ready for use at any time, and would be superior to 
the former where greater heat is desired. The price for these five would be $4. 
By a very oppressive and entirely unnecessary regulation of the United States Post 
Office department, no glass of any kind, however free from fluids, or carefully packed 
in boxes, can be sent by mail, and consequently must be sent by Express or other- 
wise. When ordered it would be well to send the money in a registered letter, or 
by a Post Office order, in which last case the Post Master should be requested to 
make the order payable at station D, New York. By thus paying in advance it 
saves the expense of the return charges, which would be necessary if sent C. O. D. 
Lenses having some slight indenture or other flaw, and having a cork instead of a 
handle, are furnished at 25 cents. Address, or apply to, Babbitt & Co., Science 
Hall, 141 Eighth St. (near Broadway), New York. 



THE HYGIENE OF COLOR IN DRESS. 



365 



width of from 12 inches upward. A lounge can be placed directly 
under the colored glass lengthwise, or with the foot moved 
around one side a part of the time, so that much of the body can 
have the white light as well as the colored light. The children 
of a household should be sent up into the solarium for a play 
spell each day, and a plenty of pure air should always be allowed 
to come in when the weather is not too cold. The power, purity 
of blood and activity of the skin which children would thus gain, 
would be quite beyond most people's expectation. 

XXXII. The Hygiene of Color in Dress. 



1 . White or light colored clothes transmit more light to the body 
than those of any other color, while black or dark colored clothes 
absorb the light and degrade it into the coarser principle of ordi- 
nary heat. But the reader may say, Is not an object white from 
the fact of its reflecting all the colors? How, then, can it trans- 
mit them? The white reflects a large amount of all the rays, but 
all those rays which penetrate the interstices of a white garment 
sufficiently far, pass on as white ones beyond it from the repul- 
sive nature of all the thread, while a black garment from its 
great affinitive attraction for all the rays greedily absorbs them 
and prevents their escape on the other side. A sufficient proof 
of this is the fact that a black or blue curtain will darken a room 
far more than a white or buff-colored one. But the dark colored 
curtain of itself will be warmer than the white one. The experi- 
ments of Dr. Franklin, in which he put various colored cloths on 
the snow, are well known. The darker the color of the cloth, 
the more deeply did the snow melt beneath it under the solar 
rays. But this did not signify that the black transmitted the 
heat most, but absorbed it, and the garment thus warmed melted 
the snow because of contact with it. If the cloths had been 
placed some distance above the snow, the light colors, transmit- 
ting the heat most rapidly, would have melted the snow the most, 
just as we have seen that yellow and orange and red glass trans- 
mit more heat than the blue (XXII.). The rule is that if radiant 
heat "be entirely transmitted, no elevation of temperature is 
produced in the body through which it passes," and the very 
fact that a body grows warm under the heat rays shows that 



366 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



the rays are not transmitted, but absorbed. For this reason 
black clothing is much more endurable in winter than in sum- 
mer, as it absorbs and will not transmit the heat away from the 
body, being in contact with it, while it also absorbs the sun's 
rays and converts them more or less into heat. The fact that 
black is a good radiator of heat does not change the principle, 
for it radiates toward the body as well as away from it. 

2. As a tonic for the cuticle the full white light is doubt- 
less unsurpassed, for which reason light-colored clothing has 
a more animating effect than the dark. A lady physician, who 
for years superintended the ladies' department of a Turkish 
Bath establishment, informs me that she can generally tell what 
ladies have been in the habit of wearing black from the withered 
appearance of their skin. A certain physiologist has declared 
that he can cure any person of a cold by causing him to wear 
white clothing for two days. The skin and its contiguous nerves 
being thus made active by the light, the lungs, liver and kidneys 
are far less burdened, and the external system becomes positive 
and able to resist noxious influences. Of course bathing, friction 
and pure air greatly add to this power. This animating principle 
of light comes from the thermal rays, especially the yellow as- 
sisted by the red. 

3. In a condition of fine health, white underclothes next to the 
skin are doubtless best, as they transmit more or less of all the 
rays. When a person, however, is very cold, pale and bloodless, 
red drawers and stockings are admirable, and even red under- 
vests, in case the system is not too excitable. Red stockings 
are excellent, but if others are worn, red tissue paper can be 
wrapped around the feet and the stockings pulled over them. I 
have sometimes intensified the natural vitalizing power of red 
tissue paper by passing my warm magnetic hand over it several 
times, after which it has been able to warm the coldest feet, mak- 
ing some so hot in fact that the paper has had to be removed. The 
same paper charged with white, and especially with red or yellow 
light, just before putting it on, would warm the feet in a more 
natural and penetrating way than the coarser heat of hot bottles 
or flat-irons. For hot pit of the stomach, bowels or spine, blue 
paper next to the skin and pinned to the underclothes would be 
admirable, and this could be made still more soothing as a seda- 



VAGUENESS OF IDEA CONCERNING COLORS. 



367 



tive and nervine by charging it with light under blue glass. For 
an over-heated and excited system, however, blue or lilac under- 
vests of rather thin material are desirable, for although the blue 
will absorb the heat rays more than yellow or red, yet it reflects 
the cool electrical principle and has a quieting effect. 

XXXIII. — The General Vagueness of Idea Concerning 

Colors. 



1. The darkness which surrounds the subject of light is so 
great as to be easily visible to any thoughtful mind. In fact 
scientists of high standing, physicians, editors, professors, and 
men of general erudition in other matters, seem to be in dim 
eclipse as to the potencies of color and light as well as to their 
law of action. In this department they see men as trees walk- 
ing, and one color is about the same as any other, or as all others 
combined. For these thousands of years has the sun been send- 
ing its resplendent power upon the world, and painting its lessons 
upon all things, and yet men's eyes have not been opened to see 
them. They stand in the midst of an infinite temple whose pil- 
lars and domes link the heavens and earth together, and yet they 
treat the matter almost as indifferently as they would a dark 
cavern, and are ready to cast stones at those who, seeing more than 
themselves, attempt to lead others to witness the same. But as 
soon as men learn the great fact that the positive side of all 
force lies in the fine rather than the coarse, they will gradually 
cease their cry of "delusion," "fanaticism," etc., and finally be 
thankful that others have been able to lead them into nature's 
diviner pathways. Men must first be taken up with the crude 
and the tangible, and with the more material side of things which 
is all right, as this must never be ignored, but now, after all these 
ages of failure in reaching interior principles, it is high time that 
they should attempt something in advance. I will mention a few 
examples of popular opinion, admitting also admiringly the great 
achievements of our scientists in the external phases of this very 
department of late years. 

2. General Pleasanton, of Philadelphia, himself not a scientist, 
but a gentleman of much practical common sense, has laid the 
world under a debt of gratitude for his very useful experiments 
with blue and white light, in the development of vegetable, animal 



168 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



and human life, and for his success in awaking public attention 
to so important a subject. To be sure this is only one small 
side of the question, a kind of a one-idea presentation of the sub- 
ject of light, but I am free to admit that if we were to be limited 
to one simple combination of colors, it is as good as any other, 
especially for our nervous and over-active Americans who get 
thereby the soothing blue, and the diversified power of white light, 
both of which become chemically intensified by being massed 
side by side. He has shown by actual experiments, too, how 
decidedly vegetation can be forwarded in its growth by a small 
amount of blue, combined with a large amount of sunlight, for 
which we must thank him. Having helped our common humanity 
by means of experiments of so much value, we may easily for- 
give the utterly amorphous arrangement of matter in his book, 
and the many theories therein advocated which will scarcely 
stand a crucial test. The danger consists in putting so much stress 
upon blue as the pivotal color, and leading people to adopt in all 
cases merely a single combination, which in some conditions of 
disease must be attended with danger just as in opposite con- 
ditions it might be most helpful. 

3. Dr. S. Pancoast, also of Philadelphia, has gone "one 
better" than Gen. Pleasanton, inasmuch as he has ascertained 
that there are two colors which have special potencies. "Red 
and blue," he says, "are the only absolutely independent colors." 
In his work just issued, called "Blue and Red Light," he has a 
chapter of great value in which he gives ten remarkable cures 
made under his own direction by means of blue and red light, 
the most of which I have quoted in this chapter. In this color- 
healing, being a physican, he has shown more discrimination 
than General Pleasanton, and his results are perhaps more strik- 
ing. The rest of his work will be considered of but little 
value by most readers, being founded upon the old Kabbalistic 
mysteries which, having pursued "for over thirty years," in con- 
nection with experiments of his own, have seemingly blinded 
him to the far grander discoveries of the present. As a specimen 
of his style, notice the following remarks: "All nature owes its 
every form and feature of physical life to Light, the mighty unit, 
not to seven rays. The ancients fully understood this, and they 
never thought of light as seven rays riding through space on 



VAGUENESS OF IDEA CONCERNING COLORS. 



369 



seven broomsticks, or waving on seven distinct sets of waves; 
they knew accurately and perfectly all that man can know of the 
secrets and mysteries of nature — of the essence and nature of 
light. * * * The ancients knew vastly more of the causal 
world than all the scientists from Galileo or Newton to the 
present day have ever learned — incalculably more than the 
Tyndalls, Schellens, and other wave philosophers will learn for 
centuries to come, unless they go to these old sages and learn 
of them" (p. 68). Such infatuation of our author may be ac- 
counted for by his having turned square around from the on- 
marching hosts of the present, and setting his face towards the 
presumed gods of the past, has marched steadily towards them. 
Turning briefly to look upon the scientists of to-day, they seem to 
be far behind himself and the ancients whom he follows, where- 
as the probable truth is, he and the ancients are far behind them. 
Too many men are looking worshipfully to the past, and making 
progress, if at all, backward. The progressive nature of man 
must, on the average, make the present better than the past, the 
future better than the present. The ancients had many grand 
minds in their midst but they lacked instruments, such as tele- 
scopes, microscopes, spectroscopes, and a hundred other things 
which are absolutely necessary to exact knowledge. The printing 
press alone, to say nothing of the steam engine, the use of gun- 
powder which is the great peacemaker, the sewing machine and 
multitudes of other things, would overbalance in importance all 
of the inventions of the ancient world. But what has this pro- 
found wisdom of the past taught our author, as manifested by his 
writings? One thing which he asserts repeatedly is that the 
whole physical universe has light for its source, it being the univer- 
sal motor, the one prime source and cause of every motion of 
the universe," etc. Men are ever prone to ride off on one 
wheel of the universe and forget all the rest. Thales declared 
that water was the principle of all things, Anaximenes traced 
all things to air, Heraclitus, to fire, others to electricity, etc. 
A knowledge of atomic law and chemical action will show that 
all of these elements and forces are merely sub-agents or wheels 
in the great machinery of nature, none of which have any 
creative action. Such reasoning reminds one of a musician 
who should seize upon a single string of his harp and declare 

24 



370 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



that all the music is to be found in that, the others being merely 
inferior members, dependent upon the one. But I have not 
space here to refer to his many theories, and will simply notice 
an expression with reference to his favorite two colors: — "Two 
rays produce the two opposite forces, or principles of light 
— the red, the positive, polarizing, integrating force or principle; 
the blue, the negative, depolarizing, disintegrating force or prin- 
ciple" (p. 267). That the truth is exactly the opposite of what 
he states here must be quite evident from his own admissions in 
other places, in which he shows that the red is the heating, and 
the blue the cooling ray. But as heat is the melting, burning, 
disintegrating, and depolarizing principle, then must the heat 
ray, which is red, be the same; and as cold is the crystallizing, 
polarizing and organizing principle, so must the cold blue ray 
have the same effect. The Doctor's medical practice seems to 
be more correct than his theories, and I would have been thankful 
for more cases of his color-healing. Before leaving this book I 
would remark that I know of no ancient who had any but the 
crudest ideas of color. Aristotle called yellow, white and black 
the three primary colors; Pythagoras had yellow, red, white and 
black as the primaries; Plato supposed that an inward fire in the 
organ of the eye caused the effect of light, just as Pythagoras 
recognized a hot vapor emanation as causing the same. Such 
ideas would not indicate that even these greatest of the ancients 
"knew accurately and perfectly all that men can know of the 
secrets and mysteries of nature — of the essence and nature of 
light." It is folly to let "distance lend enchantment to the 
view," to such an extent that mankind are to be considered as 
moving on a down hill grade; for if all the great men belonged 
to the past, the present must be imbecile in comparison, while 
the future must sink into idiocy and ruin. 

4 The Scientific American, a paper with a deserved repute- 
tion in the philosophy of mechanics, but evidently quite unin- 
formed with reference to the finer forces, has published a series 
of articles on the "Blue Glass Deception," as it terms it, which 
I answered at the time in the N. Y. Evening Mail. In these ar- 
ticles that paper presented an array of learned authorities, which, 
failing to designate the distinctive features of the different colors, 
and tearing down rather than building up ideas that are well 



VAGUENESS OF IDEA CONCERNING COLORS. 



371 



known and established, their general effect must have been to 
have deceived the public to a far greater extent than did General 
Pleasanton, whom they charged with the "Blue Glass Decep- 
tion." I will quote simply one point as a specimen of its assump- 
tions: — "In some instances where it is desirable to diminish the 
intensity of light, blue glass may be used; but any mode of shad- 
ing the light, as by ground glass, thin curtains, would without 
doubt serve equally as well." In other words, according to this 
paper, blue has no particular potency, and acts simply as a prin- 
ciple of shadow, thus being a kind of superfluity in nature whose 
place is better supplied with black. It is high time that the 
Scientific American had learned 1st, that the blue has a great 
and special chemical power quite different from the solar rays as 
a whole, and quite different from other simple colors; 2dly, that 
the blue developes phosphorescence, while shadow will not, the 
red will not, the yellow will not; 3dly, the blue will develop 
germination while the yellow and red tend to destroy germina- 
tion; 4thly, blue light will dash a bottle of hydrochloric acid 
into atoms, while red, or orange, or yellow light, or shadow will 
do nothing of the kind; 5thly, blue light will darken the salts of 
sensitive metals, as in the case of photography, whereas the ther- 
mal rays cannot; 6thly, blue is caused by fine vibrations which 
are cooling in their nature, as shown by the thermometer as well 
as by sensation, while the red and yellow are caused by coarser 
vibrations of a warming character. It is sad, then, that the pub- 
lic should be so misled by an influential paper whose words are 
quoted far and wide and whose authority gives weight to its ut- 
terances. The blue also destroys animalcules as will be seen. 

5. The Liberal Club of New York, which meets at Science 
Hall, and embraces some gentlemen of fine attainments and real 
acumen, had a lecture and discussion on the Blue Glass Cure, 
some time since. The lecturer, though presenting many points 
of historical interest on the subject, made it his main business to 
criticize the positions of General Pleasanton. He, like some 
other members of the Liberal Club, had been misled by the so- 
phistical arguments of the Scientific American, and on the whole, 
although many good things were said, the audience must have left 
with their ideas more mixed than when they came. The lecturer 
evidently could not see that one color had any special advantage 



372 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



over another or over all of the colors combined, as signified in 
the following language, when speaking of the healing power of 
light: — "We do not believe that this is increased by any electro- 
magnetism developed by the interposition of colored glass, for 
the unmodified sun-light is capable of producing all the beneficial 
effects which are now erroneously attributed to some added in- 
fluence of blue glass." This is an assertion unsustained by facts, 
and contrary to any correct deduction, as according to his own 
experiments the full white rays of the sun coming through clear 
glass were far hotter than those which came through blue glass, 
or through blue and clear glass in equal proportions. Even if 
we wholly omit the wonderful chemical powers of the blue, is it 
not plain that its coolness alone would render it more suitable 
for inflammatory or feverish conditions than the full power of 
the sun? The remark is often made that "we should use the 
pure light of the sun as God and nature have given it to us." 
This is very plausible and very delusive, for, as we have already 
seen, although the pure white light is best for ordinary use, and 
especially for well persons, yet in certain conditions of disease 
the blue is best, in other conditions the yellow, in other condi- 
tions still the red or orange. On the same plan we may take 
water as nature has furnished it, but is it not often best to take 
hot water, or cold water, or filtered water? It is well to take 
pure air as nature provides it, but suppose the blood is badly 
deoxidized and dormant, would it not be useful to take a little 
oxygen alone at times to bring about harmony, or to have the 
air changed to greater heat or cold according to conditions? But 
man is ever modifying nature in his food, sleep, clothing, medi- 
cines, and it would be the merest empiricism to attempt to restore 
the sick by giving vegetables, meat, etc., in their ordinary un- 
changed condition. So in sunlight, one of the mightiest of all 
agencies, we shall be empirical if we do not in one case admin- 
ister the electrical rays, in another the thermal or luminous, in 
another the concentrated rays, etc., according to conditions. At 
the same meeting of the Liberal Club, a learned doctor arose 
and advised the people to "cover the whole windows with blue 
glass if they chose as a process of shading their rooms, but to 
avoid the checker-board process advocated by General Pleasan- 
ton." Thus the people were counselled to adopt a plan which 



A WORD TO PHYSICIANS. 



373 



would be positively dangerous in many cases, especially if it is 
to be occupied constantly. Seeing the blind thus ever leading 
the blind, until people fall into the ditch, and seeing a divine 
cause thus imperilled, by those who should understand the meth- 
ods of human upbuilding, is my excuse for dwelling thus long 
on the subject, and for aiming to establish a definite system of 
rules founded on Nature, whose paths are ever those of peace 
and harmony. 

A Word to Physicians. 



While physicians are doubtless as noble as any class of pro- 
fessional people in the world, and perform many self-sacrificing 
deeds for the good of the suffering, for some of which they never 
expect any remuneration, yet like all other people, some of them 
have their selfish side and their hard side. While some grand 
natures among the medical fraternity are rejoicing in the newly 
discovered power of light, yet it is very common for practitioners 
to turn from the matter almost without examination and exclaim 
"fanaticism," "humbuggery!" Two things lead them to this 
course, 1st, if the people can thus heal themselves with light it 
will tend to destroy the physician's practice; and 2dly, it seems 
impossible that so soft, intangible and noiseless a thing as light 
can have any special power to heal, and having been educated in 
the old medical rut, few have the force of character to enable 
them to get out of it sufficiently to examine an entirely new 
thing. As to the first point I would say, Fellow Physicians, 
dare we look into our mirrors and ask the person therein revealed, 
if he is so base a creature as to let the sick and suffering and 
discouraged humanity around him moan and die rather than have 
his income diminished? If so, he is unworthy of the grand title 
of physician or philanthropist, and the world at large who are 
quick readers of human motives will gradually dismiss him and 
press onward to these "waters of life" without his aid. If, how- 
ever, he can learn to put his whole soul into the upbuilding of 
his patients with a feeling that he must cure them, by whatever 
agencies of earth or heaven, he will not be allowed to suffer 
greatly even in his earthly ledger, while his celestial balance ac- 
count will be triumphantly in his favor. The truth is that the 



374 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



physician will often be needed for the scientific administering of 
light, and this though unequaled in some things must also be 
supplemented by other agencies and by the utmost skill that can 
be brought into action. Even then he must find himself duly 
humbled at times by cases which will conquer him. Chromop- 
athy is based on eternal truth, and the sooner any great truth 
is adopted, the better it is for all concerned. As to the second 
point, it should be remembered that the mightiest worlds are 
wafted on the breath of gravitation which is incomparably more 
intangible and subtile than light, and hence the exquisite and soft 
character of a force should always be construed in its favor as 
an element of power instead of weakness. It should be remem- 
bered that man occupies the highest scale of refinement in the 
realms of visible being, consequently the elements which best 
administer to him must be refined. One great advantage in the 
finer forces, is that they animate not merely the physical nature, 
but enkindle the mental and moral faculties into greater activity, 
whereas grosser elements frequently quicken only the lower 
animal nature. I appeal, then, to physicians in behalf of hu- 
manity, in behalf of their own ultimate success and their own 
full-orbed development as men of power and skill, and truth, to 
give loving audience to the great achievements of light and its 
sublime source in the sky, whose chariot wheel is hinged upon 
the heavens and must continue to roll on with its almost om- 
nific power, however much puny man shall oppose. Mount the 
great wheel-work of nature and it will bear you onward trium- 
phantly: oppose it and it will crush you. 

XXXIV. Summation of Points in Chromo-Therapeutics. 



1. Chroma-Chemistry gives us the basis for the first time of an exact 
and exquisite Materia Medica. 

2. Chromopathy deals with more refined and penetrating elements than 
Allopathy, Hydropathy, or Electropathy. 

3. The power of Red to stimulate the arterial blood and arouse the 
system is shown not only in drugs but in cases of healing by red light. 

4. The red is injurious in over-excited conditions. 

5. The yellow aided by some orange and red, is the central principle of 
Nervous Excitement as shown 1st, on principles of Chroma-Chemistry; 



SUMMATION OF POINTS, ETC. 



375 



2dly, by the potencies of drugs in which the yellow, etc., predominate, and 
3dly, by the action of yellow light in disease. Yellow is especially predom- 
inant in laxatives and purgatives, and combined with a fair amount of 
red or orange, forms the leading element in Cerebral Stimulants, Emetics, 
Diuretics, Diaphoretics, Tonics, Rubefacients, Emmenagogues, etc., the red 
being especially decided in the latter two. 

6. The yellow is injurious in all over-active, nervous conditions, such as 
Delirium, Diarrhoea, Sleeplessness, etc., and is the most decided principle 
in poisons. 

7. The Violet, Indigo and Blue are Refrigerant, Astringent, Nervine, 
Soothing, Anti-Inflammatory, etc., the violet being more directly soothing 
to excited nerves and the blue to excited blood. This is proved not only 
by principles of Chroma-Chemistry, but by a large number of well known 
drug potencies in which these colors rule, as well as by these colors in light 
as attested by the treatment of many diseases. 

8. Blue and Violet are contra-indicated in dormant, cold conditions, 
such as paralysis and many chronic diseases. 

9. Substances charged with the different colors of light possess the same 
kind of potency as the direct rays themselves, as attested by various cases 
of disease treated therewith. 

10. Pure Sunlight is the best for the general use of man and nature, is 
vitalizing to the general system, especially to the skin, and in warm seasons 
is particularly stimulating and healing. Tumors, Colds and many other 
diseases have been cured powerfully by it. 

11. The Lack of Sunlight induces a long catalogue of diseases, such as 
scrofula, impoverished blood, consumption, paleness, mental imbecility, etc., 
etc. 

12. Strong and hot Sunlight is injurious to hot brains (as in sun- 
stroke), weak and over-sensitive Eyes, etc. 

13. We have seen that the color potency which each kind of glass trans- 
mits is not to be determined entirely by its appearance; thus cobalt (maza- 
rine) blue glass presents a very deep and fine blue with an almost imper- 
ceptible amount of red to the eye, and yet as tested by the prism it admits 
blue, indigo, violet, green, orange, red and thermel, and is thus imperfect 
as a glass for the cool principle, while blue glass colored with the cupro- 
sulphate of Ammonia would be far superior. We have seen that although 



376 



CHROMO THERAPEUTICS, OR CHROMOPATHY. 



the red is the hottest visible color, yet that red glass does not transmit as 
much heat its the orange or even yellow glass; hence glass must be used 
according to the power it transmits, and not entirely according to what it 
appears to the eye. 

14. Blue and violet light are best for inducing sleep in nervous condi- 
tions, but narcotics have both thermal and electrical colors which first excite 
and then depress the system. 

15. The Chromolume is a beautiful instrument, combining a series of 
various colored pieces of glass arranged on chemical and physiological laws, 
and adapted to the various organs of human beings, all of which are covered 
simultaneously. 

16. The Chromo-Disc is an instrument which concentrates the rays 
mainly by reflection, and the Chromo-Lens another instrument which con- 
centrates them by refraction, and both are intended to throw great power on 
any part of the body which may be the most affected, and thus develop a 
rapid action. 

17. The general philosophy of Chromopathy will lead us to apply the 
electrical rays through blue or indigo glass for all inflammatory, feverish, 
relaxed, nervous and over-excitable conditions, to apply the red rays through 
ruby glass, to arouse the arterial blood, the purple rays through purple 
glass to animate the venous blood and the digestive system, the yellow and 
orange and red rays through yellow or orange glass to awaken the nervous 
system and kindle new action in dormant bowels, kidneys, lungs or in cold 
and paralyzed parts. The cupro- sulphate blue glass already described is 
the coolest of all; when combined with an equal amount of white light 
through white or clear glass it is warmer, but less warm than white light 
alone; the orange, especially the red-orange, is the warmest of all, and when 
combined with an equal amount of white light the effect is made more cool- 
ing. Of course solutions of different colors, or even thin colored drapery can 
be used in the place of glass. The same general principles as the above, 
applied differently, should rule in Dress. 

18. We see, then, that every color has its own peculiar power, different 
from all the colors as combined in white, or from each of the other colors 
when taken singly. To say that each or all of the colors have pretty much 
the same character, and that none of them have any very special potency, as 
is too generally done, is to assert that the universe has been filled with a 



SUMMATION OF POINTS IN CHROMO THERAPEUTICS. 



377 



meaningless array of hues which are quite worthless except as they gratify 
human fancy. 

19. If these principles of Chromopathy are founded on immutable truth, 
physicians who oppose them are projecting boomerangs which shall rebound 
directly into their own faces and into the faces of the suffering community 
who are confiding their lives into their hands. 

We have thus in light, color and other fine forces, the basis of 
a nobler philosophy of cure which must rule in the future, from 
the fact that refined elements alone can be adapted to the higher 
nature of man, who is himself the most refined portion of the 
known universe. The coarser elements of his nature can be built 
up with food or with what may be called food medicines. 

If drugs are to be taken, only the purer and finer kinds should 
be administered, and these should be kept in bottles whose color 
is consistent with the nature of the medicine itself. As this is a 
department of science in which our druggists and chemists them- 
selves are very deficient, a hint will be in place here. Alkalies, 
cathartics, emetics, diaphoretics, diuretics, and stimulating sub- 
stances should be kept in orange or amber colored bottles, while 
acids, astringents, sedatives, refrigerants and soporific elements 
should be kept in blue bottles. Even diffused light would have 
some influence in refining and increasing the properties of the 
enclosed drugs; but if the full sunlight, or even gaslight, could 
fall upon them for a time each day, their effect when taken would 
become more penetrating, refined and enduring. 

In the chapter on Chromo Culture of Vegetable Life, it will 
be shown that the red is most active in developing the repro- 
ductive principle in plants. From its power over nervous action, 
the yellow may be supposed to be most active in animal life, 
aided also by the red. In proof of this, Dr. Downes and Mr. 
Blunt, in a paper read before the Royal Society, showed that yel- 
low generates animalcules most rapidly, and red next, — that blue 
light destroyed animalcules, and even white light would prevent 
their forming. We know the warm light of summer will gene- 
rate insect life, while blue light will destroy it, from its axial 
principle. In yellow fever and other malarial conditions of the 
system in which animalcules are abundant and produce putridity, 
blue glass must be invaluable. See next chapter, VIII. 



378 



CHROMO CULTURE OF VEGETABLE LIFE. 



CHAPTER SEVENTH. 
CHROMO-CULTURE OF VEGETABLE LIFE. 

1. Review of Ground already Covered. 

In Chapter Fifth on Chromo-Chemistry, the following depart- 
ments of this subject, have already been considered: — 

1. The law of Chemical Repulsion, by means of which cer- 
tain color-potencies in the sun-light and atmosphere stimulate 
the same color in plants (XIX, 1). 

2. The brilliancy of plants, and other substances, depends 
upon the amount of sunlight which they receive (XIX, 12). 

3. The germination of Plants is brought about by the electri- 
cal colors through chemical affinity (XX, 9). 

4. Chlorophyl, the green coloring matter of plants, is formed 
by chemical affinity (XX, 10). 

5. The formation of the bark of trees (XX, 11). 

6. The green coloring matter of leaves may be formed under 
the light of a lamp, but not under a Drummond light (XX, 12). 

7. The development of flowers, and the perfecting of their 
reproductive principle, require both thermal and electrical rays 
(XX. 13). 

8. Why flowers incline to the sun (XX, 14). 

9. How the harmonic contrasts of flowers are developed by 
chemical affinity (XX, 15). 

II. Germination. 



1 . The Electrical Rays penetrate more deeply into the soil and 
cause more rapid germination, as well as more rapid sub-soil 
growth than the thermal rays, or than both thermal and electrical 
combined as in white light, or than shadow. The reason of 
this rapid growth as explained under the law of Chromo re- 
pulsion (Chap. Fifth, XIX), is, that the blue principle of light 



GERMINATION. 



379 



must stimulate into greater action, the same principle of 
plants, which is so abundant in their green parts, and it may 
also awaken their chemical activity, in connection with the soil 
which abounds in thermal elements. We have already seen 
that the electrical rays penetrate the soil more deeply than the 
thermal, because the affinitive thermal elements of the soil draw 
them on, and probably, too, because they are more fine and pen- 
etrating than the others. Robt. Hunt, after trying a great num- 
ber of experiments with different colors, says: — "In every in- 
stance, germination was set up by the agency of the radiations, 
which had permeated the blue glasses in a less time, and at a 
greater depth in the soil, than in comparative experiments in 
which the seed was exposed to the full influence of light, and 
its associated radiations, as combined in the ordinary solar 
beam," and declares that "the germination of seed is more rapid 
under the influence of the actinic (electrical) rays, separated from 
the luminous ones, than it is under the influence of the com- 
bined radiations, or in the dark." (Researches on Light, p. 224.) 
We have already seen that the thermal rays tend to impede or 
destroy germination, and most plants cannot germinate at all 
under the influence of the full white light, for which reason 
seeds and sprouts must be shut out from the light by being 
buried in the soil. 

2. Mr. Charles Lawson of Edinburgh, wrote a letter to Pro- 
fessor Robert Hunt concerning the germination of seeds, which 
strikingly illustrates this subject. I quote the following from 
it: — 

"It is our practice to test the germinating powers of all 
seeds which come into our warehouses before we send them 
out for sale. Our usual plan formerly was, to sow the seeds to 
be tested in a hot-bed or frame, and then watch the progress 
and note the results. It was usually from 8 to 14 days before 
we were in a condition to decide on the commercial value of the 
seed under trial. My attention was, however, directed to your 
excellent work 'On the Physical Phenomena of Nature,' about 
five years ago, and I resolved to put your theory to a practical 
test. I accordingly had a case made, the sides of which were 
formed of glass, colored blue or indigo, which case I attached to 
a small gas stove for engendering heat; in the case shelves were 



380 



CHROMO-CULTURE OF VEGETABLE LIFE. 



fixed in the inside, on which were placed small pots, wherein the 
seeds to be tested were sown. The results were all that could 
be looked for: the seeds freely germinated in from 2 to 5 days 
only, instead of from 8 to 14 days as before. I have made some 
trials with the yellow ray in preventing the germination of seeds 
which have been successful; and I have always found the violet 
ray prejudicial to the growth of the plant after germination." 

The last remark should not be construed as meaning that 
the violet in combination with thermal rays, was prejudicial 
to the growth of a plant, but rather the violet alone. The violet 
or blue, may be made a means of intensifying the thermal rays 
when properly combined with them. 

3. "The effect of red or calorific rays," says Prof. Hunt, "is 
to produce rapid evaporation from the soil, and the surface of 
the plants; even when this evaporation is met by an increased 
supply of moisture, germination is much retarded, and the young 
plant grows slowly, its leaves assuming a brown or red tint, 
showing that the chlorophyl — the coloring matter of healthy 
leaves — is prevented from forming" (p. 378). For fuller ac- 
count of this process of germination, see Chapter Fifth, XX, 9. 

III. Healthy Growth above Ground 



Requires the thermal as well as the electrical rays, for with the 
electrical rays alone or in darkness, plants become tender and 
watery. Woody tissue consists of lignin and other of the harder 
parts of plants in which carbon, being a very prominent element, 
the yellow rays are of the first importance, being those which 
propel the atmospheric carbon into the plant, as was seen in 
chromo-chemistry, the yellow propelling the yellow. Experi- 
ments show that as soon as the first plumules (leaf buds) appear 
above the soil, it is necessary to have a plenty of luminous and 
heating as well as electrical rays. Professor Hunt's experiments 
show that the woody substance was formed most rapidly under 
a medium in which the yellow (luminous) rays were most abund- 
ant, next to which in power came a white medium admitting all 
the rays in abundance, then a red medium in which the heat rays 
were most active, and least of all a blue medium with the electri- 
cal rays in greatest abundance. "If the young plant," he says, 



FLORESCENCE AND REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION OF PLANTS. 



381 



"continues to grow under the influence of the rays which have 
permeated the blue, it will for some time grow with great rapid- 
ity, producing, however, succulent stalks which soon perish. 
Even in the earliest stages of growth it will be found that the 
plants grown in the full sunshine, or under the influence of yel- 
low or red media, representing the luminous and calorific prince- 
pies, give a larger quantity of woody fibre and less water than 
those grown under actinic influence." In Prof. Hunt's experi- 
ments through the blue medium, many thermal rays were ad- 
mitted, according to his own estimate, or the plants could not 
have had the very rapid growth which he speaks of. It is not 
probable that plants could grow at all under mere thermal or 
mere electrical rays. Dr. Edward Newberry, of New York, has 
shown me plants grown under blue glass in which only a com- 
paratively small amount of the thermal rays were admitted, 
whose growth had been greatly more rapid than those under 
white light, but their substance was very feeble and imperfect. 
In his experiments, however, with red-leaved plants, the blue re- 
tarded their growth, there evidently being too little of the blue 
element in them for the blue rays to act upon as a stimulus. 

IV. Florescence and the Reproductive Function of 
Plants, 



Require especially the calorific rays on the thermal side of 
the question, and an abundance of oxygen on the electrical. "I 
have rarely succeeded," says Prof. Hunt, "in getting plants to 
flower under the influence of any of the media which cut off 
those rays usually termed the calorific rays. For instance, under 
intense yellow, deep blue, or very dark green glasses, however 
carefully the plants may have been attended to, there was seldom 
any evidence of the exertion of their reproductive functions. 
* * By removing plants when in a healthy condition from the 
influence of isolated light or actinism, to a situation where they 
may be exposed to the effects of those heat radiations which are 
of the least refrangible class, flowers and seed are rapidly pro- 
duced." (p. 237.) 

We have already seen in Chapter Fifth, XX. 13, from the ex- 
periments and opinions of Priestly, Scheele, Ingenhousz, and Saus- 



382 



CHROMO CULTURE OF VEGETABLE LIFE. 



sure, that flowers require more oxygen than any other portion of 
the plant, and will not be developed without it. For this reason 
they should not be shut up too much in close air, and must also 
have heat and moisture for their finest unfoldment. But mere 
heat in its coarser forms will not answer, the grade of heat which 
is manifested in the red color being necessary, as has been 
shown by experiment. "If the red rays are obstructed, flowers 
will not form." The thermel also combines with the red in the 
process of florescence. 

V. Blue and Transparent Glass for Hot Houses, etc. 



1. While blue glass by the side of an equal quantity of clear 
glass does not increase the heat within an enclosure, a large 
proportion of clear glass, with a small proportion of blue com- 
bined, must add considerably to the heat, according to the ex- 
periments of General Pleasanton of Philadelphia, and accord- 
ing to a principle which we have seen to be true, namely, that 
the greatest possible heat is developed by combining a certain 
amount of electricity with thermism. General Pleasanton con- 
veys the impression, however, that an equal amount of blue and 
clear glass causes a greater heat than clear glass alone, but 
this is disproved by all experiments that I have ever known on 
the subject. We have seen that orange colored glass transmits a 
greater heat than red glass itself, or even than transparent glass. 
Why is its heat greater than that of the red glass as long as the 
latter transmits red and thermel, the very hottest of all the 
rays? Evidently because the orange glass transmits not only 
these hot rays but a small portion of blue and green as an inten- 
sifying principle. In the same way when General Pleasanton 
arranges his Grapery with only one-eighth of his lines of glass 
blue, and the rest transparent, the electrical rays transmitted by 
the blue, seizing the contiguous and affinitive portion of the white 
rays, create such a chemical activity as to increase not only the 
heat, but the potency of all the rays, as both theory and practice 
show. It occurs to me that if a strip of red glass three or more 
inches wide on one side of the blue, and of orange on the other 
side, and then a half a dozen lines of clear glass would create a 
still greater chemical power as there would then be masses of af- 



BLUE AND TRANSPARENT GLASS FOR HOT HOUSES. 



3 S3 



finitive rays thrown side by side. If the red should be consid- 
ered rather exciting, a yellow glass would perhaps be almost, if not 
quite equally good, especially to place on one side of mazarine blue 
glass, while the orange or red-orange is on the other side. Such 
an arrangement would seem especially desirable for conserva- 
tories in which the leading object is to develop flowers, as we 
have seen that the red principle which passes freely through 
both orange and yellow glass, is a necessity in floriculture. 
Where flowers are the leading object, another combination would 
probably be still better, namely, a half a dozen lines of clear 
glass, and then a line of red or red-orange glass, with a strip of 
blue on each side. 

2. The Heat caused by having every eighth row of glass of 
mazarine blue, and then seven rows of ordinary transparent glass 
in the grapery of General Pleasanton, is described as follows in 
"Blue and Sun-Lights":— "On the 31st day of March, 1872, I 
visited my farm to give directions to apply heat to start the 
growth of the vines in my grapery at the commencement of the 
season. The weather was very cold, patches of ice and snow 
lay in places on the fields, which the sun shining with great bril- 
liancy was unable to soften or melt. In the open air, protected 
from sunlight, the thermometer (F) marked 34°, 2° above the 
freezing point of water. On entering the grapery in which there 
had been no artificial heat from fuel of any kind for the space of 
nearly a year, my son and myself were astonished at the great 
heat that there was within it. On examining the thermometer 
which hung on one of the middle posts of the grapery, completely 
sheltered from the sunlight, about 4 feet from the floor, we were 
amazed to find that it marked 110° F. Here was an increase of 
76° of temperature over that of the outside air, and produced by 
a film of glass not exceeding one sixteenth of an inch in thick- 
ness, but associated as blue and plain glass. * * I have had oc- 
casion to observe since that date, that during the passage of 
strong sunlight through the blue and plain glass of the grapery, 
the temperature through the day within the grapery varied from 
100° to 115° (F.), while that without, at the same times of the 
day would range from 32° upward to 60° or 65° " (p. 46). 



384 



CHROMO CULTURE OF VEGETABLE LIFE. 



VI. The Marvelous Vegetable Growth 

1. Caused by this arrangement of blue and clear glass is 
thus detailed by General Pleasanton, the account of which has 
already attracted attention on both sides of the ocean: — "On a 
venture I adopted (caused) every eighth row of glass on the 
roof to be violet colored,* alternating the rows on opposite sides 
of the roof so that the sun in its daily course should cast a beam 
of violet light on every leaf in the grapery. Cuttings of vines 
of some twenty varieties of grapes, each one year old, of the 
thickness of a pipe-stem, and cut close to the pots containing 
them, were planted in the borders inside and outside of the grap- 
ery, in the early part of April, 1861. Soon after being planted 
the growth of the vines began. Those on the outside were trained 
through earthen pipes in the walls to the inside, and as they grew 
they were tied up to the wires like those which had been planted 
within. Very soon the vines began to attract great notice of all 
who saw them from the rapid growth they were making. Every 
day disclosed some new extension and the gardener was kept 
busy in tying up the new wood which the day before he had not 
observed. In a few weeks after the vines had been planted, the 
walls and inside of the roof were closely covered with the most 
luxuriant and healthy development of foliage and wood." 

"In the early part of September, 1861, Mr. Robt, Buist, Sr., 
a noted seedsman and distinguished horticulturist, from whom I 
had procured the vines, having heard of their wonderful growth, 
visited the grapery. On entering it he seemed to be lost in 
amazement at what he saw; after examining it very carefully, 
turning to me, he said, 'General! I have been cultivating plants 
and vines of various kinds for the last 40 years; I have seen 
some of the best vineries and conservatories in England and 



*To call Mazarine blue glass "violet colored," is a misnomer, and an error 
which is quite too commonly adopted by the public in general. The use of this 
word was corrected by the General in another place. I once inquired of a dealer in 
New York if he kept violet colored glass. He said he did and forthwith showed me 
some mazarine blue glass. I informed him that it was not violet. "It isn't, hey?" 
said he triumphantly, and forthwith lighted a match and held it behind it, as dealers 
are apt to do, thus giving it a reddish appearance near the light. I informed him 
that the redness came from the red light of the match, and that sunlight was the true 
test of color, holding it up to which only the sharpest perception could see any red 
at all. It is really nearer an indigo than a violet. 



MARVELOUS VEGETABLE GROWTH. 



385 



Scotland, but I have never seen anything like this growth.' He 
then measured some of the vines and found them 45 feet in length 
and an inch in diameter at the distance of one foot above the 
ground; and these dimensions were the growth of only five 
months! He then remarked. 'I visited last week a new grap- 
ery near Darby, the vines in which I furnished at the same time 
I did yours; they were of the same varieties, of like age and size 
when they were planted as yours; they were planted at the same 
time with yours. When I saw them last week they were puny, 
spindling plants not more than five feet long, and scarcely in- 
creased in diameter since they were planted — and yet they have 
had the best possible care and attendance!' The vines contin- 
ued healthy and to grow, making an abundance of young wood 
during the remainder of the season of 1861." 

2. "In March, 1862, they were started to grow, having been 
pruned and cleaned in January of that year. The growth in this 
second season, was, if anything, more remarkable than it had 
been in the previous year. Besides the formation of new wood 
and the display of the most luxuriant foliage, there was a won- 
derful number of bunches of grapes, which soon assumed the 
most remarkable proportions — the bunches being of extraordi- 
nary magnitude and the grapes of unusual size and development." 

3. "In September, of 1862, the same gentleman, Mr. Robert 
Buist, Sr., who had visited the grapery the year before, came 
again — this time accompanied by his foreman. The grapes were 
then beginning to color and to ripen rapidly. On entering the 
grapery, astonished at the wonderful display of foliage and fruit 
which it presented, he stood for awhile in silent amazement; he 
then slowly walked around the grapery several times, critically 
examining its wonders; when taking from his pocket paper and 
pencil, he noted on the paper each bunch of grapes, and estimated 
its weight, after which, aggregating the whole, he came to me 
and said, 'General! do you know that you have 1200 pounds of 
grapes in this grapery?' On my saying that I had no idea of 
the quantity it contained, he continued, 'you have indeed that 
weight of fruit, but I would not dare to publish it for no one 
would believe me.' We may well conceive of his astonishment 
at this product when we are reminded that in grape growing 

25 



186 



CHROMO CULTURE OF VEGETABLE LIFE. 



countries, where grapes have been grown for centuries, a period 
of time of from five to six years will elapse before a single 
bunch of grapes can be produced from a young vine, while before 
him in the second year of the growth of vines which he himself 
had furnished only 17 months before, he saw this remarkable 
yield of the finest and choicest varieties of grapes." 

4. "During the next season (1863) the vines again fruited and 
matured a crop of grapes estimated by comparison with the yield 
of the previous year to weigh about two tons (4000 pounds!); the 
vines were perfectly healthy and free from the usual maladies 
which affect the grape. By this time the grapery and its products 
had become partially known among cultivators, who said that such 
excessive crops would exhaust the vines, and that the following 
year there would be no fruit, as it was well known that all plants 
required rest after yielding large crops; notwithstanding new 
wood was formed this year for the next year's growth, which 
turned out to be quite as large as it had been in the season of 
1863, and so on year by year the vines have continued to bear 
large crops of fine fruit without intermission for the last nine 
years. They are now healthy and strong, and as yet show no 
signs of decrepitude or exhaustion." 

5. The following is quoted from a letter of Commodore Golds- 
borough of the U. S. Navy, to Gen. A. J. Pleasanton, with refer- 
ence to plants grown under alternate blue and clear glass: "In 
a very short time the plants began to manifest the effects of the 
remarkable influences to which they had been subjected. Their 
growth was rapid and extraordinary, indicating unusual vigor, 
and increasing in the length of their branches from an inch and 
a half to three inches, according to their species, every 24 hours, 
as by measurement." 

In the above experiment there was evidently too much blue 
to develope hard and healthy conditions of the plants. 

VII. Plants which become withered and Parched 

By too much of the thermal rays, are properly revivified by the 
affinitive blue and violet rays. 



1. Gen. Pleasanton gives an account of an experiment which 
Mr. Buist made with a number of geraniums, many of which 



INSECT LIFE AS INFLUENCED BY COLORS. 



387 



became sickly, some died, some lost their leaves, and others the 
brilliancy of their colors. "It occurred to Mr. Buist that if he 
should paint with a light blue color the inner surface of each 
pane of glass in one of his houses, having a margin of an inch 
and a quarter in width of the glass in its uncolored condition 
all around the painted surface on each of the panes of glass, 
and then place his sickly geranium plants in the house under 
this glass so painted, the vigor of his plants might be restored. 
The experiment was made and was successful. The plants 
began to revive soon after they had been placed in this house. 
In two days thereafter, they began to put forth new leaves, and 
at the end of ten days their vigor was not merely restored, but 
were more healthy and vigorous than he had ever seen similar 
plants of the same varieties to have been. Their colors were 
not only restored, but their tints were intensified." 

2. "A lady of my acquaintance," says Gen. Pleasanton, 
"residing in this city, informed me that having some very choice 
and rare flowering plants in pots in her sitting room, which were 
drooping and manifesting signs of disease, she threw over them 
a blue gauze veil, such as ladies wear, and exposed them to the 
sun-light, when she was highly gratified to discover that in a 
very short time they were fully restored to health and vigor." 

VIII. Insect Life as Influenced by Colors. 



1. As the thermal light is a principle of reproduction in 
vegetable life (See IV.), it is doubtless the same in animal life, 
especially as it is well known that an increase of heat up to a 
certain point developes countless animalcules throughout the air 
and water, as well as in animal and vegetable life. This being 
the case, the contrasting principle of blue must have the opposite 
effect and tend to destroy all insects which are the result of heat* 

2. This, and the following paragraph, I extract from General 
Pleasanton's work: — "A professional gardener in Massachusetts, 
near Boston, had been trying for several years to protect his 
young plants, as they were germinating, from various minute 
insects which fed upon them sometimes as soon as they were 
formed. For this purpose he adopted nearly every expedient of 
which he had any knowledge, and even used the primary rays of 

*Since writing the above, Dr. Dowries and Mr. Burns have confirmed it by 
showing that the yellow then the red develop animalcules most rapidly. 



S88 



CHROMO CULTURE OF VEGETABLE LIFE. 



sunlight separately. Nothing succeeded, however, in these ex- 
periments but the blue ray, which proved itself to be a perfect 
protection against the attacks of these insects. He made a 
small triangular frame, similar in form to a soldier's tent, covered 
it with blue gauze, such as ladies use for their veils. Having 
prepared a piece of ground, he sowed his seed in it, and covering 
a portion of the ground thus prepared with his little blue frame 
and gauze, he left the other parts exposed to the attacks of the 
insects. His plants outside of this frame were all eaten by 
insects as soon as they germinated, while those under it escaped 
entirely from their depredations. This experiment was tried 
many times and always with similar results." 

3. "Having introduced blue glass into the windows of the 
sleeping apartments of my servants in one of my country houses, 
it was observed that large numbers of flies that had previously 
infested them, were dead soon after its introduction, on the in- 
side sills of the windows" (p. 3). 

4. In the foregoing cases the "primary rays of the sunlight" 
had no power to destroy the insect life, but the blue did have the 
power. This is still another fact which overthrows the assertion 
of those uninformed people who declare that neither blue nor 
any other color has any power which is not possessed by ordinary 
white light. In fact the ordinary white light of summer greatly 
increases the amount of insect life. 

IX. Effects of Light and Shadow on Plants. 



1. Many sensitive flowers and plants close up at the ap- 
proach of darkness as if in sleep, and are awakened in the morn- 
ing by the stimulating power of light. DeCandolle showed that 
artificial light will awaken them. Constant shadow would soon 
destroy the life of plants entirely. 

2. Although color is much more negative at night than in the 
day-time, other laws of force reign in full power during the dark- 
ness. "When obscurity overspreads the earth," says Pouchet, 
"all at once, every flower of the cactus displays its innumerable 
long yellow and white petals, and its corona of 500 stamens 
waves and trembles around the pistil, then its vast calix exhales 
the odor of vanilla which perfumes the whole green house." 



COLOR AS RELATED TO FRAGRANCE. 



389 



The cacalia ficoides, cited by Liebig, assimilates oxygen during 
the night, and by morning becomes as acid to the taste as sorrel. 
By the influence of the sun's thermal rays it loses this taste by 
noon, and becomes bitter by evening. Prof. Robt. Hunt and 
others have shown that even in the night plants do not wholly 
cease to emit oxygen. The upward radiations of the earth may 
assist in this. 

X. Light of Plants. 

Mademoiselle Linnaeus first discovered that the flowers of 
the monkshood sent out passing gleams of light, which were 
generally attributed to electricity. This seems to be a kind of 
phosphoresence developed in connection with the vital electricity 
of the plant. 

XL Affinities and Repulsions of Plants. 

Mathiolus spoke of the "friendship of plants." "Indeed," 
an old botanist says, "that there is so much affection between 
the reed and the asparagus, that if we plant them together both 
will prosper marvelously. " "A kind of sympathy between cer- 
tain plants has long been observed to exist, as if one loved to be 
under the shade of the other. Thus on the banks of our rivulets 
the amaranth colored flowers (inclining to violet) of the purple 
loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), constantly adorn the vicinity of 
the willow. Other plants, on the contrary, seem to experience an 
aversion, one for the other, and if man inconsiderately compels 
them to approach each other, they languish, or die. The flax 
plant, for instance, seems to have an antipathy for the scabiosa 
arvensis" {Pouchet 's Universe, p. 462). This seeming friendship 
among plants is doubtless owing to their chemical affinity, and 
their repulsions, to there being too much sameness of elements. 
Thus the loosestrife, spoken of above, in which violet is a strong 
principle, harmonizes with the willow in which yellow is a strong 
principle, just as we have seen that yellow and violet always 
form a chemical attraction for each other. 

XII. Color as Related to Fragrance. 

Alfred Russel Wallace of England has shown in Macmillan's 



590 



CHROMO CULTURE OF VEGETABLE LIFE. 



Magazine, that the flowers having the most showy colors are less 
fragrant than those which are white or pale or possessed of 
modest colors. This seems to have a kind of a parallelism to 
the fact that most birds having a gorgeous plumage are poor 
singers. "The sweet odors of flowers, like their colors," says 
Wallace, "seem often to have been developed as an attraction 
or guide to insect fertilizers, and the two phenomena are often 
complementary to each other. Thus many inconspicuous flow- 
ers — like the mignonette and the sweet violet — can be distin- 
guished by their odors before they attract the eye, and this may 
often prevent their being passed unnoticed; while very showy 
flowers, and especially those with variegated or spotted petals, 
are seldom sweet. White or very pale flowers, on the other 
hand, are often excessively sweet, as exemplified by the jasmine 
and clematis; and many of these are only scented at night, as 
is strikingly the case with the night smelling stock, our butterly 
orchis, the greenish yellow Daphne pontica and many others." 
He then refers to Mongredien's work which gives a list of sixty 
species of fragrant flowers of which more than forty are white 
and a number of others have greenish, yellowish or dusky incon- 
spicuous flowers. 

XIII. Adaptation of the Seasons to Vegetable 
Growth. 



Prof. Pynchon in his "Chemical Forces," thus sums up what 
scientists have discovered with reference to the influence of the 
seasons on plants: — "There seems to be a nice adaptation of 
sunlight to the varying condition of vegetation, at the different 
seasons. In the spring, when the process of germination is 
going on, there is a large excess of chemical (electrical) rays, 
which, as we have seen, tend powerfully to hasten the process. 
The excess of the chemical rays at this season of the year, is 
proved by the greater facility with which photographic operations 
may be carried on. As summer advances, and the influence of 
the illuminating rays is required to promote the decomposition 
of carbonic acid by the leaves, and the consequent growth of 
vegetation, the quantity of the illuminating and heating rays 
both increase in a very great degree relatively to the chemical 



SUMMATION OF POINTS CONCERNING VEGETABLE LIFE. 



391 



rays. In the autumn as plants approach maturity, and as seeds 
are to be formed and fruit ripened, the illuminating and chemical 
rays both diminish, and the heating rays are increased. This 
furnishes a very extraordinary and curious instance of design in 
nature. Advantage is often taken of these principles by the 
horticulturist in the cultivation of plants. When the seeds are 
to be forced, they are covered with dark blue glass, because this 
absorbs all the illuminating and calorific rays, and allows only 
the chemical rays to reach the plant. As the plant advances 
toward maturity, light is needed, and yellow glass is substituted 
in place of blue. When the period of maturity arrives, heat 
has become more essential, and red glass is employed in place 
of the yellow. In this manner the gardener closely imitates 
the changes in the composition of sunlight which are made in 
nature" (p. 264). 

XIV. Summation of Points concerning Vegetable Life. 



1. For many things concerning the germination, growth, and chemical 
principles concerned in the development of plants and flowers, see Chapter 
Fifth. 

2. The electrical rays penetrate the soil and cause germination; the 
thermal rays, or the solar rays as a whole, in most cases prevent or destroy 
germination. 

3. The healthy growth of plants above ground require both the thermal 
and electrical rays, the solid and woody fibre being unable to form without 
the luminous rays, especially the yellow, to deposit carbon from the atom- 
sphere. 

4. The flowering, seeding and fruitage of plants are accomplished more 
by the red and thermel than by the other rays. 

5. The heat of hot houses and the progress of healthy vegetable growth, 
is increased to a remarkable degree by a small amount of blue combined 
with a larger amount of clear glass. 

6. Withered plants are often revived by blue rays. 

7. The electrical colors which are transmitted by blue glass often destroy 
the insects which feed upon plants. 

8. Light animates and quickens the action of most plants: shadow 
renders them more negative and is favorable to oxydation. 



392 



CHROMO CULTURE OF VEGETABLE LIFE. 



9. Plants are affected by the chemical affinities and repulsions of other 
plants near them. 

10. Brilliantly colored flowers are less apt to be fragrant than those 
which are white or inconspicuous. 

11. The spring time of the year is cooler, and consequently more elec- 
trical and better adapted to germination than the summer, while the 
summer and early autumn are better adapted to fruit and seed than the 
spring, from the force of the thermal rays. 



CHROMO-PHILOSOPHY. 



393 



CHAPTER EIGHTH. 



C H R O M O— P HILOSOPHY. 



1. The Plan of this Chapter 



Will be to present a few leading ideas concerning Refraction, 
Reflection, Absorption, Transparency, Polarization and some 
other points which, under the ordinary theories, are but dimly 
apprehended, while the general points of optical mathematics 
will be almost wholly omitted. These are already ably presented 
in various works, and it is important that I dwell somewhat upon 
points which should be cleared if possible of their confusion. 
The ordinary dynamic theory of force being only one side of 
truth, renders it about as difficult to get a clear perception of 
optical and many other facts, as it is to drive a carriage with one 
wheel, whereas a mere child can comprehend the leading ideas 
of the subject if presented in harmony with nature. Suppose 
we try to make a child understand the reflection of light by telling 
him that light consists of waves of some fixed ether which some- 
times sweep obliquely against an object and then roll off just as 
obliquely away from it. He naturally thinks of waves of water, 
which will often roll up against an object and then break into all 
kinds of confused shapes, and of course scarcely gets the least 
correct idea of the movement of light. Tell him, however, that 
light consists of ether made up of countless little fire-balls which 
strike against an object, and bound off just as any other wonder- 
fully elastic balls will do, and he has some conception of the 
matter immediately. Seeing a red object he asks what makes it 
look so red? The answer will be, because it reflects red waves 
of light and absorbs all the rest. But why does it reflect the red 
waves, and why absorb the others? The teacher now is non- 
plussed, for being unable to understand the matter for himself, 
much less can he explain it to another. The child, however, can 



394 



CHROMO-PHILOSOPHY. 



get some idea of the matter when he is told that all red bodies 
have a little spring-work in each of its atoms which vibrates with 
lightning speed and is of just the right size and style to dash the 
fire balls of the red light in all directions, some of which coming 
to the eye give the effect of red, while the other parts of the 
atoms act as little suction springs to draw in the other colors 
and hide them. The explanation of refraction, transparency, 
absorption, etc., becomes very simple when explained on this 
more natural plan which is in harmony with all things around 
us. 

II. Refraction. 



1. The learned Dr. Eugene Lommel, Professor of Physics in 
the University of Erlangen, presumes to put a final extinguisher 
upon the theory which considers light as a material or fluidic 
element, as follows: — "On this (material) view, refraction is 
explained by supposing that the particles of a refracting medium 
exert an attraction or influence upon the supposed luminous 
substance, and the conclusion is arrived at that light propagates 
itself more rapidly in the strongly refracting medium than in 
the feebler one. The direct contradiction which is presented 
by these opposite conclusions affords an opportunity of finally 
settling the long contest between the material and undulatory 
theories of light. Foucault has shown by means of very ingen- 
ious experiments that light does travel more slowly in water than 
in air. If, therefore, the reasons formerly adduced should still 
be considered to leave any doubt in regard to the nature of light, 
there can now be no question that the undulatory theory must 
be regarded as the only true theory of light." (Light and Color, 
p. 237.) 

2. The above man of straw, which the Professor has been 
demolishing, has no real bearing upon the case, as refraction 
has nothing to do with the slowness or swiftness of the propaga- 
tion of light either in or out of the refracting medium. It seems 
to me that the mists which have so long surrounded this subject 
may be cleared away by the following explanation which would 
appear to be a triumphant proof of the correctness of the etherio- 
atomic law. A few words with reference to the nature of re- 



REFRACTION 



395 




Fig. 172. Refraction and Reflection. 



fraction will be appropriate. 
In fig. 172, si represents a ray 
of light passing through a line 
of polarized atmospheric atoms 
to a piece of glass. At i the 
atmospheric atoms do not, of 
course, enter the glass, but 
their spirals striking it oblique- 
ly, find a harder and more 
resisting medium which gives 
a jolt to the ethers that flow 
through them, bending or re 
fracting them farther towards a perpendicular line in the direc- 
ion ir. Having reached r, the atoms of glass pass the luminous 
ethers on into the less resisting medium of the air again, whose 
lines of atoms being more yielding than those of the glass 
are swung around a little at r, so that the pathway of the light 
is afterward exactly parallel to the general direction which it 
pursued from s to i, in case the outlines of the refracting 
medium are parallel. 

3. But the refraction of the individual colors is seen in fig. 173, 
in which 1 is an aperture to let in a solar beam, 2 is the prism 
by which it is refracted, while the separated colors from the 
visible solar spectrum from red to violet, above and below, which 




The Spectrum. 



Trans-Violet Rays. Pro- 
fessor Stokes has traced these 
to a distance ten times as great 
as the length of the visible 
Spectrum. 

The Solar Spectrum, or 
range of the visible rays. 

Trans-Red Rays. These 
have been traced more than 
twice the length of the visi- 
1 ble Spectrum by Miiller. 



are the invisible trans-violet and trans-red rays that are many 
times more than the visible. How is it that all the colors are 
thus shaken apart, the red being refracted the least, and the vio- 
let the most of the visible rays? This is very easily understood 
if we remember that the color spirals of the atmospheric atoms 



596 



CHROMO-PHILOSOPHY. 



through which the rays of light pass, become more and more fine 

and consequently elastic as they go from the red up to the violet, 

thus: 

The extreme red vibrates 458,000,000,000,000 times per second. 
„ Red „ 471,000,000,000,000 „ „ „ 

„ Orange „ 506,000,000,000,000 „ „ „ 

„ Yellow „ 535,000,000,000,000 „ „ „ 

„ Green „ 577,000,000,000,000 „ „ „ 

,, Blue „ 622,000,000,000,000 „ 

„ Indigo „ 658,000,000,000,000 „ „ „ 

„ Violet „ 699,000,000,000,000 „ 

„ H. grade of Violet 727,000,000,000,000 
„ Extreme Violet 789,000,000,000,000 „ 

4. If the number of vibrations to produce an average ther- 
mel should be put at 425,000,000,000,000, then the upper ther- 
mel must have twice as many, or 850 trillions, as each octave of 
colors, like the octaves in music, must be made with double the 
number of vibrations of the one below it. This is in accordance 
with the supreme system and harmony which reigns everywhere 
in nature. 

5. The waves of the solar ethers caused by these vibrations 
are so small that, in the case of the red, it would require about 
39,000 of them to extend one inch, while the violet gives about 
60,000 waves to the inch. Now suppose a fasciculus, or beam of 
light, to strike a glass prism diagonally, the orange spiral of the 
atmospheric atoms through which it comes, being finer than the 
red spiral, must jolt its luminous contents further one side than 
the red can do, while for the same reason the yellow spiral must 
jolt or refract its contents farther than the orange, the violet 
farther than the yellow, and the trans-violet still farther. Is not 
the separation and refraction of all the rays then beautifully 
accounted for in this way? And is not the whole process an 
almost irresistible argument, to show that the luminous ethers 
must come through elastic atomic channels in harmony with the 
foregoing atomic law? 

6. Fig. 174 shows how the different rays of light are drawn 
to a focus, or rather to different foci by this same power of 
refraction, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, are different rays of light falling upon a 
double convex lens; 3 is not refracted as it strikes the glass 



THE REFLECTION OF LIGHT. 



397 



perpendicularly; the electrical rays which are the most re- 
frangible come to a focus sooner than the others at or near 
the point E; the luminous rays near L, and the heat rays near 
H. If, therefore, in using a lens, the greatest heat be required, 

we must not expect it exactly 
where the light comes to the most 
intense and dazzling point, but a 
little beyond; if we wish the 
largest quantity of the yellow prin- 
ciple without the electrical rays we 
must bring the rays to a lumen- 
ous point on the object; if we 
wish the electrical rays also, we must bring the lens a little 
nearer to the object, while for the trans-violet rays it must be 
still nearer. The more convex the surfaces of the lens are, the 
shorter will be the foci. Objects seen through a convex lens 
are magnified; those seen through a concave lens are dimin- 
ished, exactly contrary to what is the case with objects seen in 
convex and concave mirrors. 




III. The Reflection of Light. 



1. This will be treated of here in only its salient points, and 
with a desire to correct some misconceptions that scientists have 
fallen into on the subject. All reflection of light is caused by 
chemical repulsion. But here the critic may meet me with such 
words as these: — "Have you not said that the reflection of light 
is simply the rebound of incandescent particles of matter, in 
other words, of immensely elastic and minute fireballs? Would 
you assert that the bounding of a ball is an act of chemical re- 
pulsion?" The bounding of a mass of matter called an India rub- 
ber ball would not be chemical repulsion, in its ordinary sense, 
because chemical forces deal with atoms and molecules, not with 
masses as such. In these phenomena of light we deal with 
atoms and consequently with chemical laws. But we may take 
a reddish metal like copper, and when it becomes oxydized its 
surface is dim because its atoms are but feebly active so that its 
forces are influx and absorptive rather than repellant. Let its 
surface be burnished, however, and all its external atoms will be 



598 



CHROMO-PHILOSOPHY. 



thrown into the greatest activity, its animated spirillar repelling 
the rays of light, especially those which are red-orange, into our 
eyes, and thus giving a flashing appearance. Again submit the 
same metal to a red, and especially a white heat, and the repul- 
sion is much greater still, dashing the rays back into the eyes 
until they become almost dazzled. Exactly the same principle 
of repulsion or reflection of light exists when the copper is made 
to burn with a flame, for then not only the incandescent metal 
repels the light, but the incandescent contiguous gas which 
constitutes flame also. If we ignite strontium its flame repels 
red light, while ignited sodium repels a yellow-orange, ignited 
mercury a pale blue, ignited arsenic a beautiful lilac, and so on 
with all other substances which, when excited, repel certain col- 
ors in all directions according to which of the color spirals may 
have the most repellant activity. 

2. The mistake of the scientists of the day seems to be that of 
supposing all self-luminous bodies to have the power of ab- 
sorbing the very same colors which they emit, not realizing that 
a yellow flame is repulsive of the yellow principle just as much 
as is a yellow object which is cold, and even much more in- 
tensely so, while the same is equally true of all other colors. 
They admit the principle that similars repel, but here all at once 
they make similars attract and absorb each other quite contrary 
to all principles of chemical affinity. In making these remarks 
I am not denying that a certain fine element of each color may 
be, and probably is, received into the spirilla? of each atom simi- 
lar to the coarser element that is reflected from these same spi- 
rilla?, but whenever a flame looks red it must be because the red 
spirilla? of ignited gaseous atoms repel the red ethers to our eyes, 
rather than transmit them through their interior channels, heat 
being especially repulsive. A knowledge of atomic action makes 
this subject doubly clear. That which has led to this error 
seemingly is the effort to account for the dark Fraunhofer lines 
in the solar spectrum. The luminous vapor or flames of differ- 
ent substances gives bright lines in the spectrum. Why, then, 
does the sun give a spectrum with dark lines perhaps in the very 
same places? They account for this by asserting that the lu- 
minous atmosphere of the sun absorbs the similar elements that 
are thrown out from the intensely incandescent surface of the 



THE REFLECTION OF LIGHT. 



399 



sun, the luminous sodium of the photosphere, for instance, ab- 
sorbing the rays that are sent out by the still brighter luminous 
sodium of the sun's body, and so with iron, magnesium and other 
substances. To prove this they throw a sodium flame into the 
spectroscope, and it casts the double bright band of yellow- 
orange at D, but when they place a much brighter light beyond 
that so that the sodium flame comes between the bright light 
and the spectroscope, a comparatively dark line appears in the 
very same place, thus showing, as they say, that the sodium light 
has absorbed the sodium rays from the brighter light, and left a 
dark line where before was a brighter one. Had they but put 
the word reflected or repelled in the place of absorbed, how com- 
pletely it would have harmonized with the principles of all known 
science, besides explaining the phenomenon in question on the 
most simple plan. Notice a little more minutely how this prin- 
ciple must act in the propulsion of solar light earthward. The 
sodium of the sun's surface, wrought up to an intense brightness 
by the immense heat and chemical action, propels in all direc- 
tions with tremendous force the sodium ethers which are of the 
right grade of fineness to constitute the D grade of color in the 
spectrum. Sodium must repel or reflect sodium, iron must repel 
iron, etc. Nothing else in the known universe can systematic- 
ally do this, otherwise the spectroscope cannot be trusted. As 
the fiery emanations of the sodium move outward from the 
sun's surface they encounter the luminous sodium of the photo- 
sphere, which at once repels at least its coarser particles towards 
the sun, being deprived of which the sodium line in the spec- 
trum is shorn of its brightness sufficiently to be called dark. 
That grade of ether, however, which is fine enough to enter the 
sodium spirilla? must pass on to the earth and be represented 
among the luminous portions of the Solar Spectrum. 

3. To show how eminent men are settling down upon this 
great error as an established fact just as they are becoming more 
and more persuaded that a mere dynamic theory of force is a 
scientific truth, I will quote the following from Schellen's excel- 
lent work on Spectrum Analysis: — "Angstrom gave expression 
as early as 1853 to the general law that the rays which a sub- 
stance absorbs, are precisely those which it emits when it be- 
comes self-luminous. In the year 1860, Kirchhoff published his 



400 



CHROMO-PHILOSOPHY. 



memoir on the relation between the emissive and absorptive 
powers of bodies for heat as well as for light, in which occurs 
the celebrated sentence: 'The relation between the power of 
emission and the power of absorption of one and the same class 
of rays, is the same for all bodies at the same temperature,' 
which will ever be distinguished as announcing one of the most 
important laws of nature, and which on account of its extensive 
influence and universal application will render immortal the name 
of its illustrious discoverer." Tyndall also states that "a body 
absorbs with especial energy the rays which it can itself emit" 
{Notes on Light and Electricity), and scientists generally have 
adopted this form of expression, the tendency of which is con- 
stantly to mislead the mind with regard to the philosophy of 
luminous action. How important it is that our scientific men, to 
whom the intelligent world looks for guidance, should build upon 
correct basic principles. 

4. All tangible substances reflect more or less of the rays of 
light; thus, mercury reflects two-thirds of all the rays which 
strike it perpendicularly, while even water reflects 18, and glass 
25, out of every 1000 under the same circumstances. This 
shows that even the so-called transparent substances do not 
transmit all of the rays. When the light strikes obliquely on a 
substance, the reflection is far greater. Thus, at an incidence 
of 40° from the zenith water reflects slightly more than a fiftieth 
of all its rays; at an angle of 60°, one fifteenth; at an angle of 
80°, one-third; and at an angle of 89V2°, which is nearly in a 
horizontal direction, nearly three-fourths. In fig. 172, most of 
the rays are received and refracted in the direction of ir; but 
a few will always be reflected in the direction of if, which forms 
the same angle with the glass as does the incident ray si. 

IV. Absorption. 



1. The absorption of light or color takes place in all sub- 
stances which have a special chemical affinity for this light or 
color. This affinity attracts the rays into the substance itself so 
as to hide their color and yet not so strongly as to send them en- 
tirely through and beyond it as in transparent substances. One 
cause which prevents the rays from being transmitted entirely 
through a substance, is doubtless, in many cases, the presence of 



ABSORPTION. 



401 



transverse polarizations of the atoms, which establish counter 
and impeding currents, just as transverse and amorphous condi- 
tions in electricity prevent good conduction. Some examples 
will illustrate this point: thus a substance like soot has an 
affinity for all colors sufficient to draw them within the surface 
and present a black appearance; snow has a repulsion for all of 
the colors and reflecting them all into our eyes gives the effect 
of white; blood has a repulsion for red, an especial affinity for 
blue, and a sufficient attraction for the other colors to draw them 
in out of sight, thus leaving only the red visible; an orange 
repels the orange color and attracts all the rest, especially the 
indigo; gold repels the yellow and attracts all the other colors, 
especially the violet, and all opaque substances attract and absorb 
all the colors excepting that which appears or is reflected to the 
eye, having necessarily the greatest attraction for the color which 
forms the chemical affinity of the one which is visible. In sub- 
stances like colored glass it is the transmitted colors which are 
visible, while the rest are either absorbed or reflected; thus in 
red glass the red color is much of it transmitted, while the other 
colors are either absorbed or reflected. 

2. In substances which are gray, like the ordinary granite, a 
part of all the rays are absorbed and a part of all reflected, thus 
forming a compromise between white and black; in red-gray, a 
part of all the colors are absorbed, and a part of all, especially 
the red, are reflected, the red being in predominance. This is 
less properly called russet. The same principle rules in blue- 
gray, which is another and more correct name for olive, the blue 
being reflected more emphatically; also in yellow-gray, some- 
times called citrine, in which the yellow is reflected more than 
the rest, etc. When the rays are all reflected rather feebly the 
effect must be a dim-white, or a very light gray, or grayish white. 

3. It should be remembered that what seems to be a violet 
is not always formed by a single violet ray, but is very often in 
practice simply the union of blue with a smaller amount of red, 
just as a medium purple is the mixture of equal quantities of red 
and blue; in other words the blue and red are reflected and the 
other colors absorbed.* A violet-colored glass, if it transmitted 



*It should be remembered that no red and blue pigments on earth can ever be 

26 



102 



CHROMO-PHILOSOPHY. 



only pure violet rays, would be the coolest and most nerve- 
soothing medium that could be procured, but it always transmits 
many red and blue and sometimes violet rays. Manganese violet 
glass transmits almost entirely blue with less red. Orange very 
often is formed by the red and yellow combined, not by the 
simple orange ray, and green by blue and yellow instead of the 
single green ray as in the spectrum, for Helmholtz has shown 
that such colors in the spectrum are not formed by the over- 
lapping of two colors. 

4. We thus see that while the absorption of colors is caused 
by chemical affinity, reflection is caused by chemical repulsion, 
or possibly, at times, by what might be called mechanical 
repulsion, or mere elasticity of atomic spring-work. 

V. Transparency. 

When a substance has such a strong chemical affinity for all the 
color-ethers as to be polarised and traversed in various direc- 
tions by them, it may be said to be transparent. 

If the colors are partly absorbed and partly transmitted, so 
that objects appear only dimly and imperfectly on the other 
side, it is translucent. It is settled beyond question by scientific 
experiments, that we cannot get the effect of light through our 
atmosphere without the incandescence of the countless particles 
or luminelles which float everywhere around us. The solar 
ethers and mere illuminated gases cannot give us the effect 
of light suited to our ordinary vision without the ignition of 
some solid particles. How, then, can glass transmit light to 
us as long as these luminelles must be partially prevented 
from passing through it in connection with the solar ethers? 
Perhaps by having an incandescence of its own atoms caused 
by the passage of these ethers. The polarized atoms of glass 
must take the place of the polarized atoms of the air in 
conveying the luminous ethers and transmitting them beyond. 



found which will produce, when combined, an absolute violet like that of the sunlight, 
or even an indigo, as the violet combines a fine grade of blue with a red o£ the next 
upper scale, which is too fine to be visible if taken alone, and the indigo consists of 
blue modified slightly by a red tinge, which belongs also to the upper invisible scale 
rather than to the lower red. 



TRANSPARENCY. 



403 



The oxygen and nitrogen gases, as existing in their expanded 
condition in the air, cannot give us any proper amount of light 
even when ignited by the solar ethers, but it is necessary to 
have molecules or minute masses of chemically combined or 
solid matter to give us this effect, or in the absence of that to 
have matter like glass, crystal, etc., which, possessing a powerful 
affinity for the luminous ethers, can be permeated and to some 
extent perhaps ignited by them. If the atoms of glass thus 
assume a kind of an incandescent condition, the reader may 
ask why do they not burn the fingers when touching it? The 
careful reader of the foregoing has seen before now repeated 
examples of grades of heat which do not possess the burning 
character of the coarser style of incandescence produced by 
ordinary fire, as in the case of moonlight, or phosphorus, by 
means of which luminelles are ignited without appreciable heat. 
When the sun shines the luminous ethers extend in direct 
lines all the way to the sun that we may the better see it. 

2. Prof. Tyndall says: "When a ray of light passes through 
a body without loss; in other words, when the waves are trans- 
mitted through the ether which surrounds the atoms of the body 
without sensibly imparting motion to the atoms themselves, the 
body is transparent. If motion is in any degree transferred 
from the ether to the atoms, in that degree is the body opaque." 
(Notes on Light and Electricity, p. 76.) As our scientific men 
have a conception of only this one ether, and that a stationary 
one, they must necessarily make it a pack-horse for a great many 
theories which would at least be considered very strange if 
applied to anything else. Thus light must move with all its 
trillions of waves a second, sweeping through the ether, without 
awaking any action of the atoms over which and around which it 
moves. Are atoms so stupidly inert as this and yet the home 
of all the amazing chemical forces? If hot light is thrown upon 
still water for many days we know a great change is taking 
place among the atoms, countless microzoa are generated, and 
putrefaction takes place, and yet its transparency continues 
through the whole. It is only the violent agitation which pre- 
vents the light from polarizing the atoms, such as in the twisted 
sweep of a vortex of water, or the effervescence of chemical 
action which at times interferes, at least in part with their trans- 



101 



CHROMO-PHILOSOPHY. 



parency. But the opticians and scientists, having only this one 
ether system to work with, must do the best they can, and, being 
desirous of explaining all things in some way, have bestowed 
upon it many shapes, many styles of power, many grades of fine- 
ness and coarseness of action, many thousands of colors, each of 
which must have its own special size of undulation without any 
known cause therefor, many degrees of swiftness and slowness 
of movement, being the universal steed for carrying not only 
light, but electricity, magnetism, gravitation, etc., as well as 
having many grades of elasticity, so that they may get some 
clue to the mysteries of refraction. Tyndall, in common with 
others, in his efforts to explain double refraction, says: — "The 
arrangement of the molecules of a substance carries with it an 
arrangement of the surrounding ether, which causes it to possess 
different degrees of elasticity in different directions" (p. 102). 
What should we think if any one should say that water when 
saturating certain bodies, such as a sponge for instance, is 
caused by the molecules of those bodies to have different degrees 
of elasticity in different directions, or that the air, when per- 
meating a bundle of straw for instance, is liable to become more 
elastic horizontally than perpendicularly or obliquely? When 
the laws of force have been developed on a true basis, men of 
masterly abilities, like Tyndall, Faraday and others, will not be 
led into weak theories to explain the mysteries of things, and 
will be able to penetrate still more profoundly into the arcane 
of nature. 

VI. Polarized Light. 



1. I can only dwell briefly here on this intricate subject, the 
phenomena of which must be studied in works on optics. The 
principal trouble in studying these works, however, is that at- 
tempting to square everything with the mere undulatory theory, 
it is scarcely possible to get at the real philosophy of the matter, 
and it becomes a difficult thing to understand. 

2. Light, when passing through certain substances such as 
tourmaline, or undergoing the ordinary simple refraction in certain 
substances, or of double refraction in others, or reflection at some 
one special angle, passes through a certain change in its charac- 
ter which is usually termed polarization, a term which is not very 



POLARIZED LIGHT. 



405 



appropriate, as all light must be propagated through polarized 
lines. In fact what is called polarized light, or heat, more com- 
monly takes place in substances, the atoms of which resist in 
certain directions, the polarizing influence of light. The great 
Newton perceiving that such a substance as Iceland spar, from 
its double refracting powers, had two sides, considered that it must 
be polarized, something like a magnet which has its duplex poles, 
hence the name. I will mention briefly two or three varieties of 
polarization. 

3. Tourmaline. — If thin plates of the crystal called tourmaline 
should be cut parallel to what is called the optic axis and placed 
side by side in the same direction, a ray of light striking them 
perpendicularly is able to pass through them both; but when 
one is placed at right angles with the other, the light after pass- 
ing through the first plate has become so shorn of its usual 
power, that it is unable to penetrate and polarize the second 
plate in which the atomic lines move differently. This is illus- 
trated by figs. 175 and 176. This seems to come from the fact 
that light cannot polarize and penetrate 

the atoms of either plate with the same 
freedom which it could those of ordinary 
glass, on account of the rigidity of their 
atomic lines in certain directions. 

4. Polarization of light by both Single 
Refraction and Reflection is illustrated 
by fig. 172, in which is a bundle of plates of glass that should 
have 16 or more laminae, si is the unpolarized ray of incidence, 
falling on the glass at / at an angle of 56° 45'; if is the reflected 
portion of the ray, and ir the refracted; ir being at right angles 
with if, and both having that changed character which is called 
polarized. In fact all reflected light includes a portion of polar- 
ized rays which vanish from view if we attempt to transmit them 
at certain angles through an object. Light from incandescent 
bodies, such as hot iron, etc., is polarized under a certain angle, 
but flame lights are unpolarized, and as the sunlight is unpolar- 
ized, Arago concluded that the rays which we receive must ema- 
nate principally from the luminous or flame-like gases of the 
solar atmosphere which hide the still brighter incandescent sur- 
face of the sun. All rays reflected at an angle of 53° (53° 11') 




406 



CHROMO-PHILOSOPHY. 



from water, or 56%° from glass, or 57° from rock crystal, or 68° 
from diamond, are polarized. 

5. Double Refraction. Light passing through certain sub- 
stances forms a double image, or is refracted in two quite differ- 
ent directions, and in different planes. Thus, fig. 177 repre- 
sents a rhombohedric crystal of Iceland spar, upon which the 
light falls obliquely, making a double image of objects seen 
through it. The two lines of light constituting these two images 




Fi^. 177. Crystal of Iceland Spat. 



are sometimes said to be oppositely polarised, but they are doubt- 
less swept off into the diverging lines of atoms, a part of the 
rays going into one line which they are able to bend according 
to the usual laws of refraction, while the other atomic lines 
are rigid and cause the light to bend in their own direction. 
This point may be rendered more clear perhaps by means of fig. 
178, which consists of lines of atoms whose spirillse pass around 
them very diagonally. We will suppose 
that, by means of light, electricity, or 
some other force sweeping in the direc- 
tion of 1, 2, the spirillse of the layers of 
atoms in that direction should become so 
excited and potent as to draw the neigh- 
boring lines of atoms around in the di- 
rection of their own forces, or from 4 to 
3. Such lines constitute transverse diag- 
onals, as has been explained in Chapter 
Third, and doubtless have converse lines contiguous to them so 
that all the rays of light can be combined in the same direction. 
Suppose now, streams of solar ether should strike at 1 and 3, it is 
obvious that they would be refracted in different directions, the 
one not far from 2, and the other not far from 4, unless the 
atomic lines were so under the control of light as to yield en- 




Fig. 17S. 



POLARIZED LIGHT. 



407 



tirely to its direction, which is evidently not the case with 
tourmaline, Iceland spar, and various other crystals. If we 
should suppose a beam of solar ethers to approach at right an- 
gles to the line 3, 4, and strike at the points 1, 3, is it not 
evident that it would deflect the line 3, 4, much more than it 
would the line 1, 2, from striking the former squarely, and the 
latter only obliquely? In other words, may not the line 2, 4, be 
thrown so far around as to cause what is called an extraordinary 
refraction, while 1, 2, is thrown into merely an ordinary refraction? 
Fig. 179, which I take from Guillemin's Forces of Nature, will 




Fig. 1 79. The Polarizer and Analyzer. 



illustrate this subject of double refraction and polarization. 
Light that has been doubly refracted by passing through one of 
these crystals, becomes so modified or shorn of some of its ele- 
ment of power that it is said to be polarized. In the diagram, 
SI is a line of light which falls upon a crystal of Iceland Spar at 1. 
It is there refracted into what is called the ordinary ray IR, and 
the extraordinary ray IR'. If we intercept one of the rays by a 
screen and pass the other through another crystal of Iceland 
Spar, it will be again divided into an ordinary ray I'R, and an 
extraordinary one I'R'. The lens LL is used to concentrate 
the light upon a screen, while the second crystal is made to re- 
volve and show the variety of intensity and color which its dif- 
ferent positions produce. The first crystal is called the polar- 
izer, the second, the analyser, from the fact that it analyzes the 
light, and shows what modifications have been produced by the 
polarizing influence of the first. 

Jonathan Pereira, M.D , F.R.S., author of a work on Polar- 
ized Light, seemed to have hit very nearly upon a true con- 



108 



CHROMO-PHILOSOPHY. 



ception of the way the light is conducted through crystals in 
connection with atomic lines. I will quote his description of 
the refracting processes in connection with selenite, a crystallized 
hydrated sulphate of lime: "The optical structure of films or 
thin plates of selenite, having a thickness of from 1/20 to 1/60 of an 
inch, is very curious. In two rectangular directions they allow 
perpendicular rays of polarized light to traverse them un- 
changed: these directions are called the neutral axes. In two 
other directions, however, which form respectively angles of 45° 
with the neutral axes, these films have the property of double re- 
fraction. These directions are usually denominated depolarizing 
axes; but they might be more correctly termed doubly refracting 
axes. In order to render these properties more intelligible, sup- 
pose the structure of the film to be that represented by fig. 

180, in which the film is seen to be 
crossed by two series of light lines or 
passages, the one perpendicular to the 
other. These are to represent the 
neutral axes. We may imagine that in 
these directions only can the ethereal 
molecules vibrate. A ray of incident 
polarized light, whose vibrations coin- 
cide with either of these lines, is trans- 
mitted through the film unchanged. 
But a ray of incident polarized light, 
whose vibrations form an angle of 45° 
with these lines, or, in other words, 
which coincide with the diagonals of 
the square spaces, suffers double 
refraction; that is, it is resolved into 
two vibrations, one parallel with ab, the other parallel with 
cd, and therefore the directions of the diagonals of the squares 
are called the doubly refracting or depolarizing axes. But the 
two resulting vibrations are not propagated, in these two 
rectangular directions, with equal velocity, the one suffering 
greater retardation than the other; so that the waves at their 
emergence are in different phases of vibration." The foregoing 
will be understood much more clearly by those who have become 
acquainted with the working of atoms in Chapter Third. 



a xte, 



Zfattralb 




i So. Imaginary Structure of .' 
Piate of Selenite. 



THE UNDULATORY THEORY. 



409 



There it may be seen just how atoms may combine into various 
rectangular, rhomboidal and other shapes with converse, trans- 
verse and paraverse lines of polarity, and that the transverse lines 
occur in one layer of atoms running parallel to each other, cross- 
ed at right angles by a similar layer of other atoms. It is then 
apparent just how rays of light, striking in the direction of 
arrow No. 2, fig. 180, would be about equally divided in the two 
atomic channels running towards 4 and 5, with the exception 
that refraction must somewhat modify these lines in direction. 
It is evident, too, that rays in the direction of arrow 1 must be 
projected in greater abundance towards 4 than 5, and thus make 
the former more luminous, while those in harmony with arrow 3 
would pass more largely towards 5 than 4, thus making the 
latter more luminous and the former more feeble. It can easily 
be seen, then, just why such a crystal gradually rotated must 
constantly be changing its intensity of light until one dies out 
altogether. The unreasonable idea that a stationary ether 
retards the progress of light in one direction more than in the 
other, and this from its greater elasticity in different parts of the 
crystal or in different directions, should not be held for a moment, 
as long as double refraction can so easily be accounted for on 
principles in harmony with nature. Fig. 178 will also illustrate 
this point. 

6. Polarized rays are the means of developing many beauty- 
ful combinations of color by means of refraction. 

VII. The Undulatory Theory. 



1. We have already seen, in Chapter Second and elsewhere 
how utterly incompetent is the undulatory theory of light to 
account for many of the phenomena of light and color. That 
the light sweeps through cosmic ether and the earth's atmos- 
phere is quite evident, and that both the ether and atmosphere 
must be subject to many undulations from the passing of comets, 
worlds, nebulous matter, and meteorological conditions, just as 
water is subject to waves when a vessel sweeps through it, is 
also evident; but what has that to do with the question of 
whether light is a substance or not a substance? The phenom- 
ena of interference, as well as other phenomena, may take place 



410 



CHROMO— PHILOSOPHY. 



from these atmospheric waves, and also, possibly, from the spiral 
waves of fluid ether as they emerge from a line of atoms. If the 
different colors are caused simply by waves of different size and 
frequency, as our theorists suppose, how is it that some waves 
are warm and exciting and expanding like the red, while others 
are cool and contracting like the blue? What power in heaven 
or earth can formulate waves of the exact size and rapidity to 
constitute red, and what to constitute violet, or the countless 
other tints and shades which must have their exact processes 




Fit;. 181. Propagation and Keflectiun of Liquid Waves. 



and their exact sizes kept up through all the millions of miles 
which constitute their path-way in space? By the etherio-atomic 
law we may see how the definite size of the spiral color-chan- 
nels regulates the color, with just such a number of vibrations 
which can be continued from the distant stars to our earth. If 
the polarized lines become broken by means of atmospheric 
waves, they are formed again with lightning-speed, and so the 
light is uninterrupted. 

2. Every boy knows that when different stones are thrown 
into the water near each other, the waves thus aroused more or 



THE UNDULATORY THEORY. 



411 



less impede or obliterate each other. He knows, too, that winds 
and counter currents will soon entirely destroy the forms of any 
waves which may be started, so far as any perceptible effect is 
concerned. If light and color depend upon such wave conditions 
which have to pass through the tempests of the upper sky, and 
the countless eddies which may be supposed to exist in the cos- 
mic ether, the chance for illumination in this world would be 
rather uncertain. And yet scientists have striven to believe 
that because counterwaves of a gentle character can pass each 
other, and retain to a considerable extent their identity for a 
little while, so can luminous waves of ether start from the sun's 
surface, and, passing unimpaired through the boiling maelstroms 
and tempests of the solar atmosphere, which are a thousand 
times more fierce than the maddest billows of the ocean, finally 
break in undisturbed peace on our earthly shores with every color 
effect occupying its exact proportions in the solar spectrum! 
The dynamic theorists seem to find comfort in the pretty ex- 
periment of the physicist, M. Weber, 
represented by fig. 181, which repre- 
sents an elliptical dish of mercury. 
In one focus of its ellipse, a drop 
of the fluid is allowed to fall which, 
spreading over its calm surface in con- 
centric waves, is reflected from the 
other end in a series of waves which 
encircle the other focus much as 
though a drop of the liquid had been 
allowed to fall there also. This wave movement in a quiet en- 
closed dish is quite a different thing from the stormy undulations 
which take place in the fields of space. Take even a tempest 
on the ocean, which is as nothing in comparison with what is 
constantly occurring in the sun's atmosphere, and what becomes 
of any regular system of undulations. Fig. 182 correctly repre- 
sents a storm at sea. Fig. 183 gives a feeble representation 
of a solar cyclone, as observed by Secchi. 

3. Those who insist that colors are formed by different 
sized waves of ether, exactly as sound is, should tell just how 
it is that 39,000 waves to an inch are formulated by the sun 
to produce the effect of red, or 44,000 to produce yellow, or 




182. Billows. 



412 



CHROMO-PHILOSOPHY. 




51,000 to produce blue, or 60,000 to produce dark violet. In 
music, the pitch of high or low tones depends upon short or 
long waves, and these depend upon a small or large tube in such 
instruments as flutes, whistles, etc., or upon small or large chords 
or other vibratory arrangements by which an exact size of un- 
dulations are produced. Per- 
haps our dynamists will yet 
decide that there is an infinite 
number of invisible whistles 
distributed all around the sun, 
or around all gas lights, or can- 
dles, to formulate waves of the 
right size for violet, and whis- 
tles of a still larger size for 
yellow, and so on. At any rate 
there is a wonderful precision 
and beauty of effect brought 
about by some process, and we ought to know how this can be 
done before being too positive in our theories. 

4. "Do not several sorts of rays," says Newton, "make vi- 
brations of several bignesses which, according to their bignesses, 
excite sensations of several colors, much after the manner that 
the vibrations of the air, according to their bignesses, excite sen- 
sations of several sounds?" ("Optics, by Sir Isaac Newton, 
Kn't, 3d Edition, p. 320.") This remark by the great Newton has 
been re-echoed all along down through the two centuries since 
his day, and has a side of truth in it. But it should be under- 
stood that it is not entirely the wave action, or the up and down 
movement even in sounds, that makes its impression upon the 
mind as sound, but rather the rhythmic flow of electricities which 
become intensified at regular intervals by the condensation of 
air, as in fig. 184, which I copy from Guillemin's Forces of 




' ■ E*j i: !*■!:!■:*; ■;i!;i::iKf jijijis if :':;n:i,lj 
;..i§iiili; ■,.i:i;-:vL: 






Fig. 184. Undulations. 



Nature. This electricity constitutes the very life or spirit, so 
to speak, of the air waves, and in the case of the telephone is 



THE UNDULATORY THEORY. 



413 



able to pass on through hundreds of miles of wire, unattended 
by its aerial body until it reaches its destination, when it again 
assumes its atmospheric clothing as a help-meet for reaching 
the ear so strongly as to affect human consciousness. Light 
also uses the air, not in the masses of atoms, which constitute 
waves, but in lines of single atoms, the different sized spirilla? of 
which constitute their distinctive principles of power as colors. 
When the sound-waves reach the ear, the air stops mainly at the 
tympanum, but the interior electrical ethers pass on to the mem- 
branous labyrinth and scala media, and there give the impression 
of sound. When light passes on to the eye, its conducting air 
lines stop at the cornea, but the luminous ether within passes 
on to the retina, and there impresses the pictures of the outward 
world. 

5. Suppose, for the sake of argument, I should admit that 
light, heat, etc., are simply conditions of matter, mere non- 
entities, that result from the vibration of atoms or undulations 
of ethers: will my dynamic friend please inform me, what starts 
these vibrations, these undulations, into action? Everything 
must have a cause. Will he answer, that the sun's projectile 
power, brought about by chemical repulsion, gives the starting 
impulse? Truly, but we have seen in Chapter Fifth that all 
chemical repulsions as well as attractions are brought about by 
the flow of ethers in connection with atoms, or rather by the 
sweep of the finer through the coarser atoms, and we have seen 
in Chapter Second, that all power in the known material universe 
must be exerted in connection with fluidic forces, so that if we 
admit the undulatory theory, we must combine with it some 
winds of force which glide over or through the atmospheres and 
produce these undulations, thus forcing us at last to admit that 
in all electricities, colors, and other forces, there is a tangible 
something which constitutes the life of these forces. 

6. The above remark makes it evident that what is called 
the dynamic (spirit-like) theory is really a grosser and more ma- 
terial conception of force than what is called the material theory, 
especially than the etherio-atomic law advocated in this work, 
which combines the truth of both sides of the question, — for 
what are waves themselves but matter, and what are the forces 
that project these waves but matter, acting in a much more crude 



414 



CHROMO-PHILOSOPHY. 



way than those amazingly fine ethers which, as we have seen by 
multitudinous facts, dash with lightning-speed through the spiral 
frame-work of atoms, so skillfully arranged as to be almost self- 
acting and spirit-like, the atoms drawing on and quickening the 
ethers, and the ethers firing up the atoms. 

VIII. Summation of Points in Chromo-Philosophy. 



1. The knowledge of atoms and of the true principles of force greatly 
simplifies the explanation of optical phenomena, some of which can never be 
understood under the old theories. 

2. Refraction consists in the jolting of the color ethers, which constitute 
light, out of their direct course by the striking of the spirilla which convey 
them against a medium of different density. The fine, elastic spirilla; 
which carries the violet must necsssarily jolt its ether farther one side than 
the coarser spirilla which carries the red. 

3. The Reflection of Light results from chemical repulsion. The 
Fraunhofer lines are the result of reflection, not of absorption, as usually 
supposed. Wrong theories prevent correct knowledge of the real potencies 
of color. 

4. Absorption results from the chemical affinity of a substance for the 
colors which fall upon it, attended also with a sufficient amount of friction 
or of transverse atomic lines to prevent these colors from passing entirely 
through the substance. 

5. Transparency comes from the fact that certain substances have such 
a chemical affinity for all the ignited color-ethers, as to draw them on with 
great power and transmit them beyond. Those substances whose atoms 
cannot be polarized by light are not transparent. 

6. Polarization is a modification which light undergoes by certain angles 
of reflection and refraction. The word tends to mislead. 

7. The theory of undulations is true so far as it concerns some of the 
phenomena of light, but it has nothing whatever to do with the formation 
of light, or with light as a substance. 



INTRODUCTORY POINTS. 

CHAPTER NINTH. 



415 



CHROMO-DYNAMICS, OR THE HIGHER 
GRADE LIGHTS AND FORCES. 



1. Introductory Points. 

1. At last we come to a triumphant series of facts in proof 
of the fine fluidic forces which constitute the inner soul of things, 
and also in corroboration of the etherio-atomic law. By their 
aid we may ascend toward the key-stone of the great archway of 
power, and deal with those more subtile laws and potencies of 
vegetable, animal, human, and even world-life which are revealed 
by the higher grades of light and color. 

2. We have seen in Chapter Fifth, XXIII, that there are 
strong proofs of new and beautiful grades of light and color 
above that which impresses the outward vision. The following 
semi-prophetic and semi-philosophic passage from Professor 
Tyndall, hinting at the fact that man has powers which may yet 
be developed to see these higher colors, is already being verified 
by actual facts: — "If we allowed ourselves to accept for a moment 
that notion of gradual growth, amelioration and ascension implied 
by the term evolution, we might fairly conclude that there are 
stores of visual impressions awaiting man far greater than those 
of which he is now in possession. For example, Ritter discov- 
ered in 1801, that beyond the extreme violet of the spectrum, 
there is a vast efflux of rays which are totally useless as regards 
our present powers of vision." That many persons are able to 
see these colors, and that many more can be developed into this 
power, will be shown more fully in the next chapter, in which 
also rules will be laid down for attaining it. This chapter will 
be devoted principally to the explanation of Odic light and color, 
together with some of the marvelous forces connected with man 
and nature which are revealed thereby, while the next chapter 
will deal more especially with man. 



416 



CHROMO-DYNAMICS. 



II. Odic Light. 



Baron Reichenbach, one of the most eminent scientists of 
Austria, made the discovery that a fine force issues from all 
known elements and substances, and appears in beautiful lights 
and colors which can be both seen and felt by persons whom he 
called sensitives. Having a spacious castle near Vienna, admira- 
bly adapted to his investigations, with an abundance of philo- 
sophical and chemical apparatus, and a private cabinet containing 
minerals and substances of every kind, he instituted thousands 
of experiments which extended over years of time and were 
conducted with a skill, a patience and a severe love of truth, 
which must make his name immortal, especially as connected 
with the great force of nature whose laws and phenomena he 
thus discovered. This subtile power he named Od, or Odic 
force, or Odylic force. As these fine invisible emanations 
constitute the basic principles of all other forces, and are forever 
working through all things, it is of vast moment to understand 
them, and it would seem almost criminal for our medical and 
other scientists to be so indifferent with reference to them, so 
long as human happiness and upbuilding are so greatly promoted 
by a knowledge of their laws. "Nature is eternal," says Reich- 
enbach. "After a thousand million years will the odic light flow 
and shine as it does to-day, but the endeavors to overcome such 
a truth when it has once happily been found and disclosed, are 
paltry and poor." While such men as Berzelius, the great 
chemist of Stockholm, and Dr. Gregory of the Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, and Dr. Elliotson, President of the Royal Chirurgical 
Society of London, and various other eminent thinkers and 
scientists, have freely admitted the greatness of the discovery of 
Reichenbach, too many even to this day ignore, or rather keep 
themselves ignorant of the whole matter. Even so well known 
a physician as Dr. Brown-Sequard sneers at the odic and other 
fine forces, and hosts follow in his track, thus riveting the shackles 
of prejudice more and more tightly about the people by their 
example. A body of rather superficial physicians of Vienna, 
anxious seemingly to combat Baron Reichenbach, rather than 
ascertain the exact truth, met together and had Miss Reichel, one 
of the sensitives whom Reichenbach had experimented with, 
attempt to describe the odic lights. They surrounded her, held 



ODIC LIGHT. 



417 



each of her hands, overpowered her by their own hostile atmos- 
phere, mocked her and jeered at her, till the poor sensitive girl, 
in her anger and excitement, could do little or nothing to illus- 
trate a great principle and then condemned her and the cause. 
It is well on the whole, perhaps, that they took such a course, 
otherwise we should not have had such a scathing and crushing 
exposure of their folly by Reichenbach as a warning to all simi- 
lar cases of folly and ignorance. Dr. William B. Carpenter, the 
well known physiologist, considers Baron Reichenbach's experi- 
ments unreliable because he employed so many women in testing 
them. To this I would answer, 1st, that his experiments would 
more likely have been unreliable if he had not employed ladies 
freely in the matter, for woman's perception of the fine forces is 
as much superior to man's as man's ratiocinative talent is gener- 
ally superior to woman's, and it is singular that so able an 
observer has overlooked this fact; 2dly, the Baron did employ 
numerous men who could see the Odic lights, including Prof. 
Endlicher, member of the Vienna Academy; Baron August von 
Oberlaender, Dr. Ragsky, Imperial Professor of Chemistry, 
Vienna; M. Karl Schuh, Natural Philosopher, Berlin; Dr. Huss, 
Physician in ordinary to the king of Sweden, and other gentle- 
men of scientific attainment. In all he experimented with about 
60 persons, including many who were in sound health as well as 
many who were sick, having a greater number of ladies than gen- 
tlemen, as it should be in this class of researches, as the former 
were able to see longer flames and generally describe them more 
definitely than the latter. Some of the ladies, including the 
Baroness Natorp, Baroness von Augustine, and others, were 
persons of culture. 

2. Aided by the knowledge of atoms, chromo-chemistry and 
chromo-Therapeutics, I think we may easily see the inner mean- 
ing and potencies of the odic colors, and ascertain their scientific 
bearing in a way which Reichenbach himself was unable to do 
without these aids. We should remember that every color has 
a certain exact style of power, no matter what the grade of fine- 
ness or coarseness may be; the odic blue and violet, like the 
visible blue and violet, being electrical, penetrating and cool in 
their nature, while the red either in a drug, or in the visible sun- 
light, or in the finer invisible odic rays, is a warming and exciting 

27 



418 



CHROMO-DYNAMICS. 



principle; in short, that every color must ever work after the 
same law, the only difference being that a color of a finer grade 
has a softer and more penetrating power than the same color of 
a coarser grade, and has also a greater influence on the finer 
mental forces, though not so direct an influence on the physical 
system. It is proper now to inquire into the nature of Odic 
light, as viewed by Reichenbach's sensitives. In some cases I 
shall condense his points, in others quote his exact language. 

III. Nature of Odic Light and Color. 



1 . Odic Light exhibits exactly the same laws and phenomena 
as the ordinary visible light. "The odic light appears in five 
forms, producing different sensuous impressions, namely, in the 
condition of 1, incandescence; 2, flame; 3, threads, streaks 
and nebulae; 4, smoke; 5, sparks." Prof. Endlicher and others, 
when the flame at the end of magnets was blown upon, saw it 
flicker about and grow larger just as ordinary flames do before 
the wind. Madame Kienesberger woke up in the night and 
seeing the iron window frame on fire with odic light, became 
alarmed, supposing it to be real fire. When she went to put it 
out it vanished, then reappeared when she lay down. In other 
words, when she was perfectly quiet and impressible, she saw 
the lights, but when moving around, her finer vision was inter- 
rupted. When a magnet became very weak there was "incan- 
descence with no flame, only a little smoke," just as is the case 
with a smouldering fire. "Od shares with heat the peculiar- 
ity of two different conditions, one inert, slowly making its way 
through matter, a radiation. The od from magnets, crystals, 
human bodies, is felt instantaneously through a long suite of 
rooms." Odic light follows the same laws of refraction as com- 
mon light, as it may be condensed and brought to a focus by a 
lens, and also the same laws of reflection, although the same 
substances that reflect ordinary light, are not always of the 
right grade to reflect odic light, as the latter is often able to 
pass through opaque bodies and make them transparent. 

2. An Odic Atmosphere or static ether must exist and bear 
the same relation to odic light as the ordinary atmosphere does to 
the ordinary light. As the odic light is twice as fine in its vi- 
brations as ordinary light, the odic atmosphere must also be 



NATURE OF ODIC LIGHT AND COLOR. 



419 



twice as fine, and its luminelles on the average, about twice as 
small as the ordinary luminelles. This is a deduction from the 
analogies of nature, and also from the fact ascertained by math- 
ematicians, that the vibrations, which are twice as fine and rapid 
as those in the thermel, occur a little above the violet just about 
at the place where the odic thermel in the new color-octave 
would be expected to commence. In this finer atmosphere odic 
electricity, odic magnetism, odic thermism, as well as odic light 
and color exist with all their activities, as we shall see hereafter. 
To show that the odic light is not dependent upon our atmos- 
phere, being in reality partially smothered by it, and that it must 
have its own peculiar atmospheric medium, I will quote an ac- 
count which Reichenbach gives of his experiments with a mag- 
net as viewed in the dark while the air is being withdrawn by an 
air pump: — "M. Firka, Johann Klaiber, and Mme. Kienesberger, 
also saw nothing at first: but when the air was half removed, 
they saw the contents of the bell jar become luminous, the mag- 
net in the odylic glow. On further exhaustion, Klaiber saw the 
flame appear on both poles, first dull, then brighter as the air 
was removed more completely, increasing in vividness at every 
stroke of the piston, so that at last very bright flames flowed 
about under the bell jar. When the air was admitted, all light 
suddenly disappeared to the three observers, and it returned as 
soon as the pump had again been worked for a time." Mile. 
Zinkell saw the flames beautifully brilliant, especially after the 
exhaustion of the air, one pole being blue, the other red, with a 
mixture of rainbow hues. Several others, including a blind man 
by the name of Bollman, saw the same variations. These facts 
seem to indicate that there is a finer grade of oxygen and hydro- 
gen and carbon, or some similar elements, to feed these flames, 
and a finer grade of gaseous or rather of ethereal matter as their 
basis, for those essences which are finer than the gases may be 
termed ethers. 

3. The Odic Light may appear in connection with all known 
objects, but more especially when these objects are under the action 
of the fine forces, such as electricity, magnetism, heat, light, etc. I 
will quote the summing up of results obtained by a vast number 
of experiments, from Dr. Wm. Gregory's translation of Reichen- 
bach's "Researches (Dynamics) on Magnetism, Electricity, etc., 



420 



CHROMO-DYNAMICS. 



in their Relations to the Vital Force." (London Edition): 
"The time-honored observation that the magnet has a sensible 
action on the human organism is neither a lie, nor an imposture, 
nor a superstition, as many philosophers now-a-days erroneously 
suppose and declare it to be, but a well-founded fact, a physico- 
physiological law of nature which loudly calls on our attention. 
It is a tolerably easy thing and everywhere practical, to convince 
ourselves of the accuracy of this statement; for everywhere 
people may be found whose sleep is more or less disturbed by 
the moon, or who suffer from nervous disorders. Almost all of 
these perceive very distinctly the peculiar action of a magnet, 
when a pass is made with it from the head downwards. Even 
more numerous are the healthy and active persons who feel the 
magnet very vividly; many others feel it less distinctly; many 
hardly perceive it; and finally the majority do not perceive it at 
all. All those who perceive this effect, and who seem to amount 
to a fourth or a third of the people in this part of Europe, 
(Vienna), are here included under the general term 'Sensitives.' 
The perceptions of this action group themselves about the senses 
of touch and of sight; of touch, in the form of sensations of 
apparent coolness and warmth; of sight, in the form of luminous 
emanations, visible after remaining long in the dark, and flowing 
from the poles and sides of magnets. The power of exerting 
this action not only belongs to steel magnets as produced by 
art, or to the loadstone, but nature presents it in an infinite 
variety of cases. We have first the earth itself, the magnetism 
of which acts more or less strongly on sensitives. There is 
next the moon which acts by virtue of the same force on the 
earth, and of course, on sensitives. We have further all crystals, 
natural and artificial, which act in the line of their axes: also 
heat, friction, electricity, light, the solar and stellar rays, chemi- 
cal action especially, organic vital activity, both that of plants 
and that of animals, especially that of man; finally the whole 
material universe. The cause of these phenomena is a peculiar 
force, existing in nature and embracing the universe, distinct 
from all known forces and here called odyl" (p. 209). 

5. Length of Odic Flames. These appeared of various sizes 
according to the intensity of the force by which they were 
produced and the clearness of vision possessed by the sensitive. 



NATURE OF ODIC LIGHT AND COLOR. 



421 



"Prof. Endlicher saw, on the poles of an electro-magnet, flames 
40 inches high, unsteady, exhibiting a rich play of colors and 
ending above in a luminous smoke which rose to the ceiling and 
illuminated it. M. Delhez saw the flames of the same size, but 
did not distinguish the colors. The flames appeared to him 
darker below (red), brightest in the middle (yellow), and darker 
again above (blue). Mile. Glaser saw, over the poles of the same 
electro-magnet, flames five feet high and smoke rising from them 
to the ceiling. The flames exhibited the most beautiful and 
varied play of colors, blue predominating over the northward, 
reddish yellow over the southward pole. Mile. Zinkel saw the 
flame of the northward pole 40 inches high, that of the southward 
pole upwards of one foot in height. Both were colored, blue 
predominating in the former, red in the latter" (p. 342). An 
odic flame which appeared 16 inches long to Miss Glaser when 
issuing from a nine-bar horse-shoe magnet, was lengthened to 
64 inches when a current from the electrical machine was ap- 
plied to it. Miss Sturman while in a dark room perceived a 
"flame-like light" over a large rock crystal, "half the size of a 
hand, blue, passing into white above, remarkably different from 
the magnetic light," which had more of the yellow and red in 
it. She also said that "isolated filaments of a reddish color ran 
up in the upper part of the white." Streams of light several 
inches long would often be seen issuing from human fingers, and 
also from different parts of the body, from plants, and various 
other substances. 

5. Odic Polarization. As the solar ethers polarize the atoms 
of substances through which they pass, or follow the laws of sub- 
stances already polarized as in many crystals, so do the odic forces 
either polarise bodies or sweep through atomic channels already 
polarized. "It was discovered that every crystal presented two 
such points in which the force peculiarly resided. And these 
points lay diametrically opposite to each other in every crystal; 
they were the poles of a primary axis of the crystal. Both acted in 
the same way, but one much more strongly than the other, and 
with the distinction that from one appeared to issue a cool, from 
the other a softer, gently warm (seeming) current of air." {Dr. 
Ashburners Translation of Reichenbach, p. 56.) Reichenbach 
uses the word seeming in this and other cases, not being sure that 



122 



CHROMO— DYNAMICS. 



when the sensitives so constantly told him that the fine influences 
were warm or cold, it could be anything but an apparent effect, 
as it would not move a thermometer. This comes from his being 
unaware of the fact, 1st, that there are different grades of heat 
and cold, the finer of which cannot be measured by coarse instru- 
ments, any more than meal can be measured in a coal seive; 
2dly, the cold end of crystals and other polarized objects always 
emitted a blue flame, which as we have seen is constantly the 
effect of the cold and electrical current; 3dly, it always pro- 
duced the cooling and contracting effect on the sensitive which 
comes from cold, while the other pole would produce the warm- 
ing and exciting effect of heat and have red for its predominant 
color. These phenomena show the truth of many points already 
laid down in the previous part of this work. Reichenbach ad- 
mits that the scientists of his day were unsettled as to which 
should be called the positive or negative end of a magnet, or a 
crystal, and being in doubt himself finally concluded to call the 
north end from which the blue rays emanate the negative, and 
the south or red end the positive pole, which is exactly wrong, 
as the more powerful external force, like the north pole, must be 
positive, and the weaker south pole negative. He finds the 
whole right side of the human body emitting the cold blue rays 
in predominance, and the left side the warm red rays, and so 
calls the former negative, the latter positive, which would seem 
still more improper than the terms as applied to a magnet. The 
power of a magnet comes especially from its electrical currents 
arranged in curves, and the positive principle of electricity is in 
the blue; if we are speaking of an object in which thermism 
rules, then the red constitutes the positive principle of power. 
It would be better to designate the different ends of a polarized 
substance as electrical and thermal, as these terms afford an exact 
meaning. The reader who has become familiar with the atomic 
theory will see just why a polarized substance must be warm 
at one end when it is cold at the other, as cold and heat move in 
exactly contrary directions. Reichenbach's sensitives found 
the small end of crystals warm and with thermal colors predom- 
inating, while the larger end was cold with blue predominant, the 
upper parts of plants and trees cold, the lower warm, etc. They 
could point out the main axis and its poles in crystals, by the 



WARM AND COLD SUBSTANCES. 



123 



crystallic force itself, and in many crystals, especially such de- 
cided ones as "sulphuret of iron, selenite, fluor spar, heavy spar, 
sphene granite, etc., they would also discover other axes, the 
poles of which were much less strongly opposed." "Very fre- 
quently the main axis was not longer, but shorter, as in selenite." 

IV. Warm and Cold Substances. 



1. The sensitives in deciding what elements and compounds 
were od-warm and od-cold, and thus arriving at their interior 
chemical character more minutely than the chemists them- 
selves have generally done, have proved irresistibly the import- 
ance of understanding these odic forces. Baron Reichenbach 
enumerates 172 elements and compounds of every kind which 
were determined by Mile. Maix and Mile. Reichel. Nearly every 
metal and alkaline substance were declared to be warm, potas- 
sium being at their head in this respect, while the electro-nega- 
tives generally, oxygen being at the head, and nearly every acid 
were declared to be cold, thus being a grand argument in favor 
of the correctness of the principles developed in the chapter, on 
Chromo-Chemistry, and of the laws of chemical affinity, as ex- 
plained in Chapter Third, XXXVII. Sulphuric acid, next to 
oxygen is pronounced the coldest substance, and water is ranged 
on the cold side, but very feebly so. The table is far more cor- 
rect as giving the chemical power of substances, than those 
giving what is called their specific heat, though, perhaps, present- 
ing slight inaccuracies. 

2. "Mile. Reichel saw most metals red, almost as if red hot; 
some of them gave a white light, some a yellow. Copper, as we 
have seen, gave a green light. A delicate vaporous flame played 
over all, undulating backwards and forwards. More complex 
substances showed flame only at their points when crystallized. 
Otherwise they were either surrounded by luminous vapor, or 
were luminous in their mass as if red hot." 

3. Reichenbach's sensitives constantly affirm that the sun's 
rays and ordinary fire are odically cold, but I think this effect, at 
least sometimes, comes from the thermo-electricity generated by 
the warm rays, as electricity is always developed by heat, espe- 
cially as the temperature of sunlight was frequently measured by 
placing a metal plate in the sun, a few moments after which the 



424 



CHROMO-DYNAMICS. 



sensitive felt cold sensations, in other words, the cold was felt 
after the plate had had a little time to get warmed and charged 
by the light. The solar rays, as we have seen, must come 
equally through both the electrical and thermal portions of at- 
mospheric atoms, although the electrical rays are doubtless more 
active in cold weather. The moon's rays were always pro- 
nounced warm. Its grade of heat is not coarse enough to be 
measured by an ordinary thermometer, but it is known to be the 
cause of nervous excitement in many sensitive organizations. 

4. "The sensitive patient felt all radiations from electrified 
bodies cold. The feeling of cold increased rapidly, the faster I 
turned the plate of the machine, perceptible, not immediately, 
but several seconds later than the electrical charge." This is 
another confirmation of the statement so often made in this 
work, that electricity acts on the law of cold. 

5. The roots of plants are stated to be warm, and the ends of 
the leaves above cold. The warm currents flow downward 
through the plant, the cold currents upward. Most flowers were 
found to be cool, but warm on their stem. 

V. Influence of Solar and Lunar Rays. 



1. Sunlight. Reichenbach put various plates in the sunlight 
and connected them by a wire 13 yards long with Mile. Reichel, 
who held the point of the wire upward. The whole came through 
darkened rooms. In less than a minute after he had put the 
plates in the sunlight she saw a stream of light 10 or 12 inches 
high emerge from the wire. When his daughter stood in the 
sunlight in the place of the metal plate, the flame rose about 9 
inches high. When he brought different metals from the sun- 
light into the darkened room, flames issued from them, espe- 
cially from the sharp angles of the upper portions, green and 
blue from copper, clear white from gold and silver, dull white 
from tin, reddish white from zinc, etc. 

2. Objects charged with Sunlight. I have already, in Chapter 
Sixth, XVII, shown the great power of substances charged with 
sunlight in healing, vitalizing or soothing the human system, in- 
cluding the discoveries of Dr. von Gerhardt, of Germany, which 
consists of sugar of milk, charged with the electrical rays by means 
of a prism, as a nervine and anti-spasmodic, and my own discov- 



INFLUENCE OF SOLAR AND LUNAR RAYS. 



■MS 



eries and inventions for securing the exquisite power of light, in- 
cluding a yellow-orange hollow lens, and a blue hollow lens, both 
of which when filled with water, and held in the light, answer as 
powerful lenses to focalize their respective rays upon the parts of 
the body externally, while the water within answers as a very 
soft, but subtile and penetrating influence to take internally, the 
former being a cerebral and nerve stimulant, vitalizing to the 
system, and laxative to the bowels, while the latter is cooling, 
quieting, anti-inflammatory, and soporific upon a system which is 
over-excitable and sleepless. This healing power of the sunlight 
comes not only from the ordinary visible colors, but from the 
odic colors which form the next color-octave above the visible 
range, for the blue glass transmits a large amount of odic rays, 
and even those which are still finer, while the yellow-orange glass 
transmits a portion of them also. 

3. Moonlight. The sensitives always felt a warm current 
from objects that had been held in the moon, and saw a flame 
10 inches high arise from the wire held in the moonlight with a 
plate at the outer end. Miss Maix felt an attractive force draw- 
ing her hand along the wire. The fact that the thermal influ- 
ences of the moon, especially in the range of odic rays, overbal- 
ance the electrical rays of the same, seems remarkably confirmed 
by authorities quoted by Dr. Forbes Winslow, in his "Influence 
of Light," in which it is shown that especially in warm climates 
such diseases as diarrhoea, dysentery, hemorrhage, fevers, con- 
vulsions, nervous irritability, lunacy, etc., are worse in the full of 
the moon (or sometimes in the new moon), just as we might ex- 
pect from predominance of yellow and red rays. "In India," 
says Dr. Winslow, "death has occasionally been known to arise 
from what is termed a coup de lune, or stroke of the moon; and 
in Egypt blindness has often been produced in persons who have 
imprudently fallen asleep with their faces exposed to intense 
lunar light." Blue glass or a blue veil would offset the exciting 
effects of moonlight, which in the negative condition of sleep, 
might at times be hurtful. Dormant conditions would be bene- 
fited by moonlight, and walking under the open moonlight, 
would in most cases bring much more benefit than harm. 



426 CHROMO-DYNAMICS. 

VI. Magnetism and Odic Force. 

1. Points in which they differ. Reichenbach enumerates 
thirty points in which Magnetism and Odyl differ. Some of 
these are as follows: — 1st, Odyl is in most cases developed with- 
out the aid of magnetism, but magnetism never without odyl; 
2dly, clouds over the sun's face arrest odyl, nothing can arrest 
magnetism; 3dly, all bodies may be charged with odyl, only a 
few bodies with magnetism; 4thly, odyl cannot attract iron 
filings, the magnet can; 5thly, magnetism, according to Barlow, 
lingers near the surface of bodies, odyl penetrates through and 
through them, making them translucent, sometimes transparent; 
6thly, the odic flame of a magnet is sometimes extinguished by 
the approach of a living being, while the magnetic action remains 
in force; 7thly, an iron bar placed horizontally in the magnetic 
meridian will have its north end odically cold and its south end 
warm, but if placed with its north end inclined downward at an 
angle of 65°, which is the true magnetic dip in Vienna, and the 
best position for magnetic force, then its north pole will be 
odically warm and its south pole cold, in harmony with the 
ascending electricities, and contrary to the descending magnetic 
currents, for, as we have seen, there are currents of electricity 
which move directly upward as well as other currents which 
move northward, a fact which Reichenbach was not aware of. 

2. The Magnetic Poles. The odic light is described as being 
especially brilliant at or near the poles of a magnet, and those 
who have clear vision can see a fringe-work of light over the 
whole surface. From the north pole a brilliant white light as- 
cends which merges into delicate horizontal layers of red, yellow, 
green, and lastly blue, which last is so abundant as to constitute 
the predominating tint of the whole flame. From the south, or 
negative pole, a still more luminous light, but of much smaller 
dimensions, descends with white and colored rays in which 
the red predominates. The sensitives generally would speak of 
the negative (south) pole as being red, the middle of the magnet 
green, and the positive pole blue. The reason the south pole is 
more luminous is because the red and yellow predominate, while 
the north pole is stronger in its electrical currents and cones- 
quently more blue. We have seen that a keen grade of mag- 



ODYL AN IMAGINARY POWER? 



427 



neto-electricity rules at the north pole, while the weaker chemico- 
electricity issues from the south pole, but the greatest power of 
the magnet is in the former which, sending its blue forces in one 
direction, must naturally send its affinitive red in the other 
direction. 

VII. Opaque Bodies become Transparent. 

Mile. Atzmannsdorfer in the "state of somnambulism" saw 
"the glowing steel transparent almost like glass." "Friedrich 
Weidlich saw the flame in air two inches long. I then sank 
the magnet, lying in a glass basin, into water. The flame (for 
the most part) instantly disappeared, but he saw the magnet 
glowing and translucent, almost like the glass itself." "Metals 
in the odylic glow, appear to sensitives translucent, glowing 
through and through hollow balls." A mercantile gentleman of 
my acquaintance, in New York, can become so en rapport with 
these finer grades of light, as to be able to see through the hu- 
man body as though it were made of glass. Here, then, is the 
philosophy of clear-seeing or clairvoyance, although many have 
the faculty so feebly developed that they are liable to commit 
mistakes. 



VIII. Is Odyl an Imaginary Power? 

1. Miss Nowotny's hand, while she was in an unconscious 
cataleptic condition, would be drawn and held to the magnet as 
would a piece of iron. Reichenbach once had a person go into 
another room from where his patient lay, and open a magnet of 
90-pound sustaining power unknown to her. She immediately 
became uneasy and "complained that a magnet must be open 
somewhere, desiring that some one would look and relieve her 
from the pain. The armature was replaced without her knowl- 
edge, and she became quiet again." 

2. M. Baumgartner, Professor of Physics, desiring to see if 
imagination affected Miss Nowotny in her judgment of the power 
of the magnet, took out a magnet in her presence, which he said 
was the strongest one in his collection. She however declared 
that it was the weakest of all the magnets, and "it seemed to 
her almost without influence." Baumgartner then laughed, and 
said "that it had been deprived of its magnetism, before leaving 



1-28 



CHROMO-DYNAMICS. 



home, by friction in the reverse direction," so that it was little 
else than a mere plain piece of iron. 

3. The charging of water and other objects by means of the 
magnet, by human hands, held or darted near the water, by sun- 
light, by crystals and other substances, was believed in by the 
great chemist Berzelius, of Stockholm, by Dr. Gregory, of the 
Edinburgh University, by the eminent Dr. Elliotson of London, 
by Dr. Lutze, a physican of vast practice in Germany, and very 
many others. "Nothing could be more disagreeable," says 
Reichenbach, "than the reappearance of apparently so absurd a 
thing which all physicists and chemists are horrified even to hear 
of. But in spite of this, I could not refuse to admit what I saw 
before my eyes as often as I tried it; namely, that the girl 
always determined and unfailingly distinguished a magnetized 
glass of water from an unmagnetized. The force of facts cannot 
be combatted by any reasoning; I was compelled to recognize 
what I was by no means able to comprehend, but when I again 
met with the same, subsequently, in Misses Sturman, Maix, 
Reichel, Atzmannsdorfer, and others, and saw it in a still 
stronger degree, I gave up all doubt and opposition." Speaking 
of Reichenbach's many experiments on the magnetizing of 
water and other substances, Dr. Ashburner, a prominent British 
physician, says: — "The facts stated in this, have been exhibited 
in my house hundreds of times. Water has been magnetized 
with magnets, mesmerized with the fingers, by breathing, by the 
exertion of the will: over and over again, the tumblers in which 
these specifically treated quantities of water have been con- 
tained, have been instantly detected by somnambulists in the 
lucid state of sleep-waking, who have been in another room 
when the fluid was charged." "I have darted my hands 200 
times over the surface of water, and have been told that the blue 
haziness has overflowed the tumbler. Several persons have said 
the same thing. I have placed a watch before me while I held 
the tips of my right hand fingers in the mouth of the decanter. 
Several lucid individuals have separately indicated the precise 
hight of the blue haze in the water at the same interval of time. 
A few minutes were sufficient to charge a quart decanter. All 
concur in the fact that the fluid sinks in the water. Is it, then, 
imponderable?" 



IS ODYL AN IMAGINARY POWER? 



!29 



4. In cool weather when the air is electrical, I can make one, 
two, or three strokes over tissue or other paper, and throwing it 
into the air within a foot of the wall, it will spring to it like a 
thing of life and cling there for hours, sometimes even for days. 
A mere stroke will make it attractive of everything around it, 
although it will generally repel another magnetized sheet, unless 
this sheet is magnetized with the same strokes as they lie to- 
gether. Thousands of others can do the same thing, and some 
better than myself. I have made one magnetized newspaper lift 
and carry around another several times as large as itself. Now 
what is this power except the odic or vital force, combined with 
frictional electricity? It is not the ordinary ferro-magnetism, as 
it will not influence iron filings in the least, but must be this 
finer power thrown into attractive curves on the same general 
plan. It is sometimes called animal magnetism, which name, 
although it has been abused, is not very improper, and yet so 
well known a physician as Dr. Brown-Sequard, in a course of 
lectures delivered in Boston, almost questions its very existence. 
But too many of our medical scientists are dropping behind the 
age in ignoring these finer basic principles of things directly in 
the face of the fact, that thousands of persons can see the lumin- 
ous pathways of these forces, as they emanate from human beings 
or other objects, and hundreds of thousands can feel their influ- 
ence. 

5. In the light of such facts, the folly of attributing these 
phenomena to imagination, prepossession of ideas, or mere sub- 
jective conditions, as do Drs. Braid, Carpenter, and so many 
others, is too apparent to need comment, and shows that the 
diseased subjective conditions are not with Reichenbach's sensi- 
tives who constantly prove their own points by stubborn facts, 
but with the doctors themselves who cling to their own theories 
in spite of all facts. In Dr. Carpenter's late lectures on "Mes- 
merism," etc., he uses the following language about Reichenbach, 
which is almost the only point that would give any trouble to one 
who is enlightened with regard to these fine forces, although the 
whole book would tend to mislead the ignorant: — "The fact 
which Von Reichenbach himself was honest enough to admit — 
that when a magnet was poised in a delicate balance, and the hand 
of a 'sensitive' was placed above or beneath it, the magnet was 



430 



CHROMO-DYNAMICS. 



never drawn towards the hand — ought to have convinced him 
that the force which attracted the 'sensitive's' hand to the mag- 
net has nothing in common with physical attractions, whose 
action is invariably reciprocal; but that it was the product of her 
own conviction that she must thus approximate it." The sophis- 
try of the above will appear, I think, from the following points: 
1st, it is not the coarser forces of the magnet, which are known 
as magnetism, that act upon a sensitive person, but the finer 
odic and other forces which this magnetism wakens into action, 
so that the attraction is not direct but secondary. These finer 
forces have their attractive curves similar to the magnetic, which 
are sufficiently subtile to act on the nervous system, as will be 
shown in the next chapter; 2dly, it is probable that there is a 
slight secondary attraction of the magnet, though not enough to 
move a gross mass of iron. In the experiments with paper which 
I have just detailed, the paper itself will readily be attracted to a 
human being and will also attract sensitive human beings. 3dly, 
the assertion that "it was the product of her own conviction that 
she must approximate it," is overwhelmingly overthrown by 
several facts given by Reichenbach, Ashburner, etc., in some of 
which the subject was asleep or in an unconscious cataleptic fit, 
when the hand would be immediately drawn to the magnet and 
held rigidly to it. Dr. Ashburner speaks of persons who would 
be drawn six feet to the magnet, and of a boy who, if the armature 
was removed six feet off, would rush to it and fall asleep on the 
way. But multitudes of cases could be given in which human 
magnetism, crystals, and other objects have drawn unconscious 
subjects in the same way; 4thly, the experiments which I have 
just quoted with reference to Miss Nowotny and others, show 
that these forces operate entirely independent of one's conscious- 
ness. But the fact that Doctor Carpenter could overlook a whole 
volume of marvelous phenomena against his theory, and hitch 
to some little weak point shows the power of a "prepossession of 
ideas" in his own case quite similar to what he is fond of charg- 
ing upon others. Wallace and Crookes having driven him into 
a close corner, he writes an article in Nature, Oct., 1877, in which, 
as he looks about for sympathizers, he makes the following re- 
mark: — "I asked my personal friend Prof. Hoffmann of Berlin, 
whether the doctrine (of Odic force) any longer finds support 



DOES ODIC LIGHT PRODUCE THE AURORA BOREALIS? 



43 1 



among scientific men in Germany. His reply was a most em- 
phatic negative; the doctrine, he said, being one which no man 
of science with whom he is acquainted would think worthy of the 
slightest attention." Is Prof. Hoffmann correct when he would 
thus indicate that German scientists are so deeply obscured 
in their perceptions that they utterly neglect these fine forces 
which are the vivifying power of all forces? I think there are 
many noble German thinkers who would consider this a slander 
upon their people. 

VIII. Proof that Odic Light comprises Fluidic Forces. 

1. Odic Light is manifested in flames which stream forth in 
various directions, and as the ordinary visible flames consist of 
luminous gases which are fluids, so must these odic flames con- 
sist of the finer fluids which we call ethereal forces. While none 
can see the inner essence of odyl, or magnetism, or electricity, or 
the solar ethers, yet the luminous pathway which their flow en- 
kindles may be seen, and, judging by all analogies of the known 
external universe, we must consider that some marvelously swift 
fluidic force is passing. We have seen how the red odic fluid 
pours from the fingers of the left hand, and the blue odic fluid 
can be thrown from the right hand until a tumbler is filled to 
the top and made to overflow. 

IX. Does Odic Light Produce the Aurora Borealis? 



Baron Reichenbach performed ingenious experiments to prove 
that odyl was the cause of the Aurora Borealis, but he seemed 
to forget that odic light, however intense, cannot possibly be seen 
by the ordinary vision, while the Northern Lights can be seen by 
everyone. He has skillfully shown that the magnet working in 
connection with a hollow iron globe, with its north and south 
pole at the respective poles of the globe, sends forth its blue and 
iridescent lights at the north, its red, etc., at the south, much the 
same as does the Aurora Borealis, and thereby achieves the fol- 
lowing grand result; namely, by showing just how magnetism on 
a small scale can develope such colors in connection with the 
odic atmosphere, he shows just how the mightier play of a world's 



132 



CHROMO-DYNAMICS. 



concentrated magnetism at the poles may ignite the ordinary 
coarser atmosphere with its nebulous matter, and so cause a simi- 
lar effect to the ordinary vision. See Chapter Fourth, IX, and 
X, 3.4. 

X. Terrestrial Dynamics. 



1. In Chapter Fourth, X, we have seen that the law of heat 
awakens and propels thermo-electricity in two directions, namely, 
from the earth vertically, into the colder regions of the upper 
sky, and also from the warmer regions of the torrid and temper- 
ate zones towards the colder regions of the poles, the law of 
movement for electricity ever being from the warm to the cold. 
The sun's course, also, from east to west carries a line of lumin- 
ous force, attended with some heat, westward, while in the east the 
tendency must be the other way. What, then, should be the 
colors that would naturally represent the main points of the 
compass, if we are to get at the real power of the earth's forces? 
Plainly blue for the north, with its kindred electrical colors 
on each side of it; red for the south, with its kindred thermal colors 
on each side of it; the luminous yellow for the west, and slight 
blue with some shadowy or gray elements for the east. This, we 
find, is exactly indicated by the odic lights and colors as discovered 
by Reichenbach's sensitives, although the Baron himself had not 
ascertained just why this arrangement in nature takes place. It 
being of vast importance that these great fundamental laws of 
force should be understood, it will be well to illustrate it at some 
length. 

2. Vertical Forces. Let us commence first with electricity 
which moves from the earth vertically into the sky. If there is 
such a force of the cold principle, its manifestation must consist 
of the blue or violet as the leading element, while in the direc- 
tion towards the centre of the earth the thermal colors, especially 
the red, must prevail. This we find to be the case with the 
odic colors, for when a bar magnet was placed vertically with the 
north pole upward, the blue would become more intense above 
and the red below; when this direction was inverted, both ends 
would be so contrary to the forces of nature that their colors 
would be almost smothered. "When the bar was placed verti- 



TERRESTRIAL DYNAMICS. 



433 



cally, she (Miss Zinkel) saw it, contrary to all expectation, glow- 
ing with a bluish gray light at the upper end and with a whitish 
red below." "When both poles stood pointed upward, the north- 
ward (blue) flame was increased, the southward diminished." 
"Blue predominated at the northward, red at the southward pole. 
But still the flames arranged themselves into a most beautiful 
iris on each pole." On the lower portion of Plate III, may be 
seen the general plan of odic colors as they appear at each pole, 
arranged as closely as possible after Reichenbach's description, 
although, of course, incomparably less exquisite than the tints of 
nature. The following is a description of colors emanating 
from an electro-magnet as seen by Mme. Kienesberger: — "Close 
to the (north) pole, which stood vertically, appeared a red stra- 
tum, next to that a stratum of orange, then one of yellow, then 
one of green, one of light blue, one of dark blue, and lastly one 
of violet-blue (indigo and violet), above which arose a gray vapor. 
At the same time, the positive (south) pole exhibited close to the 
iron a blood red stratum (probably thermel), then light red, and 
above this orange, from which a thick heavy smoke rose to the 
ceiling. She described the appearance as one of extraordinary 
delicacy and splendor. Some weeks later, I made the same ex- 
periment with Mile. Zinkel. She described the appearances in 
the same way as Mme. Kienesberger, being about equally sensi- 
tive, and added that each colored stratum was not uniform, but 
subdivided into smaller strata of different shades of color, so 
that the whole iris had the appearance of a great number of col- 
ored bands overlying each other. Beyond the violet she ob- 
served a narrow streak of pure red, in which the violet ended, 
after becoming gradually redder, and which passed above into 
smoke." Here we have the whole scale of odic colors described, 
together with the thermel and red of a still finer scale above the 
violet, or in other words the psychic thermel and red. Next to 
the magnet comes doubtless the heaviest and coarsest color 
which would naturally be called red by most persons, but which 
is probably odic thermel, with a very slight tinge of blue in it, 
while the more ethereal psychic thermel and red naturally come 
in at the top, being more refrangible than even the odic violet. 
On the south or warm pole most senitives saw only the red or red 
and yellow, but under the aid of a strong battery Mile. Zinkel 

28 



4 34 



CHROMO-DYNAMICS. 



saw also the blue, and if her vision had been still clearer she 
would perhaps have seen the other colors also, although the elec- 
trical colors predominate at the north pole, and the thermel at the 
south pole. As we have seen, a weaker grade of electricity ex- 
ists at the south pole, otherwise there could be no magnetic at- 
traction there. If a piece of card board or glass should be laid 
upon the sides of the poles as they lie horizontally, and sprinkled 
with iron filings, the magnetic forces will arrange the filings into 
curves resembling the dotted lines in the plate, and if a sensitive 
look at these in the dark, they will coruscate like countless stars 
on account of the currents that are passing through them. The 
figures at the positive (north) pole represent colors as follows: — 
1, gray-colored smoke; 2, psychic red; 3, psychic thermel; 4, 
violet (odic scale); 5, indigo; 6,6, blue which predominates; 
7, green; 8, yellow; 9, orange; 10, red; 11, thermel. N is 
north pole, S, south pole. It will be seen on reflection how ad- 
mirable is the law by which the cold currents are made to go 
upward and thus prove cooling to the brains of human beings as 
they stand or sit, while the warm currents pass downward and 
thus help the feet. In the following paragraphs it will be shown 
how a person may lie in sleeping so as to get the advantage of 
still colder currents for the head and still warmer ones for the 
feet. 

3. Horizontal Forces. The great forces of the earth caused 
by sunlight, heat, magnetism and electricity, and which are more 
nearly horizontal, may be arrived at by studying the following 
brilliant experiment of Baron Reichenbach, a beautiful illustra- 
tion of which I have drawn up as nearly correct as possible, and 
had engraved in the circular figure of Plate III: — "I now tried 
the effect of a circular surface or disc. A disc of iron plate, 
13.2 inches in diameter, was well flattened, and an iron wire folded 
into its circumference, so that a smooth, round, clean border, one 
twelfth of an inch thick, ran round it. It was suspended by a 
small hook in the middle, horizontally above the pole of the 
magnet, and could be fixed at any hight. I could now let it 
down on the northward pole of the magnet which stood verti- 
cally. * * I showed the disc to Mile. Pauer. The odylic glow 
instantly spread over it. The colors were developed as might 
have been expected; on the upper centre, a blue spot, on the 



BABBITT'S PRINCIPLES OF LIGHT AND COLOK.-PLATE III. 

NORTH. 




TERRESTRIAL UTXAMIOS— RADIATION OF ODIC LIGHTS AND C0L0KS. 




D JT 

ODIC FLAMES FROM THE POLES OF A HOUSE-SHOE MAGNET. 

The colors are not put on very accurately nor blended properly in these magnets, but the reader can 
consult page 434, with which and these colors he maybe able to gain a fair conception of the radiations. 



TERRESTRIAL DYNAMICS. 435 

lower, in contact with the magnet, a red spot, both upwards of 
two inches in diameter. They passed into a surrounding yellow- 
ish zone, faintly tinged with red on the under, with green on the 
upper surface, and this again lost itself in a gray zone. This 
last continued to the border, where it was surrounded by a 
downy fringe of light, 0.6 of an inch thick and colored gray, blue, 
yellow and red in east, north, west and south respectively. In 
north-west, south-west, south-east, she saw respectively green, 
orange and gray -red (red-gray); in north-east violet with a short 
patch of red. These colors formed a continuous wreath of tints 
passing into each other, and thus a kind of a circular rainbow. 

"I varied the experiment as follows with Mile. Zinkel; I 
connected with the poles of a Smec's voltaic battery of more 
than two and a half square feet of surface, the two surfaces of 
the disc; the wires being only separated by its thickness, about 
one twenty-fifth of an inch. Immediately the observer saw 
around the upper centre of the disc connected with the silver, a 
spot of blue glow forming more than two inches in diameter. 
At the same time a similar red spot appeared on the under 
surface, connected with the zinc. No flame appeared. But the 
whole disc acquired a colored glow, not merely on its border, 
but over its surface, blue, yellow, red and gray, appearing respect- 
tively in the north, west, south and east positions, green in the 
north-west, etc., as before. The blue and red central spots each 
formed a kind of a star of innumerable points, or rather ray-like 
prolongations, stretching out toward the circumference, and uni- 
formly exhibiting the color corresponding to the point of the 
compass toward which they were directed. On the rest of the 
surface the colors were arranged around the central spot in 
successive zones, so as to form a rainbow of parallel circles. A 
luminous web of fine downy fibres, enveloped the border of the 
disc. Besides this border, the whole surface was covered with 
a similar downy light or flame, rising as high as the thickness of 
a thin quill." (p. 424-426.) I have taken the liberty to put a 
slight tint of blue with the gray of the east as the sensitives 
frequently described the eastern portion of a soft bar of iron, or 
other objects as "blue gray" or "gray with traces of blue," etc. 
The second red coming next to the violet will be recognized by 
the reader as belonging to the third or psychic grade of colors. 



436 



CHROMO-DYNAMICS. 



This second red so often spoken of by the sensitives puzzled 
the Baron. He made a hollow globe of iron, inserted a magnet 
through it at its poles — found blue at the north, red at the south, 
and other colors exactly as already given in describing the disc, 
with a very brilliant red just below the violet of the north-east. 
"This remarkable red," he remarks, "was very brightly luminous 
and strongly red, much brighter than any part of the red on the 
south side of the ball. Red, therefore, occurred at both ends of 
the spectrum, on the one side from the yellow, on the other side 
from the blue. * * * Why this red, which in the ordinary spec- 
trum appears only as violet in a part of the blue, stands forth 
independently in the odylic, is a fact, the causes of which can 
only be ascertained by further researches of another kind." 
Reichenbach did not seem to have the least idea that there could 
be any spectrum of colors higher than the odylic, for which 
reason the facts thus presented are perhaps all the more valuable, 
as they are not warped by any theories, or rather are given 
contrary to his suppositions in the matter. 

4. Miscellaneous Points. The principal direction of the 
earth's electricities as signified by the foregoing and many other 
experiments is north as shown by the blue, somewhat north-east 
as shown by the still finer violet, somewhat west of north as 
signified by the blue-green, and upward as signified generally by 
the intensifying of the blue and violet principles when the magnet 
is held vertically. Mile. Pauer saw the soft iron bar give out 
"to the south yellowish red, vertically upward, pale yellow (at a 
certain distance pale bluish), to the north blue." Here it is said 
that pale yellow was the appearance which presented itself on 
the upward pole at a certain distance from the object, which 
may be true when the sun is high in the sky and throwing its 
luminous rays downward, but most experiments showed the 
power of the blue in that direction, though a more luminous and 
feeble blue than that at the north. 

XI. Terrestrial Dynamics in Human Life. 



1. How Applied to Human Life. Thus far we have ascer- 
tained how the great forces of the earth move — in what direction 
the electricities play, and whither the thermal rays tend. We 



TERRESTRIAL DYNAMICS IN HUMAN LIFE. 



437 



have also ascended one grade higher on the ladder of power than 
ordinary electricity, or magnetism, or thermism, or the visible 
rays of sunlight, even into the range of odic lights, colors and 
forces, which open up a new heaven and a new earth to man. 
We have seen that whatever may be the direct power of light, 
heat or electricity upon the human system, they call into action 
those finer interior potencies which almost take hold upon the 
very springs of life itself. In all this we have not been building 
upon dreams or mere theories, but upon an array of carefully 
established facts which to a candid and thorough mind should 
be irresistible. 

2. Physiological Adaptation. The first question to be con- 
sidered is — how shall we receive these terrestrial forces in a way 
best to harmonize with the natural constitution of the human 
system? One thing is pre-eminently plain at the start, which is 
that the head is the warmest, and the feet the coldest part of the 
body, while nearly every inharmonious condition tends to bring 
too much blood or nervous action to the brain, and perhaps 
viscera, while the extremities are left too cold and dormant. 
For this reason the earth's magnetisms and electricities, which 
belong to the cooling category of forces, should move from the 
feet towards the head, while the opposite thermal forces should 
pass towards the feet; consequently in sleeping, the head should 
be towards the north or north-east to receive the blue or violet 
forming currents, and the feet towards the south, or south-west 
to receive the warm currents signified by the red and orange. 
Another important matter to observe is to have the forces of the 
earth flow harmoniously with the same kind of forces in the 
human body. Thus it has been ascertained repeatedly that the 
cooling blue emanations flow from the whole right side of the 
head, arms and body, while the red emanations flow from the 
whole left side. In other words the electrical currents enter on 
the left side, and issue from the right side, while the warm 
currents must necessarily flow in the opposite direction. This 
was repeatedly demonstrated by the sensitives. To show that 
odic force was stronger than that developed by the earth's mag- 
netism and illustrate the polarity of the body, I quote the follow- 
ing: — "I caused Mile. Zinkel to hold between two fingers and 
conformably in the meridian a four-inch needle, not strongly 



438 



CHROMO-DYNAMICS. 



magnetic. When I held the southward pole in my right finger 
points, the blue northward became three times as long as before. 
This showed the feebleness of the needle in comparison with my 
hand. But when I held the same pole with the fingers of my 
left hand, the blue flame disappeared, and the red flame took its 
place. When I made the experiment at the other end of the 
needle, with my left fingers on the negative (positive) pole, the 
red flame of the opposite pole became brighter and three times 
as long as before. But when I applied the fingers of my right 
hand to the same negative pole, the red flame disappeared and 
was replaced by a blue one." Such being the case it must be 
evident that when the earth's electrical currents strike the right 
side of a sensitive person, it must conflict with the natural cur- 
rents of the system and give distress. In illustration suppose a 
person should lie on his back with his head to the west. The 
northward electrical and magnetic currents, which are strongest, 
would then strike him in the right side, and, conflicting with the 
natural electricities which move in the other direction would tend 
toward inharmony. Besides this the yellow forming currents 
which flow westward must be highly exciting to the brain, and 
thus the west-east position in sleeping must be doubly bad. 
In proof of this and the first physiological law, I will now quote 
some examples from Reichenbach, especially as even persons 
who are not sufficiently sensitive to perceive the difference must 
in the long run be injured by violating these simple laws of 
nature, while persons of active brains and susceptible nerves 
must at times be affected ruinously by such violation, for the 
finer the force, the more deeply does it work either for good 
or ill. 

3. "M. Schmidt, Surgeon in Vienna, had experienced a chill 
in his right arm, while traveling on a railway, and had for some 
time suffered in consequence, from severe rheumatism in the 
limb, with most painful spasms from the shoulder to the fingers. 
His physician employed the magnet, which quickly subdued the 
spasms; but they always returned. I found him lying with his 
head towards the south. In consequence of my remarks on this, 
he was so placed as to lie in the magnetic meridian, with his 
head towards the north. As soon as he came into this posi- 
tion he expressed instantly feelings of satisfaction, and declared 



TERRESTRIAL DYNAMICS IN HUMAN LIFE. 



-139 



that he felt, generally, refreshed in a singula